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Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (1874)"








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California Stale Library 



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/■VoiM an Act prescribiiii/ Jiiiles /or the Gi/venimtiit <if the State Lihiari/, pawl 
March 8lh, 1861. 



Section ii. The Librarian shall cause lo be kept a register of all 
books issued and returned: and all books taken by the members of the 
Legislature, or its ofticers, shall be returned at the close of the session. 
If any person injure or fail to return any book taken from the Librajy, 
he shall forfeit and pay to the Librarian, for the benefit of the Library, 
three times the value thereof; and before the Controller shall issue his 
warrant in favor of any member or officer of the Legislature, or of this 
State, for his per diem, allowance, or salary, he shall be satisfied that 
such member or officer has relumed all books taken out of the Library by 
him, and has settled all accounts for injuring such books or otherwise. 

Sec. 15. Books may be taken from the Lil)rary by the members of the 
Legislature .ind its officers during the session of the same, and at any 
time by the Governor and the ofiiccrs of the Executive Department of 
this State who are required to keep their offices at the seat of government, 
the Justices of the Supreme Court, the Attorney-General and the Trustees 
of the Library. 



nrr. 



J«98. 




Volume VII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY, 3, 1874. 



[Number 1, 



Aveling & Porter's Road Locomotive. 

The illustration accdmpanying this article is 
takeu from a photograph of one of the Boad 
and Farm Locomotives built by Messrs. Ave- 
ling & Porter, of Rochester, England. 

The large cost of the English rope system of 
Steam Plowing Machinery seems almost to 
preclude its general adoption in America. 
Messrs. Aveling & Porter after repeated trials 
and experiments with other devices say : — That 
with an engine weighing not more than five 



out of the woods; for threshing grain, and are 
now hauling pork in the streets of Cincinnatti, 
over a boulder pavement. 

"On the macadamized road we draw from 
Hamilton to Venice, including wagons, 25,000 
lbs. of coal, at one load — a distance of eleven 
miles. For logs in the woods, she is unequalled; 
we detach the engine from the wagon, and roll 
the tree on to the wagon, an inch at a time if 
we choose, and hold it there — a feat that horse 
power will not perform. All who see her at 
this are amazed at the wonderful power we 



natti, and we draw from 12 to 15 tons at a load." 
"UntilJune 1874, "Steam Plowing Machin- 
ery" is admitted to the United States free of 
import duty." To Mr. W. C. Oastler, of 43 
Exchange Place, New York, the manufacturers 
agent, we refer our readers for further particu- 
lars if desired. 

Cotton on King's River. 

We have received samples of excellent cotton 
grown by Mr. Amos Childs, four miles from 
Centerville on King's Kiver, Fresno county. 



Our Jute Manufacturers. 

A Bill is before Congress asking for a re- 
peal of the duty on grain sacks, burlaps, etc., 
mostly the products of the jute factories of 
Great Britian. That it would be vastly to the 
interests of the grain growers of California, 
wTio are compelled to sack their wheat for ship- 
ment to foreign ports or even to our home 
points of demand, that the duty be removed 
from the foreign import there can be no ques- 
tion, and a general desire for this on the part 




AVELING & PORTER'S ROAD LOCOMOTIVES, ADAPTED TO DIRECT TRACTION STEAM PLOWING. 



tons, and this weight carried on broad wheels 
such as the engraving illustrates, from 6 to 10 
acres per day, varying with the nature of 
the soil, can be plowed with a four-furrow plow. 
The same sized engine, they further say, is 
more than sufficiently powerful to drive the 
largest sized threshing machine, and 15 tons 
can be easily hauled by it along moderate roads 
and up steep inclines." "To this date Messrs. 
Aveling &Porter have built more than 900 of 
these engines and are at present making six a 
week. " "The Telford Pavement Co. , of Plain- 
field, N. J,, have two of the Aveling engines 
which they have used during the year for haul- 
ing broken stone for road contracts, and their 
testimony is that the work has been performed 
by the engines at less than one-third the cost of 
horses and mules." Mr. Dick, of Boss, Ohio, 
writing of his Aveling engine says: — "We have 
used our engines for almost all possible pur- 
poses: On the gravel road; for drawing logs 



possess, and say she seems a thing of life. 

"We drew a tree of an average girth of over 
7 ft. and 73^ feet in length from our timber, 
about four miles distant, and we calculate it 
weighed eight tons or more. 

"We have threshed nearly 40,000 bushels of 
grain with her since harvest, and have found 
no place that we were unable to reach, no mat- 
ter what the grade or how deep the mud. Her 
facility for taking herself and thresher away, 
makes her a great favorite with the farmers, 
who have been bored with hitching their horses 
to a heavy steam engine, and spoiling them 
with the over load. Our greatest gain is in 
time, moving from place to place. In five 
minutes after the last sheaf is through, we are 
on the road; and we once moved COO feet, and 
were threshing again in 10 minutes from the 
time the last sheaf was through at the last 
place (by a watch held on us by a friend). We 
are now drawing pork in the streets of Cincin- 



The growth this year was all that could be de- 
sired, but the crop light on account of its de- 
struction in part by grasshoppers. 

Mr. C. is the inventor of a new style of cot- 
ton press, which works admirably, and which 
he intends to patent. Is sanguine of the suc- 
cess and largely extended growth of cotton in 
that section of the State. 

Another Cotton Grower. 

Mr. Odom, four miles from Centerville, at 
what is known as Georgeville settlement, has 
also been a successful grower of cotton the past 
year; but diminished also in yield from the 
ravages of grasshoppers. 

From 4,500 pounds of cotton — and seeds — as 
it came from the field, he obtained 1,500 
pounds of excellent long staple cotton, white 
and clean. He gins by w«ter power, obtaining 
his water from an irrigating ditch. He too is 
satisfied of the perfect adaptability of soil and 
climate to the growth of cotton in his vicinity. 



of the farmers of our coast would seem to indicate 
that free trade would be just the thing for them. 

But now looms another interest, antagonis- 
tic to this repeal of duty on sacks. There have 
recently been established in our vicinity one 
or more jute factories for the manufacture of 
grain sacks, and relying upon a continuance of 
the duty on the imported article to enable them 
to realize a fair profit upon their investment 
and industry. 

Now what is to be done? Shall we urge the 
repeal of the duty on the imported article, to 
the great injury of our home pianufacturers. 
Shall we say to the farmer— we are with you 
heart and soul in this matter of repeal of duty, 
thus wholly ignoring the claims of our citizeni, 
who, depending on the stability of the law of 
Congress imposing the duty, have erected 
large and costly establishments for the home 
manufactured article? Who shall decide when 
interested parties disagree? 



T'Amwm m,'uni,3L ipmiss. 



[January 3. 1874. 



^Correspondence. 

Irrigation and Summer Fallow. 



Editobs Press:— The vexed question of how 
to insure a crop of grain in the arid portions 
of the San Joaqniu valley, has been freely dis- 
cussed for some time past by. the farmers most 
interested in the subject, which is being helped 
along by opinions from those who are not par- 
ticularly interested in the people of this valley, 
but who wish to see this part of the State pros- 
per and '-develop," for the good of the country 
and humanity at large. And all these various 
opinions are being carefully weighed in hopes 
of arriving at the best method, which it is to 
be hoped has not yet been^disoovered, or prac- 
ticed if discovered, for by the means employed 
for the past few years, farmers of this commu- 
nity have succeeded in raising but one crop in 
four seasons, which method has proved disas- 
trous to the experimenters. 

Irrigation has been looked forward to as the 
farmers' salvation in this part of the country, 
and the aivu Joaquin and King's Kiver Canal 
and Irrigation Company appeared in the guise 
of public benefactors, and built a canal some 
forty miles long through a part of the dryest 
portion of the San Joaquin valley. Here then, 
was an opportunity offered by which to test 
the merits of irrigation. Men flocked to the 
irrigated territory, where they were sure of 
raising a crop of grain every year and any year, 
no matter though not a drop of rain should fall 
outside the favored precincts. 

One man, whose experience represents that 
of many others, went to this irrigated country, 
rented a few hundred acres of land, for which 
he paid a considerable sum of money, and de- 
pending upon the letter of the San Joaquin Irri- 
gation Company's contract for subsidy, in 
which the company agree to water the laud in 
the irrigated territory for the season, for the 
sum of $1.50 per acre, sowed his grain, and 
when the time came that it needed water, he had 
it poured over his thirsty fields, paid his $1.50 
per acre, and was satisfied with the terms. 
But when in the course of time his grain again 
required water, and he had the flood gates of 
the canal opened and his fields deluged, much 
to his suprise he was again calltd upon to pay 
$1.50 per acre for all his laud irrigated, and he 
had to pay this sum every time his fields were 
watered. Finally, in the natural course of 
time, his wheat ripened, and yielded a crop of 
30 or 40 bushels to the acre; but so expensive 
had been the operation of raising it, that he 
barely paid the expenses of his crop by receiv- 
ing $2.50 per bushel for his wheat. 

This illustration is given simply to prove 
that irrigation, like powerful medicines, is a 
good thing when properly administered; but it 
does not pay as dosed out by the San^Joaquiu- 
King's River Irrigation Corporation. 

In his speech delivered before the State 
Grange, recently held at San Jose, Governor 
Boolh, who no doubt saw the expense that 
must necessarily attend irrigation, as proposed 
by the various w.tter monopolies of California, 
recommended that before turning their atten- 
tion to irrigation, farmers had better try sum- 
mer fallowing, which he believed would prove 
a success. I would not have much confidence 
in his Excellency's judgment upon the subject 
of farming, for he cannot be supposed to know 
much about such matters, only that his views 
are sanctioned by most of the practical farmers 
of my acquaintance. A gentleman living iu 
this community, whose judgment upon matters 
relating to farming is unquestioned, says there 
has never been but one year during the recent 
drouths but what a good crop of grain might 
have been raised in the dryest portions of the 
San Joaquin valley by summer tallowing. The 
idea became quite popular iu this part of the 
country before the rains set in, and every 
farmer in the valley decided to summer-fallow; 
but as soon as the first heavy storm of the 
season was over, which gave three inches of 
rain, and was followed by lesser storms, which 
added another inch, the amount of rain being 
more than bad fallen the entire seasons 
of '70 and '71, a good year was looked for as a 
foregone conclusion; summer-fallow was for- 
gotten; and the consequence is, there is not an 
acre of cultivated ground in the whole valley 
that is not sowed to grain, or being prepared 
for sowing. 

Very hopeful are the farmers in this com- 
munity of a good wet season. God graLt they 
may not be disappointed ! The tirst ruin of the 
season, which commenced the first of Decem- 
ber, brought the ready grass up over the plains, 
washed the dust from the hills and trees, and 
the country is looking beautifully. 

Boats have commenced running up the 
San Joaquin, whose waters were at fording 
hight before the storin, though none, I believe, 
have gone farther up than Grayson. 

Owing to bad roads and stormy weather, 
there has not been a meeting of tbe Grange 
during tbe present month. Haoab. 

Grayson, Dec. 23, 1873. 



Good Crops or -Poor. 

Emtotis Pre-ss:— It is a real question, 
whether the amount of crops we get, in many 
sections of the State, depends more on the sea- 
sons, than in the proper system of farming. 

The general clamor is for rain, at the plant- 
ing season, but not too much of it. Now if the 
observant farmer would pass over his farm 
while it is saturated with water, and note the 
low htreaks and dishing spots of land, he would 
be able to predict a lean crop and an unprofit- 
able harvest from all such land, especially if it 
be heavy; and a closer study would impress 
him with the conviction that conditions govern 
crops. In this valley, sometimes called "The 
Garden of California," where there Is no ques- 
tion about the depth, and strength and dura- 
bility of the heavy, adobe soil, the crops are 
too frequently called lean, by those accustomed 
to enormous yields. Wherever this water- 
logged laud has not sufiicient drainage, the 
land packs from long-continued rains, till the 
roots of growing crops cannot penetrate it, and 
the stalk also fails to got its full growth. 
Almost all the heavy land here of this character 
needs only to be made and kept friable, to pro- 
duce uniform heavy crops. 

Every jjood cultivator knows that in tree or 
or plant, in all perfect growths, there is as 
much below as above ground. The roots of a 
tree will amount in the aggregate of length in 
development, to as much as the top. The main 
abd fibrous roots of the squash, for example, 
will extend in rich, mellow soil as far beneath, 
as the vines do on the surfuce. 

To the husbandman, in whose mind these 
reflections have a dwelling place, it is easy to 
foresee the character of hi< coming harvest, to 
a certain extent, long before the grain has com- 
pleted its growth. 

But is it asked, how are these conditions 
secured? How is the soil to be kept friable — 
loose enough and moist enough, but not too 
heavy after a wet time ? Tbe answer is ob- 
vious; the surplus water must run ofl' as well 
as on the land, where it is not needed; and 
this must be accomplished by drainage — surface 
or under-drainage, or both. First, tbe land must 
be ynided, or leveled ; and if surface drainage 
oaii then be effected, by ridging up, as well as 
opening ditche?, it will be the cheapest way to 
do it. Then, if the soil is worked at the right 
time and iu the right manner, good crops may 
ordinarily be realized. But to insure uniform 
full crops, something more is needed. 

"The chief trouble is that we work too many 
acres, as a general rule. Laud in this valley is 
often plowed when so wet that water will settle 
in the furrow; then, when so dry and hard, for 
the want of drainage, that the lumps are as 
" hard as a bone" and ''as large as your body." 
The wonder is, among those not posted, that we 
get a crop at all. 

Here is where the properties of our alkaline 
Boil come iu play; they puff up the lumps like 
Blacking lime, and they finally crumble to dust, 
needing only the roller to make the surface 
smooth. Fortunately, thi-s system of injurious 
cultivation has one advantage, as it takes less 
seed for the land— 50 lbs. to the acre being all 
that many bow of wheat.jinstead of 100 lbs. re- 
quired by others ; for, as the lumps slack and 
crumble, they serve as a mulch to the growing 
grain, and make it stool up thicker on the 
ground, one spear being increased to a dozen. 

If the observer will note the more vigorous 
growths of crops on the highest land, along the 
roadside, wherever he travels, as well as along 
the banks of the streams and elsewhere, where 
the drainage is most perfect and the soil 
equally good, and practice from the lesson 
taught by nature, he will not only " add dig- 
nity to labor," but his gain will more than 
repay him for the trouble. I. A. W. 

Santa Ckra, Deo. 18, 1873. 



Laying Hens. 

Editors Press:— Enclosed I send a letter re- 
ceived from Mr. Eyre, Jr.,|Napa, in response to 
to my article in the Press of Dec. Cth. As it 
contains much information useful to many in 
the poultry business, you will no doubt con- 
sider it worthy of insertion. The want of a thor- 
ough knowledge of feeding the various breeds 
of poultry has more to do with the many failures 
than any other cause. I have tried full blood- 
ed Brahmas and White Leghorns, and found 
in the course of a year that the Brahmas, al- 
though much the larger, could not stand the 
same amount of stimulating food as the 
Leghorns. My first experience with a trio of 
Brahmas was similar to that of Mr. Eyre's 
customer; I fed them to such an extent that 
they soon became almost worthless, un<l I 
nearly ruined them. 

I hardly agree with him that the steady feed- 
ing all summer prevented my fowls moulting 
earlier. I believe the climate is the one cause. 
In Napa the warm weather follows quickly 
after the spring rains, and the poultry with ju- 
didous management are forced into moulting 
early. With us the spring rains are followed 
by cold, damp fogs that continue till the mid- 
dle of September so wet as to interfere greatly 
with our harvesting, and woe to the ohickeu 



that undertakes to exchange old feathers for 
new during this period. After this date we 
have the warmest, sunniest part of the year, 
and the moulting goes on with eggs at CO cents 
per dozen. Next year I shall adopt Mr. Eyre's 
idea in that I shall cease to feed when the fogs 
(not the rains) cease, and let them pick the 
stubble for a living till their moulting is over, 
believing that it will be just as well for them 
and more economical. Geo. W. T. Carter. 
San Gregorio, Dec. 21, 1873. 
Mr. Eyre's Letlcr. 
Your article in the Pacific Kural 
Press, of Dec. 6, excuses this letter. I have 
all my common stock to commence laying 
about the middle of October. Leghorns 
batched before May should have moulted be- 
fore the end of October. My common fowls 
are one-half, three-fourth, etc. Brahma. Good 
Brahmas are essentially winter layers. Allow 
me to suggest that you feed too much. After 
the rains cease, and eggs are going down to 25 
cts., 1 cease to feed my poultry running at 
large. They hunt for their own living. On no 
account do I then feed meat or pepper or any 
stimulant. I give no food ; of course those con- 
fined in corrals are fed, bat the poultry run- 
ning out make their own 'living. If you are 
situated so that yon have nothing from which 
your poultry can pick a living, you must feed; 
but do it very sparingly, and no meat and.stim- 
ulants; no bran and shorts, nor any egg produc- 
ing food, after May. My hens cease to lay 
(or almost so) by July, and moult before Oc- 
tober Ist. By October ioth or thereabouts, I com- 
mence to fee'd just as you describe, except the 
corn, which being too fattening. I never give to 
laying hens except on a wet day to engender 
warmth. I also give milk. Milk, bran and 
meat bring eggs. In two weeks they commence 
to lay, as they did this year, though in our 
town of Napa we received but 55 cts. per dozen. 
Leghorns are summer layers, and if stimulated 
will lay then. My impression from your arti 
cle is, that you feed too much. I have sold 
Brahmas which averaged 225 eggs a year, and 
the purchaser made them absolutely stop lay- 
ing by too much feeding. I give to fowls in my 
corrals, a large spoonful of soft food in morn- 
ing, a small handful, taken palm down, of 
grain in evening; no more green food, etc., 
of course, and iu winter meat. 

Manuel Evbe, Jb. 

Eggs and High Prices. 

Editors Press: — The excellent article over 
the signature of G. W. Carter, in your issue of 
Dec. 6th, under caption of Eggs vs. Riches, is 
decidedly humorous as well as practical. The 
description of the care, attention, food-variety, 
crosses and results, is so full that little room 
is left for supposition or suggestion. There is 
one point, however, omitted, in neglecting to 
state whether he has determined by actual trial 
and test, that "iu this State, that no matter 
what age the fowls were, all moulted at once." 
We opine that this declaration was made at 
random, more to harmonize or liquify the 
composition than as a square up and down 
fact. Observation proves with us, that iu this 
mild climate poultry moult more or less 
throughout seven or eight months of the year; 
much depends upon their age and condition. 
There are seasons of suspension and recupera- 
tion not connected with or incident to moulting. 
The enormous draft ■ upon the vitality of a 
bird that lays continuously for months must be 
restored or made good in some way. A total 
suspension of production for a time, appears 
to be the process in nature's ordering. Now as 
to meeting and overcoming the difficulty com- 
plained of by Mr. C, so that he may be enabled 
to realize his fondest hopes of wealth and in- 
dependence, provided these anticipations sim- 
ply rest upon the yielding of the coveted fruit 
by Mi-^B or Madam Biddy at the "auspicious 
period of high prices." It is not, as has been 
suggested by theorists, rapidly pursuing np 
heavy gradients or investments in patent per- 
suaders—simply regulating by timely hatching. 
The pullets or young hens will then be in full 
feather and laying at the time their matronly 
sisters are dozing around duinpy and eggless 
from moulting or exhaustion. Try this, Mr. C, 
and there will be no need of your emigrating; 
for with your present system and care in other 
essentials, success is guaranteed — all the re- 
ward we ask is to be placed on your visitor's 
list upon the completion of youT chalenuxai Es- 
pagne resulting from the proceeds. Jesting 
aside, we ofl'er the foregoing in all hoberness. 
Experience has shown it to be as stated, with- 
out an exception. I trust it may benefit not 
only the gentleman in question but many other 
of your renders. G. C. Pearson. 

South Vallejo, Deo. 23, 1873. 



California Raised Seeds. 

Editors Press :— The raising of garden seeds in 
California has been for years, and still is, a much 
mooted question among seed growers and seed 
sellers, many of both parties still persist- 
ing that California raised seed are positively 
unfit to plant here. Now, while we admit the 
changing of seeds from one locality to another 
to be a good one, we are not willing to admit 
that our favored clime and soil will not produce 
as good seeds as any other portion of the culti- 
vated land. Iu my opinion all that is lacking, 
is the care required to keep our seeds pure and 
save them in a proper manner; and I suppose the 
best proofs are practical ones. Five years ago 
I planted three acres to onions; the seed was 
Eastern seed, recommended to be Shaker seed. 
We prepared our ground well and planted in 
drill rows, 10 inches between rows and thinned 
ouf to suit our fancy. The crop matured 
about the 20th of October, with a yield of 85 
sacks, or 9,000 hi. per acre marketable onions, 
with ot least 20 per cent, of the whole crop 
culls, or thick necks as we call them. Out of 
the lot we selected 300 pounds of the most per- 
fect specimens for seed and kept them until 
the first of the next March, when we planted 
them in seed beds where they grew and ma- 
tured nicely, some of the bulbs sending up one 
seed stalk, otbers two stalks, and others three 
and more. Our object was to get the seed from 
the perfect bulb with but a single bud. When 
the seed was matured, instead of clipping the 
heads off as is usually the case, we pulled up 
every stalk that we might examine well the 
roots, and all that had sent up but one perfect 
stalk we kept separate and marked No. 1 ; those 
with two stalks we marked No. 2, while all else 
we threw away. The next year we planted ten 
acres to onions, our No. 1, No. 2, someEaBtem 
seed, also some seed from a California seed 
grower, all of the Denvers variety, planted April 
Ist, with the same kind of cultivation the pre- 
vious year. Our No. 1 matured by the 15th of 
September, all the others about the first of Oc- 
tober, there being no perceptible difl'erence 
between the No. 2, the Eastern, seed, and tbe 
seed we bought of our neighbor. Our No. 1 
making at least 20 per cent, the best yield, 
while the other three lots had at least 20 per 
cent, more loss in culls, onions unfit for any 
use. And that was not the worst of the matter; 
when we came to send to market, sending 
some of all kinds each shipment, our No. 1 
brought $1 30, while the others brought from 
75 cents to one dollar per 100 lbs. We have 
persistently kept the same mode of collecting 
our seed always from the most perfect npeoi- 
meuF, the produce of our No. 1 ; and last 
spring we prepared the very same piece of 
ground we commenced on five years ago, and 
planted April 1st, as that is the time we prefer 
here. We planted in drill rows, 14 inches be- 
tween rows, and thinned to suit our fancy. 
The whole crop seemed to mature about the 
same time, September 1st, with a li(^ht, deli- 
cate top, the bulbs uniform in size, with thin, 
clean skins. We narvested from three and one- 
sixteenth acres, actual measurement, 1,314 
sacks, 109 lbs. per sack, making a total of 
143,220 lbs. of marketable onions, and in the 
whole lot there were not 500 lbs. culls. 

We had in an adjoining field 120 acres of 
barley, which we thought was a good crop, 
which yielded 2,000 centals barley; while the 
three one-sixteenth acres yielded 1,432 centals 
of onions, and both brought the same price 
per 100 lbs. iu San Francisco market. 

San Jose, Dec. 13tb, 1873. 

Wm. Boots. 

[We would like to hear from others further 
on the subject of California grown seeds. Our 
own view of the matter is, that they are as 
good as can be grown anywhere]. 



Jute Experiment. 

Editors Press;— I received from your 
office a package of jute seed, last spring, to test 
it on our highlands. I prepared a piece of 
rich, sandy loam, working it thoroughly and 
deep and making it very fine. I planted the 
seed on the 12th of March; it came up, but 
the spring being very dry, it soon began to show 
that it required more water than is found in 
our uplands. It was an entire failure; I raised 
fine corn on even drier land than that on 
which I planted the jute. I think low laud is 
the place for it, especially in our dry climate. 

Vacaville, Dec, 24, 18'72. O. Bingham. 



RgvivAt OF MANUFACTtTBES. — The great busi- 
ness interests of the country, which were so 
much depressed a short time ago, are reviving. 
The manufacturing establishments which shut 
down could not remain long in that condition. 
Stocks of goods were exhausted; there was a 
demand for more. The operators were called 
back to their places and work was resumed. 
There were just as much money in the country 
as ever. But for a time everybody was afraid 
of everybody, and began to take in sail. A 
panic and a mob have many similar phases. 
The good and bad, the sound and uusound 
sufl'er indiscriminately. 

The consumption of manufactured products 
is increasing rapidly in this country. The de- 
mand is often ahead of the capacity of the 
mills. Besides, there is a growing export trade, 
especially with South America. The result of 
the late partial suspension of operations has 
been to clear off old stocks, and to quicken the 
demand for fresh goods. 

The manufacturers of the country have aocQ- 
mulated a great deal of wealth. They made 
vast sums during the late war, and are able to 
go through a long season of depression without 
adding much to their fortunes. They have 
already discovered that the business stagnation 
is to be a short duration. — Bulklin. 



The Vienna Monday Eeview affirms that, ac- 
cording to trustworthyinformation, as many as 
eighty-two Austrian joint-stock companies 
win be unable to redeem their January coupons. 
The unpaid dividends will amount to some- 
thing like 18,500,000 florins. 



January 3. 1874.] 



ISCELL 



What I See on the Streets and Elsewhere. 

[Written for the Pbesb, By Mkb. Elisa E. Anthont;.] 

I was in a store the other day, -waiting for a 
friend, when a rich, clear voice uttering the 
words •' I cannot afiford it, handsome as it is; 
show me something cheaper," met my ear; and 
turning, I saw a young, tastefully yet plainly 
dressed lady, who was turning away from a 
lovely sea-green silk, which was fit for Titania 
herself, and I wondered at her courage in re- 
sisting the temptation to purchase it. 

" But, Miss, it would be so becoming to you, 
and it is very cheap at four dollars a yard, and 
you need not pay the cash down, as I will 
charge it to you, and you can give me the 
money at any time. See!" and the wily clerk 
held the delicate silk in sheeny folds and threw 
a costly lace flounce over it, which mellowed 
the intensity of color, until it was' really ele- 
gant, and I thought she could not resist it. 

Her eyes sparkled, and she hesitated a mo- 
ment, then resolutely turning away, she said ; 
*' No, I cannot afford it, and it is against my 
principles to go in debt for anything, much as 
I desire it." What noble words she uttered; 
and I a^lDiired her all the more, for the second 
time resisting that lovely silk; and such a girl 
will make a good wife for any man. "I cannot 
nfiford it — " what simple words, and yet, how 
hard to utter, and how very seldom ever said. 
The young man of the world, the exquisite of 
the first water, spends double his income on 
wine, women, and balls, sports a diamond pin, 
a fikst team, boards at a hotel, and has new 
clothes and guady neck-ties for nearly every 
week in the year; who is fond of making 
presents to his friends, to show that he is rich 
in this world's goods; who owes his tailor, his 
landlord, his washerwomen, and in fact, head 
over heels in debt; he is a specimen of the 
man, who lacked courage to say those simple 
words: " I cannot afford it." 

The young lady who spends all her pocket- 
money, in order to dress in the latest style, no 
matter how ridiculous, buys "a duck of a forty 
dollar bonnet," and discards it in a month, 
because it is half an inch lower in the crown 
than the latest style; who pays five dollars a 
yard for a handsome silk, without a murmur, 
and then grumbles and pays the dress-maker 
about half what it is worth to make it; who 
puts a gold piece into the plate at church, and 
refused a crust to a beggar; who goes in debt 
for anything and everything, leaving her father 
or expectant husband to pay the bills; how 
mean and dishonest; such a woman is, beside 
one who says boldly: "I cannot afford it." 

San Jose, Dec. 23d, 1873. 



Depth of Lake Tahoe. 

The Gold Bill News says: — As many items 
have been published and exaggerated stories 
told relative to the depth of Lake Tahoe, we 
are pleased to oe able to lay before our readers 
the following series of soundings made on the 
lake by John McKinney, so well known as an 
experienced navigator of those romantic waters, 
and resident of the western shore of the lake : 

Locality. Feet Deep. 

Emerald Bay, five mileB east, and — 

Yank's station, six miles northe ast 900 

Emerald Bay, one-fourth mile northeast 780 

Rubicon Rocks, £ve miles east, and — 

Emerald Bay, five miles northeast 1,385 

Rubicon Rocks, two hundred yards east 850 

Rubicon Rocks, six miles northeast, and — 

Sugar Pine Point, five miles east by south 1,500 

Sugar Pine Point, one mile south, near shore ... 7.50 

Sugar Pine Point, three miles east by north 1 ,600 

Sugar Pine Point, five miles northeast 1 ,540 

Blackwood, live miles east 1,504 

Blackwood, one-fourth mile east 700 

Tahoe City, four miles east by south I,d50 

Saxons' Mill, one-half mile east 772 

Tahoe City, six miles east 1,521 

Tahoe City, seven miles east by north, and 

Observatory Poiut, five miles 1,600 

Observatory Point, four miles east by north 1,640 

Hot Springs Point, four miles due south 1 ,645 

From this point southward ten miles along 
the east side of the lake, three miles from shore, 
the depth averages from 1,200 to 1,400 feet. 
Along the western side of the lake, half a mile 
from shore, is a precipitous offset, almost like 
a perpendicular wall, from 700 to 800 feet in 
depth. It will thus be seen that the deepest 
place McKinney found was 1,645 feet; and at 
the northerly part of the lake, toward the Hot 
Springs section, he obtained his deepest sound- 
ings. At the middle of the lake he finds the 
depth about 1,500 feet. The above sub-aque- 
ous statistics will be of great interest to the 
thousands of visitors who yearly resort to the 
finest of all mountain lakes in this section of 
the world. 



Smoke Consuming. — Some interesting experi- 
ments were lately made in Ohio, with a view 
to ascertaining the best method of consuming 
the smoke of soft coal furnaces, and, after a 
careful examination and test of a number of 
mechanical appliances designed to effect this 
object, the conclusion was reached that nothing 
was 80 simple and effective in preventing the 
escape of smoke as the introduction of sufficient 
oxygen into the furnace to effect complete 
combustion of the fuel, and thus prevent the 
formation of any smoke at all. 

Wheat Cleanino Machinert. — The agricul 
turists of South Australia have resolved to offer 
a first prize of £1,200, a second of £600 and a 
third of £300, for the best wheat cleaning ma- 
chinery. 



4©(iE \U0 f\'\^. 



Farmers' Grindstones. 

Premising that the grit is of the right 
kind for an axe or a scythe, a good grind- 
stone will be set to run smoothly and per- 
fectly true; its face will be neither hollow 
nor round, and the water supply fresh, 
and not more than for the occasion. The 
water-trough, being often made a part of 
the frame or bed, should be provided with 
an outlet for water, that the stone may not 
be left standing to soak therein, by whLch 
one side becomes softer and heavier, from 
which cause it runs with irregular speed 
and wears unequally. Water is indispen- 
sable to protect the temper of the tools 
and to keep the grain of the sandstone 
clean from the small particles of sand and 
steel detached by friction. 

In applying the tool to be ground, the 
presure must be varied in proportion to 
the width of the tool; and the effect will 
be very much varied by the direction and 
speed of the stone, being more when mov- 
ing toward than from the tool. In the 
latter case, however, the edge is more lia- 
ble to catch, and thereby to damage both 
itself and the face of the stone; while in 
the former, a wire-edge is thrown up as 
soon as the bearing or convexity of the 
tool is ground off, and only an experienced 
hand may safely practice it. Stop short 
of this point, and finish by changing the 
angle of contact of tool with the stone. 
But in grinding chisels and plane-irons, 
when the edge is formed by one plane and 
one bevelled side, there is a kind of tra- 
verse motion to be kept up, which contact 
over the whole of both surface preserves 
them nearly straight and plane. The fin- 
ishing edge, as of finer tools, seen on new 
knives, rasors, &c., is brought out by a 
finer stone, where the tool is held at a more 
obtuse angle. 

The difficulty of applying a rest to a 
portable grindstone (as to a lathe) exists 
in the uncertain wear and unequal use of 
its surface, by which the true cylindrical 
form is soon lost. To avoid this, a lateral 
motion must be given to the tool, utiliz- 
ing the whole face of the stone, which is 
especially necessary in applying the face 
of a common or a broad-axe, as well as a 
plane-iron; and, as may be apparent to 
any one, in grinding carpenter's gouges, 
a cape-chisel, or, indeed, any metal-work- 
er's tools. It was well said, "show mo 
the grindstone, and I will tell you the 
character of the shop;" and it maybe said 
the character of the workmen is thus 
shown elsewhere, even on a farm. 

With one who has had but little prac- 
tice in setting tools the common error is 
in not holding them flat enough to the 
stone (whether grindstone or oil-stone), 
and thereby producing a convex side, and 
at the same time being liable to "check" 
the stone and turn the tool — perhaps 
worse, wound himself. For this, prac- 
tice is the only remedy. With a little in- 
genuity, a rest is always possible to be 
applied, but the efficiency is in most cases 
very doubtful. Better. trust to the wrist 
and right hand as a movable chuck, while 
the fingers of the left hand placed on the 
upper face of the tool will control its 
pressure, and be the guide-rest. Don't 
forget to leave the stone out of water, as 
well as to dry the tool, if not even to oil 
it when laid aside. 

The grinding or setting of a cutting- 
tool may be simple enough; yet there is 
but one way of doing it perfectly, that 
the cutting edge formed by a definite an- 
gle of two surfaces shall be exactly repro- 
duced. There is a knack in perceiving 
when this edge has come, and in not over- 
doing, or producing the turned or wire- 
edge, which practice only can acquire. 
From a knife this can be removed by 
drawing across the thumb nail; from oth- 
er tools, by rubbing across a piece of soft 
wood. But a greater difficulty from re- 
peated sharpening, is to avoid in time the 
formation of two convex surfaces, which 
would be better if flat or even concave 
slightly, as when the tool is new. Even 
a new ax is never convex all the way to 
the edge, but within a sixteenth of an inch 
of the edge takes from each face a special 
bevel, which is the edge. 

Straight-edged tools, like chisels, when 
being set on the oil-stone, are best held 
in such a manner that the motion of the 
hands is nearly at right angles to the line 
of the cutting edges. Concave faces are 
produced by stones shaped for the pur- 
pose, but they do not come within com- 
mon use — Cai\ Country Oentleman. 



Farmers as Mechanics. 

While it is to the advantage of every 
farmer to be well skilled in the use of car- 
penter's tools, it is not always beneficial 
for a farmer to place full confidence in 
his ability to perform all mechanical jobs 
that come up about the premises to be 
done. There are many repairs that the 
husbandman may make if but little ac- 
quainted with the principles of mechan- 
ism and the use of tools, and save time 
and money thereby, but there are very 
many more jobs where he or those even 
better skilled will do more harm than 
good in attempting to perform. 

In the first place there is nothing more 
unsightly than a botched piece of work on a 
good article. In the second place, plows, 
vehicles and almost every portable imple- 
ment and machine on the farm, have par- 
ticular adjustments to make them work to 
advantage, and the man who does not un- 
derstand the different principles on which 
his several implements work, should not 
attempt to put in order any breakage of 
importance, but should take the same to 
the wheelwright or smith who gives the 
making and repairing of the certain arti- 
cle an especial and careful study. 

The beam of a plow out of proper ad- 
justment but a little, will tell in the draft 
and ease of management. And so the 
tongue-roll of the sled by being set too 
high or too low in the runners of a sled 
will cause unnatural pressure or friction 
upon the earth and consequently make it 
run hard. The efi"ect of the bad setting of 
the tongue can very often be plainly seen 
in the way the shoes of the sled are worn. 
If the draft comes from a point too low 
there will be a lifting in front, and a wear- 
ing pressure at the rear. If the roller is 
set loo high the draft is downward and 
the shoes are worn away in front. If the 
gain of an axle-tree is not correctly given 
or the box in the hub of the wheel is 
wedged out of tune the result is a hard 
running vehicle, and the application of lu- 
bricators will not correct the error. We 
have seen mistakes of the above nature 
hundreds of times, when the farmers who 
made them were losing ten times in wear 
of implements and horseflesh, what it 
would have cost to have had the work 
properly done. 

Painting is another operation which is 
often very badly done. On some articles, 
such as field rollers, harrows, plows, hay- 
racks, heavy farm sleds, etc., where a coat- 
ing is given for protectioa only, almost 
any one can make a profitable job of it, but 
where beautv and utility are desired the 
job had better be "let out." 

No man who is not accustomed to mixing 
and spreading paints can so coat a wheeled 
vehicle which is used upon the highway 
that it is fit to be seen by his fellow men, 
and the more he tries to make it look 
"fancy" by adding stripes to the body 
coat, the more he advertises his inexpe- 
rience and false economy. The allusions 
we have made to a few articles and meth- 
ods of doing things, may as appropriately 
be applied to a thousand more, and while 
these things are said, we advocate with 
positive earnestness the establishment by 
every tiller of the soil, of a farm work- 
shop, procuring of a good set of tools, for 
such an inves+ment will be found one of 
the most profitable that can be made in 
enabling the farmer to do a thousand and 
one little jobs about the premises, and 
not only this, but in giving the boys a 
place to exercise and develop their me- 
chanical gifts — to give them home enter- 
tainment and at the same time make them 
useful. — Ohio Farmer. 



A Wonderful Agricultubal Machine. — 
Here is what an English exchange — Iron — says 
about a reported invention: "Our enterprising 
American cousins are not content with ma- 
chines designed to perform ordinary operations 
in agriculture, but they devise extraordinary 
operations, and then proceed to invent ma- 
chines to carry them out. In this country we 
are satisfied to wait a while after reaping be- 
fore we begin to plough for another crop. At 
St. Louis, a machine is being built which is de- 
signed to cut and take up grain, and at the 
same time to plough and seed the ground. 
Surely the ingenuity of agricultural machinists 
cannot transcend this." 



We hear of the construction at Gronstadt of 
a submarine vessel of enormous dimensions, in 
which two thousand tons of iron and steel have 
been employed, which is propelled by two 
powerful air-engines, will be armed with a pow- 
erful ram, and will carry all the means for fix- 
ing to the hulls of vessels large cylinders of 
powder which it can afterwards explode by elec- 
tricity. TJsvo glass eyc<* will enable the crew to 
find their way about, and they may choose 
their course at what depth they please below 
water. 



TfJE 0!\Cl|i^J\D. 



Gathering of Ripe Fruit. 

Josiah Hoopes, who is good authority on 
every subject connected with fruit gathering, 
says: — 

"In regard to the gathering of ripe fruits of 
different kinds, no fruit should be taken from 
the tree or plant during a damp time, and es- 
pecially when the dew is plentiful in early 
morning. Never be so hurried as to find cause 
for the excuse, I had no time to handpick my 
fruit, and, consequently, was forced to shake 
them off; for such is very poor policy. Fruit 
so gathered will almost inevitably decay from 
the effects of bruises. Each specimen should 
be taken from the tree one by one, bandied as 
if they were so many eggs. The slightest 
bruise or even abrasion of the skin is the sure 
fore-runner of a dark spot, which will eventu- 
ally change into some form of rot. The spores 
or seed of fuvgi are always ready to assist in 
the work of dissolution, and the slightest 
scratch gives them a foot-hold for their de- 
structive work. Scarcely any variety of the 
largest fruits color or ripen so well if left to per- 
fect themselves on the tree, and especially is 
.this true in respect to pears. Summer varie- 
ties, as they approach maturity, loosen their 
hold somewhat on the limb, and by gently rais- 
ing the fruit they will easily detach themselves 
at the proper period. 'This is an excel- 
lent test, and may always be relied on. To 
color up fruit nicely, all that is necessary will 
bo to spread a blanket on the floor in a cool 
room, and then thinly and evenly place the 
fruit on the floor. A second blanket must be 
spread over them, and in a short time the effect 
of the treat willbeapparentin the most golden- 
colored Bartletts, and rich, ruddy-looking 
Seckela imaginable. Pears perfected in this 
manner rarely have the mealiness of their 
naturally ripened companions; nor do they 
prematurely decay at the core as when left on 
the tree. Peaches are too frequently gathered 
before attaining full size, and when this is the 
case we must not expect full flavor. They 
must obtain this requisite before gathering; 
although it is not necessary to delay picking 
until very mellow. As a general rule, all fruits 
are gathered too early; and, as high color is not 
a sign of maturity, many experienced fruit 
growers are frequently misled. Never pick 
strawberries before they are red, nor blackber- 
ries solely on account of their dark appearance. 
Each should remain on the plant for some time 
thereafter. The Albany seedUng strawberry 
changes to a deep crimson hue, and gains con- 
tinually in size and coloring process. It is 
then soft and excellent eating. And so with 
blackberrie?, in like manner many complaining 
of their extreme tartness when the fault was in 
gathering imperfect fruit. The Lawton or New 
Eochelle variety, in particular, is delicious eat- 
ing, if allowed to remain on the plant until soft, 
when the slightest touch will sever its hold. 
Strawberries picked with the calyx (or hull) 
adhering, will always carry better and be less 
liable to decay than if carelessly pulled off 
without this appendage. The foregoing re- 
marks in relation to the proper time for gather- 
ing fruits are equally applicable to the grape. 
These generally color long before they mature; 
and thus many a novice in fruit culture fre- 
quently forms an unjust opinion of his varie- 
ties simply from testing unripe specimens. 
Grapes should always be severed from the vine 
with strong scissors or trimming shears, and 
never twisted or broken off. The nice appear- 
ance of fruits of all kinds, in their boxes or 
baskets, in the markets, will always command 
a better price, than when slovenly 'done up.' " 



How TO Make Grafting Wax.— Thomas 
Matteson, McKean county, Pennsylvania, 
writes : " Take two parts mutton tallow, three 
parts beeswax ; melt the tallow first, and put 
the beeswax and resin into it. Then it is all 
melted, stir it all upland pour it into cold water 
and work it over. If there are lumps in it, 
mash them with your thumb and finger. The 
longer you work it the more sticky it grows. 
When it begins to stick to your hands, put 
some tallow on them. Work it till it is as 
sticky as you want it. Put in a tin pan with a 
cover to it, and it will keep for a number of 
years. I think it is as good as sticking Balve 
to put on any kind of sores. Some people put 
in more tallow than they put in resin or bees- 
wax, to make it softer to work in cold weather ; 
but if there is too much tallow in it, it will 
melt and run out in warm weather. I have had 
about forty years' experience in grafting and 
used a number of sorts of grafting-wax. Some 
people put it in hot water, and make more 
trouble than there is need of. I wet my fingers 
with my tongue, and don't find any difliculty 
in putting the wax on. I put a little wax on 
the end of the graft." 

Apple Babbelm. — An act to regulate the size 
of apple, pear and potato barrels, passed April 
12, 1862. The people of the State of New 
York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do 
enact as follows : 

Section 1. A barrel of apples, pears or 
potatoes shall represent a quantity equal to 
one hundred quarts of grain or dry measure, 
and all persons buying or selling those articles 
in this State, by the barrel, shall be under- 
stood as referring to the quantity specified in 
this act. 

Seo.2. This act shall take effect by the first 
day of June, eighteen hundred and sixty-two. 



WMQtWm nWMA% ^EESS- 



[January 3. i874- 



pafRO-Np m pBIBMBIJI. 



California Subordinate Granges. 

ALAMEDA COUNTY. 
CENTERVILLE GRANGE. Oenterville. Alameda Co.: 

jAMr.!^ SHINN. Master: J. L. BK.\lto. Sec'y. 
i:i)KX (iRAN(;K. ILiyward's, Alameda Uu. : Tnos. Hei.- 

HK, M ister: Wm. Owes. Hec'j. 
LI VKll.MORK GRvNGK. Livermi>re Vulley. Alameda 

1.: Daniel Inman. Ma<ier: K. R. Fasssett. Secy. 
t£mE.Si;aL GRANGE, Oakland. Alameda Co.: E. S. 

Oauu, Master; John Oollin.«, Sf»'y. 
BUTTE C'Ol'NTV. 
cmco ORANGE, Chico.Biiite Co.: W M. THORP, Master: 

J . W. Scott. Secy. AKeiii. W. M. THOnF. 
NORD URANUE, P. O., Nord, Butlt Uo. ; G. W. Colby, 

Master; L. L. Cole. Sec'y. 

COLUSA COUNTY. 
ANTELOPE VALLEV GRAN(3E. Colusa, Colusa Co.: H. 

A. LijOAN. Ma-it<r: A. T. Welton. Sec'v. 

CE.NTER GRAN<;E. (CalialOKa, P. O.) G. P. KlMBIlKLL, 

Muster: W <;. Sailsdriis. Sec y. 
COLUSA liRANi.K. Culu,a, Colusa Co.: W. K. Estbll, 

Master: R. . f UN F.s. Sec'y. 
I'Kl-.SHWAI'ER GRANGE. P. O.. Colusa. Colusa Co.: I. 

H. UlTUHAM, Master: R. A. WiLSEV. Secy. 
GRAND ISLAND liRlNUE, Sj oamore P. O., Colusa Oo.: 

J, J Hkok. Ma-ter; J. C. WiLKiNB, Seo'y. 
PLAZ.4 GRANGE, Olimpo. Colusa Co.: P. C. Graves, 

Master: VV. F. liUKEN, Sec'y. 
PRINCETON GRANGE. Princeton. Colusa Co.: A. D. 

LtXiAN, Master: R R. RCSH. Sec'y. 
FUNK SLiiLGil GRANiiE. i;ulusa. Colusa Co.: E. O. 

Hunter. Master; Geo. B Hakden, Sec'y. 
SPRINU VALLEV GRANiiE, SDriUK Valley, Colusa Co.: 

D. H. Akniili>, >la»ior: L T. Hayman, Sec'y. 

UNIO.V (JRANGE, P. O., Princeton, Colusa Co.; M. D.tvis. 

Master: Isaac L McDaniel, Sec'y. . 

WILuOWS GRANGE. P. 0„ Princeton. Colusa Co. : J. W. 

Zlmwalt, Master: ueo. T. Hicklin. Sec'y. 

CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 

DANVILLE GRANGE, Danville, Contra Costa Co.: Cbas. 

Wood. Master; .)i>HN B. Sydjjeb. Sec'y. 
Point of timber grange, Antioch p. O., Contra 

Costa Co.: R. G.Dean. Master; J. E. »'. Carey, Sec'v. 
■WALNUT CREEK GRAN(;E. Walnut Creek. Contra 

Costa Co. : Nathaniel Jones, Master: Wji. K. Daley, 

Sec'y. 

EL DORADO COUNTY. 
PILOT HILL ORANGE, Pilot Hill, El Dorado Go. : P. D. 

Bbown, Master: A, J. Batley, Seo'y. 
FRESNO COUNTY. 
FRANKLIN GRANGE : Kingston, N.MVRICK, Master ; A. 

B. (JROWEI.L. .^ec'y. 

FHtsNO GRANGE, Fresno City: H. W. FASBETr. Master: 

F. DtTsY. Sec'y. „. .„ , ., 

GARRETSON GRANGE. Kings River: W. J. Hutch- 
ison. Master: V/. W. Phillips, Sec'y. 
LAKE GRANGE. Kingston: M. S. Babcock, Master; £. 

J. Bekedict, Secy. 

HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 
KIWELATTI GRANGE. Areata. Humboldt Co.: Lewis 

R Wood, Master: D. D. Aveuill, Sec'v. 
TABLE BLUFF GRANGE. Table Bluir, Humboldt Co.: 

.Iacksos Sawvek, Master: B. H. C. Pollard, Sec'y. 
FER.NDALE (iR.\NGE. KernJale. Humboldt Co.: F. Z. 

Bovnton. Master; Chas. Bakbeu. Sec'y. 
ELK RIVER GRANGE, Eureka. Humboldt Co.: TheO- 

i.oRE Meyer, Master: D. A. DeMeukitt, Sec'y. 
RiiHNEKVlLLE GRANUK, Rohnervil.e. Humboldt Co.: 

B. T. Jameson, Masier; H. S. Case, Secretary. 
LAKE COUNTY. 
OOENOO GRANCE. Guenoc. LakeCc; J. M. IIamiltoh, 

Muster; A. A. Ritchie, Sec'y. 
KELSEyviLLE GRA>«iE, Kelscyville, Lake Co, : D. P. 

Shattcck. Master; T. OuMSTON. Sec'y. 
LAKEPORT GRANiiE. Lakeport. Lake Co.: C. CUTTEE 

Master: N. PhelaN. Sec'y. 
LOWER LAKE GRJVNGE, Lower Lake, Lake Co.: A. 

E. Noel, Master; HriHAiE Stow, Sec'y. 

UPPER LAKE liRANGE. Upper Lake, Lake Co.: D. V. 

Thompson, Master; D. y. McCabty, S»c'y. 
LOS ANUELES COUNTY. 
ALLIANCE GRANGE. El Monte, Los Angeles Co,: 8. S. 

REEVES, Master: J . W. M-vushall. Sec y. 
LO-.ANliELKS GRANiiE. Los Aniieles Co.: T. A. Garey. 

Master; T D. Hantock. Seo'y. 

A7.lifA ORANGE, tl Mciite. Los Angeles Co.: W. W. 

Maxey. Master: J. c. Preston. Sec'y. 
CO.MPrON GRANii.i. Comnton. Los Angeles Co; A. Hio- 

liIE. Master: J. A. Walker. Sec'y. 
EL .MONTE iJRANGE. Los Angeles Co.: O. C. GlBliS. 

Masier: P. O., Los Angeles. J. H. Gray, Sec'y; P. O., 

El Monte. 
ENTEKPRISE ORANGE. Los AnKcles, Los Anceles <"o. ; 

A. .M. Socthwobth. .Master; W. T. Henderson. Sec'y. 
EUREKA GRANGE, Spadra. Los Angeles Co. : f. 0. Tan- 
ner. Master; Joseph VVbuiht, Sec'y. 

FaIRVIEW ORANUE, Anaheim, Los Angeles Co : Ed- 

WAilD EvEY. Master; J, O. Tatlob, Sec'y. 
FLOllKNCE GRANGK. Los Angeles. Lis Angeles Co.: II. 

tilHsoN, Master; WiLLIAM PoHTER. Sec'y. 
FRUIT LAND GRANGE. TuBtinCity.LosAngelesCo: A. 

B. HiYWAUli. Master; E. R. Nichols. Sec'y 

LO-i NEITOS GRA.'sOE. Los Angeles Co.; E. B. Oran- 

uoN, Master: P. O.. Los Angeles: J. F. Marquis. Sec'y; 

P. O.. Anaheim. 
NEW RIVER GRVNGE. Los Neitos P. O.. Los Angeles 

Co.; R B. Gdthrie, Master; D. S, Warulow, Sec'y. 
ORANGE GRANGE. Richland. Los Alleles Co.: Joseph 

Beach. Master; .1. W. Anderson, Sec'y. 
SII.VKR GRANGE. Los Neitos. Los Angeles Co.: J. H. 

Burke. Mister: E. R. Wvlie. Sec'y. 
WESTMINISTER »!RAN(;E, (Anaheim, P. O.) M. B. 

l.'RAiii. Master: Henry Stephens, Sec'y, 
MARIN COUNTY. 

NICASIO ORANOE, Nicaaio, Marin Co.: H. T. Taft, 
Master: J W. NoBLE. Secy. 

POINT ARENAS GRAMifc. Point Arenas. Marin Co.: 
A H. Stenson. Master; John A. Upton. Sec'y. 

TO.MALES (JRaNGE, Tomalei, Mann Co.; Wm Van- 
DERBII.T, Master; R. b. PniNi E, Sec'y. 

TWO ROCK GRANGE. Marin Co.: JOHN R. 

Doss, Masier; John H. Freeman, Secy. 

MENDOCINO COUNTY. 
POTTER VALLEY ORANGE. Porno. Mendocino Co.: J. 

ilEWHINNBY. Master; T. McOowan. Sec'y. 
URIAH ORaNoE. Ukiah (;ity. Mendocino Co.: W. D. 

White, Master; A. O. Caiipenteb, Sec'y. 

MERCED COUNTY. 
BADGER FLAT GRANGE, Krev enhagen's P. O , Merced 

Co.. rici Gilroy: W. W. Parlin, Master; Alfred P. Mer- 

Birr. Sec'y. 
CiiTTONAVOOD GR.\NGE. Hill's Ferry. Merced Co. ; J. 

L. CJrittenden. Mast'-r; J. J. Doyle. Sec'v. 
HOPETO.N grange, Hopetoii, Merced Co. : John Rud- 
dle. Master ; T. Eaoleson, Sec'y. 
LOS BANGS (iRANGE. Kreyenhagen's P. O.. Merced Co.. 

i-,a (.iilroy: Wm. M. Vislv, Masier; H. C. Wainwright. 

Sec'y. 
MERCED GRANGE. Merced, Merced Co.: W. E. Elliot, 

.Master; F. Taulock. Sec'y. Agent, W. P. Fowler. 
SNELLING GRANGE. Snclling, Merced Co.: Daniel 

Yeizeb, Master: W. L. Hamlin, Sec'y. 

MONTEREY COUNTY. 
HOLLISTEH GRANGE. Holliater, Monterey Co.: J. D. 

Fowi.ER, Master; S. F. Cowan. Sec'y. Agent. J. D. 

Fowler. 
SAUNAS GRANGE, Salinas,MonteroyCi.: N. L. ALLEN, 

Ma>tcr; Samuel Cassidt, Sec'y. Agent, W. L. C*B- 

pemter. 

NAPA COUNT?. 
CALT^TOGA ORANGE, Calistosa. J.N. Bennett, Master; 

L. Hopkins. Sec'y. 
NAPA GRANGE, Napa City. Napa Co. ; \v. H. Baxter. 

Master: J. Walter Ward, Sec'y . Agent, W. a. Fisher. 
ST. HELENA ORANGE, St, Helena. Napa Co.: J. H. 

Allison. Master: J. L. Edwards, Sec'y. 
VOUNTVILLE (JRaNOE, Vouutville, Napa Co : ,J. M. 

Mayfielu. Master: Frank Griffin, Sec'y. Agent, J. 

M. .Mayvield. 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 
ELK GROVE GRANGE. Elk Grove. Sacramento Co.; 

Obadiah S. Freeman, Master: Delos Gaoe. Sec'y. 
SACRAMENTO GRANQE. No. 12, Sacrament , Sacra- 
mento Co.: W. S. Manlove. Master; A. S. Greenlaw, 

Sac'y. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 
SAN BERNARDINO GRANGK, P. O., RiTcrsiil*. San 

Bernardino Co.: E. G. Bbown, Master: J. F. Oould, 
ec'y., San Benwrdioo. 



SAN JOAIJUIN COUNTY. 

ATLANTA GRANGE Morano. Ssn J.^aqnln Co. : W T. 
Campbell Masier: Putman \ ishes. Sec y. P. O.. Mo- 
rano. San Joaquin Co. „ , . « o 

CASTOKIA GRANGE, Lathrop, San Joaquin Co.: Sew- 
all GowER. Ms^ler: J. Strahan. Sec y. 

LINDEN ORANGE. Limlcn. San Joaqum Co.: John 
Waslet, Master: Jami:h Wabley, Sec'y. 

LIBERTY GRANGE. Acampo. San Joaquin Co.: Justus 
Schomp. Master; J. J. Km>lie, Sec'y. . „ „ 

LODI liKANGE. Lodi. San Joaquin Co.: J. W. Kearny, 
Master; Mk». NKlTlEt'lioucH, Sec V. 

RUSTIC GRANGE. Lallirop, .san Joaquin Co.: J. A. 
.■iHEPHEiiD. Master: Henhy Mo<ire. Secy. 

STOtJKTON (iRANiiE. Stockton, San Joaquin Co.: WM. 
L. C)VEliillsEK. Masi. r; Wm G. Phf.lps. Sec y. 

WEsT SAN JO.\QUIN GRANGE. Ellis, San Joaquin ( o.: 
M. l.AMMERs. Master; GEO. E. McStay, Seo'y. 

WILDWOOD GRANGE. Wildwood School House, San 
Joaquin Co. : Jos. Leighton, Master; A. B. Munsun, 

w'ooDBRIDGE grange, Woodbridge, San Joaquin Co.; 

J. L. HUTSON. Master; A. S. Thumas, Sec'y. 
SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. 
ARROYO GRANDE GRANGE, Arroyo Grande, San Luis 

Obispo Co. ; W. H. Nelson, Master; D. F. Newsom, 

C.XM^'rIA grange. Cambria, San Luis Obispo Co.; 

RUFCs KlouoN, Master; C. H. IvlNS. Sec'y. 
MORO CITY GRANGE, .Moro, San LuisObi.spo Co.: A. J. 

MoTHERSKAD. Master; H.Y. STANLEY. Seo'y. Agent, A. 

.). MOTHERKEAI). . . „, . „ 

OLD CREEK liRANGE. Old Creek, Snn Luis Obispo Co ; 

Isaac Flood. Masier; R. M. Pbf.ston. Seo'y. 

SAN LUIS UBlsPO GRANtiE, San Luis Obispo, Kan Luis 

utiistio Co.: Wm. Jackson. Masier; E. Reed, Sec'j . 

SAN MATEO COUNTY. 

PESCADERO ORANGE. Pesoadero, San Mateo Co.: B.V. 

Weeks. Master; H. B. Spragiie, Sec'y. 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. 
CARPENTERIA GRANGE. Carpent*rla, Santa Barbara 

Co.: O. N. Cadwell Master; G. E. Thurmand. Sec'y. 
CONFIDENCE GRANGE, Guadaloupe, .-anta Barbara 

Co.: A. CopKLAsD. Master: J. T. At:sTIN, Sec'y. 
SANTA BARBARA liKANGE. Sai. la Barbara, S. B. Co.: 

O. L. Abbott, Master: C. Kenney, Secy. 
SANTA MARIA ORANGE. SanU Barbara Co.: P.O., 
Suey Station, San Luis Obispj Co. ; Joel Miller. Mas- 
ter; M D. .MILLER. Secy. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 
RIVERSIDE. Riverside, P. O. E. G. Brown, Master: W. 
W. Kimball. Sec'y. 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 
Brighton Grange. Brighton, Sacramento Co . . J. M, 
Bell. Master; Maurice Toomey, Sec. 

Florin (LiRANGE. San Joaquin Township. Sacramento 
Co.: Caleb Arnold, Master; William bCHOFiELD, Sec. 

SANTA CLARA COUNTY. 

SAN JOSE GRANGE, No. 10. San Jose. Nanta Clara Co : 

G. W. Hensing. Mister: Miss Jettoba Watkins, Sec'y. 

San Jo~e. Agent. J. W. Herndon. 

SANTA CLARA RANGE. Santa Clara P. O . Santa Clara 

Co.; H. M. Leonard. Master; LA. Wilooi. Sec'y. 
SARATOGA GRANGE. .Saratoga. Santa CI irs Co.; Fran- 
cis Dresser. Ma-ster: Miss Jennie Farwell, Sec'y. 
SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. 
GEORGIANA ORANGE. Georgiana, Solano Co: F. M. 

Kittrell. Master: Geo. a. Knott, Sec'y. 
PAJaRO GRANOE. p. O. WatsoiiviUc, SanU Cruz Co.: 

■J. M. Clocoh. Masier: G W Roadhoube. Seo'y. 
SANTA CRUZ GRANGE. Santa Cruz: G. O. Wabdwell, 

Master: J. W. AIobgan. Sec'y, 
WaTSONVILLE GRANGE. Watsonville. J. McCallam 
Master; A. F. Richardson. Sec'y. v 

SOLANO COUNTY. 
DENVERTON ORANOE, Dcnverton, Solano Co. ; J. B. 

C'RRINGton Masier; G. C. Arnold. Sec'y. 
DIXON (iRA.S'OE. Dlion. Solano Co. : J. C. HERRYriELD, 

Master: James a. Ellis, Sec'y. 
ELMIR.^GRANGE.Vaoa station, Solano Co.: J. A. Clare, 

Master ; M. D. Cooper. Sec'y. 
ROi KVILLE oRaNOE. Cordelia. Solano Co.: W. A. 

Lattin. Master; J. R. .Morris, Sec'y. 
SUIsUN VALLEY GRANGE. Suisun, Solano Co.; R. C. 

Haile. Master; A. T. Hatch. Sec'y. 
VACAVILLE GRANGE. Vacaville. Solano Co.: E. R. 

Thukbur. .Master: Oscar Dobbins. Sec'y. 
VALLl-.JO GRANGE. Vallejo. Solano Co.- O. C. PlERSOS, 
Masier; Cha8. B Demino. Sec'y. 

SONOMA COUNTY. 
BENNETT VALLF.Y GRANGE. SanU Ro«a. Sonoma Co. ; 

Nelson Carr. Master: J. H. Plank. Sec'y. 
BLOOMFIELD CiRANGE, ^anURosa. Sonoma Co.: Wm. 

H. White. Master; D. Druner, Sec'y, 
BODKIiAORaNGE, Bodega, Sonoma Co.; J. H. Heoleb, 

Muster; W. SMITH. Sec'y. 
CLOVERDALE GRANGE, Cloverdale, Sonoma Co.: 

Chas. H. Cooley. Master: D. M. Wambolp. Sec'y. 
GEYSERVILLE GRANGE, Oeysi rville. Sonoma Co.; 

Calvin M. Bosworth. Master; K, R. Leigh. Sec'y. 
HEALDSBURG grange, Headslmrg, Sonoma Co.: 
CHARLES ALFX.vNiiER, Master: Mrs. S. A. Pfx-k. Seo'y. 
Aceiit. T. H. Merry. 
PETALUMA GRA.voE. Pelaluma. Sonoma Co.; L. W. 
Walker, .Master: D. G. Heald, Sec'y. Agent, W. M. 
Hill. 
SANTA ROSA GRANGE, SanU Rosa. Sonoma Co.: Geo. 

W. Davis. Master ; J. A. Obreen. Sec'y. 
SO'^OMA oRA.NOK. Sonoma Co.; P. O.. Sonoma, Sonoma 

Co.: Wm. McP. Hill, Masier: W. A. Berkv, Sec'v. 
SEBASTOPOL GRANGE. Sebastopol. Solu.liia Co.: M. 

C. Hicks. Masier; Josei'H Purrinoton. Sec'v. 
WINDSOR ORANGE Windsor, Sonoma Co.: A. B. Nal- 
TET. Master; J. H. McCleilan, Sec'y. 

STANISLAUS COUNTY. 
BONITA GRANOE. Crows Lsinding, SUnisl aus Co.: J. 

W. Treadwell. Master: A. B. crook, Sbc'v. 
CERES GRANGE. Westport Precinct. Stanislaus Co.; 

w. B. Harp. Master; c. N. Whitmohe. Sec'y. 
ORAYSON GRANOE. Orav son. SianislausCo.: I. O. Gard- 
ner. Misler: .Miss H. J. PllELes, Sec'v. 
ORISTIMBA GRANGl';. Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Co.: W. 

J. SllLLEU. .Master; Pllos. A. ClIAeMAN. S c'y 
SALIDA(iRA.\(iE, No. S. Modesto P. O.. Stanislaus Co ; 

Joseph Revburn. Master; Lafayette Dickey. Seo'y. 
STANISLAUS GRANOE, Modesto, Stauislaua Co,: J. D 

Spencek, Master; Vital E. Bangs, Sec'y. 
TURLOCK GRANGE, Turlock. SUnislaus Co.: A. S. 

Kulkerth. Master: John A. Henderson. Sec'y. 
WATERFORD GRANGE. Waterford. Sunislaus Co.; R. 
R. Wabdek. Master; W, C. Collins, Sec'y. 
SUTTER COUNTY. 
SUTTER GRANGE. Sutler. Sutter Co.; Yf. C. Smith, 

Master: M. (;. Hunoerfokd, Sec'y. 
YLBa CIIY oRaNOE, Yobs City, Sutter Co.: T. B. 
Hull. Ma.ster: S. R Chandler. Sec'y. 
TEHAMA COUNTY. 
RED BLUFF GR*NGE, Red BluiT. R. H. Blossom. 
Master; John Curtis. Sec'v. 

TULARE (!:OUNTY. 
DEEP CREEK GRANGE. Farmersville: W. O. Pf.nne- 
BAKElt, Master: F. G. .Iefferds. Nec'y. 
TULE River Grange. Porterville. Tulare Co. :0. A. 
Williamson. Master; .'>(. T. Blair. Sec. 
VENTURA COUNTY. 
8ATIC0Y GRANGE. P. O.. San Kuonaventura. Ventura 
Co.: Milton Wasson. Master; E. A. Duval, Sec'y. 
YOLO COUNTY. 
ANTELOPE ORANGE, W. J. Clark, Master; O. L. N. 

Vaughn, Ser'y: P. O . Antelope. Yolo I'o. 
BUCKEYE GRANGE. Yolo Co. : P. O.. Buckeye, Yolo Co. 

Wm Sims, Master: J. G. Allen. Sec'y. 
CACHE CREEK (jRA.NgE. Cache Creek. Yolo Co.: D. B. 

HuHLBfUT. Master; L. D. STEPni-n<s. Sec'y. 
C.VPA VALLEY 0KAN(;E. Capa, Yolo Co.: R. R. DabbT. 

Master: P. M. Savage. Sec'y. 
DAVISVILLE GRANGE, Davisville. Yolo Co.; Chas. E. 

Oreen, Master: John Kkimer. Secy. 
HU.NORY HOLLOW liRANOE. P. O., Yolo, Yolo Oo. : G. 

L. Parker. Master: c. O. Hekkins. Sec'y. 
■WEST ORAFPON GRANOE, Yolo, Yolo Co.: A. W. Mor- 
ris. Master; Geo. W. Parks. Sec'y. 
YOLO GRANGE. Woooland, Yolo Co.; W. M. Jackson 
Master: D. Schindler. Sec'y. Agent. W. M. Jackson. 
t^ Deputies who organize new Granges arc requested 
to send the list of ofllcers. and the names of all charter 
members, with other facts of interest, for publication in 
the Rural Prfj^s, as early as possible. 



" Articles for Granges. " 

Bro. W. H. Baiter, Sec'y of the State Grange, 
has consented to supply Granges 'with such 
articles as we have heretofore fnrnished; we 
therefore notify Patrons to send their orders to 
him direct, in future. He will also furnish 
manuals, song books and other materials which 
we have not kept on hand. Being permanently 
located with the State Agent, in this city, it 
will be fully as convenient now for Patrons to 
obtain their supplies through Bro. Baxter as 
at our office. All orders which we shall con- 
tinue to furnish and supply (except for By-laws) 
received by us after this date will be handed 
over to Secretary Baxter. 



Election of Officers. 



Dklayed.— -The orders for jewels and some 
other articles for Granges have been more than 
we were prepared for. We now expect that all 
demands will be soon supplied. 

Roll Books. — These bocks, which the State 
Secretary expected to supply to all Granges, 
have not yet arrived. 



Lodi Gbanoe, — Bro. Dickerson, Secretary of 
Lodi Grange, writes as follows : — " Our elec- 
tion of officers, for the ensuing year, came off 
at the last regular meeting in October, as per 
Constitution; but, as was anticipated at the 
time, several parties who were elected, declined 
serving, and it was not till our last meeting 
that we succeeded in electing a full list of 
ofiBcers with a good degree of certainty, that all 
would serve. Following are the names of 
officers elect for the ensuing year:— J. W. 
Kearny, M.; A. T. Ayres, 0.; Henry Witte, L.; 
C. P. Allison, S.; Saml. Ferdun, A. S.; O, O. 
Norton, C. ; A. W. Gove, T. ; Mrs. Nettie Crouch, 
Sec; E. Lawrence, G K.; Mrs. Eva. S. Morse, 
Ceres; Mrs. H. S. Gove, Pomona ; Mrs. Maria 
J. Norton, Flora; Mrs. Julia Ayers, L. A. S. 

TcLE RivEK Grange. — N. T. Blair, Secreta- 
ry of this Grange, the organization of which 
was briefly noticed last week, sends us the full 
list of officers, as follows: — G. A. Williamson, 
M.; L M. Bond, O.; I. B. Rumford, L.; J. P. 
Ford, C; C. W. McKelvey, S.; C. T. Brown, 

A. S. ; J. B. Hoekett, T. ; N. T. Blair, Sec'y. ; J. 
F. Griffin, G. K.;Mr8. Sarah Hadley, Ceres; 
Mrs. S, N, W, Rumford, Pomona; Miss Carrie 
Hilton, Flora; Miss L. A. Ford, L. A. S, 

The places of meeting, until further advised, 
will be Piano and Porterville, as the Grange is 
composed of citizens in both places. Post- 
office and express office address, Porterville. 

San Lnis Obispo Grange, — Officers, William 
Jackson (re-elected,) M,; W. P. Barnett, O,; 
C. H. Johnson, L.; D. M. .Johnson, S.; D. Ed- 
wards, A. S.; Saml. Cook, C; J. W. Stack, T.; 
E L Reed, See.; Wm. Dunbar, G. K.; Mrs. D. 
M. Johnson, Ceres; Mrs. Wm. Jackson, Pomo- 
na; Miss N. E. Barnett, Flora; Miss Theresa 
Leff, L. A. S.: 

Hbaldsbueg Grange. — Bro. Merry writes us 
that the following officers have been elected to 
fill the respective positiors for the ensuing 
year: Charles Alexander, M. ; I, C, Laymance, 
0.; A, J. Gordon, L.; P. S. Peck, C; J. G. 
Best, S ; B. B. Capell, A. S.; Ira Proctor. T.; 
Mrs. S. A. Peck, Sec'y; A. Bowton, G. K.; 
Mrs. R. A. Abbey, Ceres; Mrs. E. E. Merry, 
Pomona; Mrs. R. S. Spencer, Flora; Miss 
Alice Alexander, L. A. S. Board of Tru.stee8: 
T. H. Merry, A. C. Bledsoe, W, N. Gladden. 

Ckntkrvii.le Grange, Alameda Co. — The 
following officers were elected Dec. 27: James 
Shinn, M. ; L . E. Osgood, O. ; S. I. Marston. L. ; 
C. Healy, S; N. L. Babb, A. S. Mrs. H. Over- 
acker, C; H. Overacker, T. , J. L. Beard, Sec'y; 
F. Peres, G. K. ; Miss Maria Babb, Ceres; Mrs. J . 
R. Clough, Pomona; Mrs. A, R. Hall, Flora; 
Mrs. L. E. Osgood, L A, S. 

Capa Valley GRANtiE,— Officers elect: R, R. 
Darby, M. (re elected); G. M. Rhodes, O. (re- 
elected); O. C. Butler, L.; G. P. Goodnow, S. 
(re-elected); E. E. Perkins, A. S.; G. R. Lone, 
C; Wm. H. Duncan, T, (re-elected); P. M. 
Savage, Sec'y (re-elected); T. Powell, G. K.; 
S. E. Darby, Ceres (re-elected); Tillie Walters. 
Pomona (re-elected); Flora L. Savage, Flora (re- 
elected); Ellen Duncan, L. A. S. (re-elected), 

Cottonwood Granoe. — Officers elect: J. L. 
Crittenden, M.; W. F, Draper, O.; J. M.Daley, 
L.; R. M. C. Hale, C; Jerry Sturgeon, S.; 0. 

B. Babcock, A. S.; E. L. hturgeon, T.; J. J. 
Doyle, Sec'y; G. E. Mills, G. K.; Mrs. C. 
Draper, Ceres; Mrs. A. Crittenden, Pomona; 
Miss K. Sanford, Flora; Miss H. Campbell, L. 
A. S. All the above officers were re-elected 
except the A. S. and T. 

Antelope Grange. — Officers elect: W. J. 
Clark, M. (re-elected); G, B. Lewis, O, ; J. S. 
Rollins, L.;H. N. Garrett, 3.; J. D. Snelling, 
A. S. ; Dr. Z. J. Brown, C. ; A. W. Dunigan. T. ; 

C. L. N. Vaughan, Sec'y (re-elected); L. C. 
Lane, G. K. (re-elected); Mrs. Susan S. Mc- 
Campbell, Ceres; Miss Jennie Burgoyne, Po- 
mona; Mrs. S. A. Lewis, Flora; Miss Rosa 
Danigan, L. A. S. (re-elected). 

New Granges. 

Mabin Countt. — We have reports from Gen- 
eral Deputy, John H. Hegler, of the organiza- 
tion by him of four ^new Granges in Marin 
County, as follows; 

ToMALES Grange. — Organized Dec. 17lh, 
with full list of Charter members. This is the 
first Grange organized in the county. Its list 
of officers is as follows: Wm. Vanderbilt, M; 
O. Hubbell, O; F. W. Bemis, L; Samuel C. 
Percival, S; F. A. Plank, A. S; S. Duncan, C; 

D. B. Burbank. T; R. H. Prince, Sec'y; John 
Buchanan, G. K;Mr8. O, Hubbel, C; Mrs,F,Wj 
Bemis, P; Miss Amelia Waters, F; Mrs. F. A. 
Plank, L. A, S. 



Point Arenas Grange— Was organized Dec. 
20tb, with 29 Charter members, and the fol- 
lowing list of officers: A. H. Stenson, M;T. 
B. Crandell, O; S. E. Perham, L; Wm. P. 
Ruggles, C; A. Huff, S; C. H. Johnson, A. 8; 
Wm. Evans, T; John A. Upton, Sec'y ;C. John- 
son, G. K; Mrs. S. E, Perham, C ; Mrs. R. A Up- 
ton, P; Mrs, John A. Upton, F; Mrs, A. Huff, 
L. A. S. Post office address, Point Reyes, via 
Olema. 

NiCAsio Grange.— Organized Dec. 22d, with 
the following list of officers: H. T. Taft, M; 
Thos. H. Estey, O; P. K. Austin, L; Wm. J. 
Dickson, C; C. J. Magee, S; Thos. Campbell, 
A. S; J. W. Noble. Sec'y; B.F.Partee,T;Chas. 
L. Estey, G. K; Mrs. H. F. Taft, C; Mrs. C. J. 
Magee, P; Mrs. J. W. Noble, F; Mrs. M. Mc- 
Namara, L. A. S. 

Two Rock Grange. — Organized Dec. IGth, 
with full list of Charter members. The follow- 
is the list of officers: John R. Doss. M; Wm. 
D. Freeman, O; N. A. Clark. L; W. H. Smith 
S; Walter Church, A. S; Wm. H. Thompson. 
C;A. A. Brown, T; John H. Freeman, Sec'y;F 
Hill, G, K; Mrs. Mary Freeman, C; Mrs. Mary 
M. Freeman, P;Mi8s HattieEnt, F; Mrs. Annie 
Halstead, L, A. S. 

Brother Hegler is doing a good work, and 
by the way the farmers thereabouts are taking 
hold of the cause, they bid fair to outstrip the 
brethren in any other locality north of San 
Francisco. Our brother reports two more 
Granges ready for organization in Marin 
County as soon as he can visit them, and re- 
turns his thanks to the citizens of the several 
localities, already visited, for the courtesies 
and kindnesses shown him. 

Bros. Dewey and Eweb : I write to inform 
you of the organization of two Granges since 
my last to you : 

Panama Grange, P. 0. and Express office, 
Bakersfield, was organized Saturday, December 
20th, with thirty charter members. Mr. Rapp, 
Master; Mr. Gordon, Secretary. 

Bakersfield Grange, in Bakersfield, was or- 
ized Monday, Dec. 22d. with thirty charter 
members. S. Jewett, Master ; Jerome Troy, 
Secretary. 

To-day I expect to organize New River 
Grange, thirteen miles from here. 

J. W. A. Wbioht. 

Bakersfield, Kern Co., Deo. 23d. 

Pajabo and Watsonville Granges. — Pajaro 
Grange is going ahead prosperously atid 
harmoniously; all seem satisfied, all pull 
the same way, no discord or ill-feeling among 
the members. The only obstruction we have 
is the want of a hall in which to meet. I hope 
this deficiency will be supplied before another 
year, so that we may own a hall of our own. 

The weather has moderated and the farmers 
are busily plowing and preparing for planting. 
A few of the farmers on the uplands have al- 
ready seeded their lands. Yesterday, after we 
had conferred the 4th Degree on eight mem- 
bers, we partook of a Harvest Feast prepared 
by the Sisters, and all went merry as a mar- 
riage bell. Blessed are the Sisters, for with- 
out them the Grange would never prosper in 
the manner it does. Our neighboring Grange, 
at Watsonville, has received its charter — 
No. 12-t, and are now receiving applications 
for membership, and will soon have a large 
class to initiate. They have rented the Ma- 
sonic Hall. Your subscribers have all received 
the Press. Grangeb. 

San Luis Gbanoe. — E. L. Reed, Secretary of 
this Grange in sending the list of officers elect 
for 1874, adds as follows: — "We have had 
three weeks of just such a rain as yon gener- 
ally hear people wish for; early enough in the 
season and not too heavy — pleasant and warm 
all the time. The sun is shining beautiful this 
morning, and the rain appears to be over for 
the present. Our neighbors are just beginning 
to comprehend the fact that the members of 
this Grange mean business. Many of our best 
farmers were rather backward about joining us 
at first; but of late they are sending in their 
applications for membership. 

Healdsbubo Grange. — From this Grange, 
Bro. T. H. Merry writes as follows: — The in- 
stallation of officers 'will take place at an open 
meeting to be holdeu at the Presbyterian 
Church, on Saturday, Jan. 3d, 1874. Windsor, 
Clovardale and Geyserville Granges will assist 
in the ceremonies. Bro. A. B. Nally, of Wind- 
sor Grange, will officiate as installing officer. 
The whole will wind up with a grand Feast at 
the Grange Hall to which all members of our 
Order and their families are cordially invited. 

In One Book. — We have now in hand neatiy 
printed pamphlet copies of the Constitution, 
By-Laws, and Rules of Order of the National, 
State and (in blank form) Subordinate Grange. 
Price $4 per hundred. By mail 5 cents per 
copy, post paid. The permanent portion of the 
forms are now stereotyped, so that we can 
print by-laws of special character for subordin- 
ate Granges at short notice, and at reasonable 
rates. 

To Secbetabies.— We have endeavored to 
make our Directory as complete as possible, 
giving P.O. Address and names of the Master 
and Secretary for the year 1874. Secretaries, 
or others, who will make any corrections or 
additions which may be necessary, will greatly 
assist and oblige us. 



January 3, 1874.] 



Castoria Grange. 

Editobb Pbess : — Since you so generously de- 
vote a part of your excellent paper to the uses 
of the Patrons of Husbandry, I take the liberty 
of giving for publication some items of history 
pertaining to Castoria Grange. Our annual 
elections were held in October, at which time 
the following list of officers were elected: Se- 
wall Gower, M. ; H. W. Cowell, 0. ; J. W. Hans- 
come, L.; Albert Seavy, C; Walter Graves, 
S.; Asa Nicewonger, A. S.; J. Strahan, Sec; J. 
Cowell, T.; J. Carter, G. K. Lady Officers: 
Mrs. H. W. Cowell, C; Mrs. J. Carter, P.; Miss 
Helen Myers, Flora ; Mrs. J. Cowell, L. A. S. 

Castoria Grange was organized the latter part 
of last September, with a charter membership 
of twenty-seven. Now we number ninety-seven 
members, with more applications to be acted 
upon. We have a hall, 50x40, for which we 
have secured the exclusive use for five years, 
and have fitted it up with all the appointments 
of a Grange, at an expense of $400. Our 
membership is composed of the very best ma- 
terial — farmers and their wives and daughters, 
intelligent and honest, true men and women. 
A cordial and fraternal feeling pervades among 
us, and our meetings have always had sufficient 
interest in them to attract a full attendance. 
In fine, we have all the conditions and elements 
necessary to a prosperous and efficient Grange. 

On the night of December 4th, we celebrated 
the anniversary of our Order with appropriate 
festivities. An address was delivered by our 
worthy lecturer, B. F. Woodward, of great 
merit and excellence, after which dancing was 
commenced in the lower story of the building. 
At ten o'clock supper was announced, when 
one hundred and sixty persons, by count, prin- 
cipally members of our Order, sat down to 
tables loaded with everything that could please 
the eye and satisfy the taste. In fine, the 
whole affair was most successful and harmon- 
ious. Very fraternally, Sewall Goweb. 

Stockton, Dec. 6, 1873. 



Progress of 



the Order- 
Growth. 



-Extraordinary 



From Worthy Master Hamilton. 

GuENOc, Dec. 2G, 1863. 

Bbothebs Dbwbt & EwEn: — For the infor- 
mation of Patrons will you please give notice 
in the columns of the Peess — 

That Dudley W. Adams, Worthy Master of 
the National Grange, has ruled — "That the 
conferring of more than one degree on the 
same day is a violalion both of the spirit and 
the letter of the National Constitution, and 
mast not be allowed, "no matter whether the 
degrees be conferred on the same or different 
persons." 

It will be my duty, whenever a violation of 
this provision of the Constitution is brought 
to ray notice — and is persisted in — to request 
our Worthy Mastafc to revoke the charter, or 
recall the dispensation of the Grange so of- 
fending. Your.^ fraternally, 

J. M. Hamilton, 
W. M. California State Grange . 



Daietmen and the Gbanges. — The State 
Grange will open a store for the sale of dairy 
produce, on the 1st of January, at 414 and 416 
Sansome, and 427, 429 and 431 Commercial 
streets, under the management of Mr. John H. 
Hegler, of Sonoma county. Master of Bodega 
Grange and general Deputy, who has been or- 
ganizing Oranges in the dairy country and 
with great success. Mr. Hegler assures us that 
from the observations in his travels he can 
fully warrant the success of the house. He has 
taken a wise course by identifying himself 
with a gentleman of this city, who has been in 
the business here, and who is largely ac- 
quainted and has a thorough knowledge of the 
business. We think from present appearances 
that the day is not far distant when our farm- 
ers will be able to do all their selling and much 
buying through their own houses, and that at a 
great saving to themselves. 



k 



A Fabmebs' Aid As ociation. — A movement 
is now on foot in San Diego for the organiz- 
ation of a "Farmers' Aid Association," the ob- 
ject being to assist farmers who may require 
such aid in procuring seed grain for planting. 

The best " Farmers' Aid Association" is a 
Grange of the P. of H. If our farmer friends 
in San Diego county, where we believe no 
Granges have yet been formed, will call upon 
Bro. Thos. A. Garey, of Los Angeles, he will 
furnish them with all the information and as- 
sistance they need to join the great army of 
united farmers, which is doing so much good 
for the agricultural interest, generally, all over 
the country. 



Few people, even among the members of the 
Order, have any proper idea of the rapid pro- 
gress which the Patrons of Husbandry have 
made towards influence and power, during the 
past year, or the increasing ratio with which 
the organization of Granges is now going 
on. 

The Order was founded only six years ago; 
but ten Granges were organized during the 
first year, and that number had increased to 
only 338 at the end of the fourth year. During 
these four years farmers could not be made to 
understand or appreciate the benefits which 
might be derived from such an organization. 
The importance of the movemont could not be 
impressed upon them until 1872, during which 
year 1,053 Granges were organized. 

But nothing like the full benefit of the move- 
ment was realized until the present year, during 
which, up to Dec. 13th — lacking over two 
weeks of a full year — seven thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy-six new Granges had been 
organized; making in all, as reported at the 
Centraloffice in Washington, up to the 13th day 
of December, 9,267 Granges in the entirg 
Union. 

There are now 29 State Granges in operation, 
including the Dakota Territory Grange; and 
the Order has been planted in every State in 
the Union except the two smallest — Delaware 
and Rhode Island. The number of Granges 
is now increasing at the rate of about one thou- 
sand each month. It is safe to say that, there 
will be at least 20,000 organizations by the 
close of the coming year, with a membership 
of not less than two millions, and even then 
there will be much to do in the way of organiza- 
tion. 

No wonder the people's party is gaining in 
influence and power all over the land — that it 
has already become national and holds complete 
control of several of the most important States 
in the Union; for the great mass of the Gr .ng- 
ers are throwing their influence in that direc- 
tion. 

The Order, as we have often stated, is not 
political. It holds no caucuses or pc litical 
conventions; makes no nominations, and takes 
no part, as an Order, in political matters; but 
its members are found voting almost uniformly 
with that party or political organization which 
is freest from partisan rule, and most devoted 
to the welfare of the people, without reference 
or care for party. It is astonishing— to the 
initiated — how completely the Grange breaks 
down all partisan feeling. The moment a vo- 
ter becomes a member of a Grange, he is a 
brother, in the closest social relationship to 
every other member, and enters at once into 
the fullest sympathy with the general feeling 
and spirit of the Order. 

The working men of America can never hope 
to accomplish the amelioration of labor with- 
out the use of the ballot. That fact is as plain 
to the mind of every observing man as the noon- 
day sun on a clear day. But experience is 
proving that the best way to use the ballot, is 
by standing aloof from all parties, and holding 
them closely upon their good behavior. Just 
now the "People's Party" appears the most 
promising of good results; but if that fails of 
its promises, the Patrons of Husbandry will 
be in no manner responsible for its acts, and 
will lose none of the prestige and power of 
their organization; for they cin kill it in a day 
to make room for another on its ruins, or adopt 
some more promising one already in exis- 
tence. 

The farmers comprise very nearly a major- 
ity of all the voters in the Union. By throwing 
their influence in any particular direction, they 
are able to carry an overwhelming balance of 
power. They are now united and earnest from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific — from Maine to 
Texas. They mean business; they fully rea- 
lize the magnitude and importance of the work 
they have undertaken, while the discussions 
and addresses in relation thereto, which have 
gone out to the world, afford sufficient evidence 
of their power and ability, and their terrible 
earnestness to right the wrongs that now en- 
compass them and their calling. The train is 
moving, the track is clear, the flags are flying; 
and now, while the bell rings a friendly warning, 
let every politician who entertains the slightest 
hope for a future, beware of the approaching 
train. 



^Temescal Gbanoe. — At the meeting, Deo. 
27th, the code of by-laws recommended by the 
State Grange, with a few amendments, was 
adopted. The first Saturday in each month, 
at 2 o'clock p. M., is de.'-ignated for the regular 
meeting. Monthly dues for brothers is fixed at 
50 cents; for sisters, 25 cents. The installa- 
tion of officers will take place on Saturday next. 



The Grange. 

The social is one of the highest and most 
noble features connected with our Order. 
Wherever we find Patrons, in or out of the 
Grange, this wonderful influence is most mark- 
ed and unmistakeable. Farmers who have 
heretofore been comparatively isolated from 
their brother farmers, so soon as they join the 
Grange become different men from what they 
were before — they have broader sympathies, 
kindlier feelings and higher aspirations. They 
seem to realize that they have somebody be- 
sides themselves to live for. They meet each 
other, whether on the street, on the farm, at a 
neighbor's or in the Grange, with a warmer 
shake of the hand and a more cordial saluta- 
tion than ever before. Though but lately 
strangers, they now are friends — confident, 
trusting friends. 

Granges have been most happily com- 
pared to magnetic batteries. They are indeed 
such, and the power of their magnetism is re- 
ally marvellous. They are throwing out elec- 
tric currents of light and heat, which are des- 
tined to continue and extend until they shall 
warm and illumineevery farmhouse in the land. 
They are positive batteries too, and so fully 
charged, and with such power, that they will 
overcome every negative that may presume to 
stand before them. 

Some people are beginning to think that 
they are earthquakes, also; perhaps they are — 
electrical earthquakes, according to the new 
theory of such phenomena — and their force too 
is as silent, as hidden, and as powerful in the 
moral world as is the real shake in the physical. 
The earthquake is coming too. We see the 
evidence of its approach everywhere — all over 
this State, all over the Union. They have had 
a touch of it at Sacramento several times this 
winter; every time, indeed, that the monopo- 
lists have attempted to foist their men or meas- 
ures upon the Legislature, there has been a 
shaking which, though not severe, has certain- 
ly been most ominous of what may happen, if 
the outside pressure is piled on too heavily. 
The enemies of the People's Movement, if they 
have any aspirations for the future, will do 
well to stand from under. 

We see this moral earthquake in the upheav- 
ing of the elements of corruption all over the 
land. We see it in the linking of hands be- 
tween the farmers and mechanics — for the lat- 
ter have already started the ball for themselves 
in an organization known as the Patrons of In- 
dustry, which aims to do for all other produc- 
ing classes just what the Patrons of Husbandry 
are doing for the farmers. 

Workingmen everywhere and of every class 
are interested in the great principles and bene- 
fits which underlie and sustain the Farmers' 
Movement. Whatever benefits the farmer, 
benefits every other honest laborer. Crush the 
prosperity of the farmer, and you destroy the 
prosperity of every other productive industry. 
Build up agriculture, and you furnish a sub- 
stantial basis for prosperity everywhere. 
Hence, the Farmers' Movement is the People's 
Movement, and the people are going to sustain 
it. 

It is the Farmers' Movement, acting through 
the masses, which has so thoroughly aroused 
the people of this State to take the stand they 
have recently taken against monopoly and mis- 
rule on this coast. It ill the Farmers' Move- 
ment which is breaking down the tyrrany of po- 
litical caucuses and partisan misrule, both here 
and at the East; and it is the Farmers' Move- 
ment which influenced President Grant in his 
Message to Congress to admit, in its very open- 
ing paragraph, that "Political partisanship has 
almost ceased to exist — especially in the agri- 
cultural regions." 

Don't that sound as though the General 
meant, hereafter, to fight it out on that line ? 
Nothing of a mere human invention has ever 
been developed in the whole history of the 
world, so largely promising of good as the 
Grange. It brings into activity every latent 
power — both intellectual and moral. The 
farmer has heretofore been asleep. He is now, 
however, awake — wide awake — resolute and 
firm. The Grange has made him so. He has 
planted his foot upon the rack of Truth, and 
with God's help he will soon work a revolution 
such as the world has never yet seen. 



Stanislaus P. of H. Council. 

Representatives of the various Granges of 
Stanislaus county, excepting that of Grayson, 
assembled at Modesto, December 23d. 

On motion, J. D. Spencer was elected tem- 
porary Chairman, and V. E. Bangs, Secretary. 
Committee on Credentials appointed, and re- 
ported the following named delegates as entitled 
to seats : 

Salida Gbange. — C. H. Heining, B. F. 
Parks, H. Chance. A. J. Carver. 

Cebes Gbange. — W. B. Harp, John Service, 
J. M. Henderson. 

TuELOCK Geange. — A. C. Fulkerth, John A. 
Henderson, S. Crane, Jacob Hays. 

Stanislaus Gbange. — John V. Davis, Theo. 
Turner, Vital E. Bangs, J. D. Spencer, Mrs. 
E. J. Turner, and Mrs. F. H. Ross. 

BoNiTA Grange. — A. J. Lucas and Wm. A. 
Fisher. 

Wateefobd Grange. — W. W. Baker, J. 
Booth, S. M. Gallup, and Walter Scott. 

After a few exchanges of opinions among the 
members, a committee to report a form of or- 
ganization. Constitution and By-Laws, was ap- 
pointed, consisting of the following named 
brothers: W. A. Fisher, Theo. Turner, John 
Service, A. G. Carver, S. M. Gallup, A. 0. 
Fulkerth. Council adjourned until half-past 
six p. M. 

Council convened at the appointed time, J. 
D. Spencer in the Chair. Committee on Con- 
stitution reported, which was adopted, and 
committee discharged. The following is the 
Constitution: 

Akticle l8T. This Association shalt be known as tho 
" Stanislaus County Council ot Patrons of Husbandry." 

Akt. 2d. The objects of this Council are for the pur- 
poses of facilitating the transactions of business in buy- 
ing, sellinf; and shipping, and for such other purposes 
as may seem for the good of the Order. 

Abt. 3d. The members of this Council shall be com- 
posed of delegates from the subordinate Granges as 
follows: One for each Grange at large, and one for every 
thirty members or fraction of thirty equal to fifteen, 
and shall be elected by subordinate Granges for one 
year. 

Abt. 4th. The officers of this Council shall consist of 
a Master, Overseer, Chaplain, Secretary, Treasurer, 
Steward, Gate-Keeper and a Board of Trustees, com. 
posed of one member from each Grange represented, 
neither of whom shall receive pay for services ren- 
dered, and neither of the Trustees shall be Master, 
Secretary or Treasurer. 

Abt. 5th. Each subordinate Grange represented in 
this Council shall pay to the Treasurer an annual due 
of one dollar for each representative. 

Art. 6th. This Council shall hold at least one regular 
meeting in Modesto, every three months, and all inter- 
mediate meetings called as special meetings by the 
Master shall be deemed regular meetings of this 
Council. 

Akt. 7th. Special meetings shall be called by the 
Worthy Master at his discretion or at the written request 
of seven members of this Council. 

Abt. 8th. Nine members shall constitute a quorum 
for the transaction of business. 

Abt. 9th. The officers of this Council shall be elected 
by ballot at the first meeting in each year. 

Abt. 10th. It shall be the duty of tho Master to pre- 
side at the meetings of this Council, sign all orders on 
the Treasury, and such other duties as usually devolve 
upon that officer. 

Art. 11th. It shall be the duty of the Overseer to pre- 
side in the absence of the Master. 

Abt. 12ih. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to 
keep an accurate record of the proceedings of this 
Council, and the account with the members, and draw 
and countersign all orders on the Treasury, and have 
his books ready at any time for inspection by the Trus- 
tees or any member of the Council. 

Art. 13th. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to re- 
ceive all moneys due this Council; giving duplicate re- 
ceipts for the same, one of which shall be sent to tho 
Secretary, by the person receiving them; pay all orders 
signed by the Secretary, and allow the Trustees or any 
member ot the Council to examine his books at any 
time, and shall give bonds in such sums as the. Trustees 
may require. 

Art. I4th. It shall be the duty of the Trustees to 
employ an agent when deemed necessary by the Coun- 
cil, and who shall be confirmed by the Council, and 
shall give bonds in such sums as deemed necessary by 
tho Trustees; and whose duties shall bo defined by the 
Trustees, and who shall be paid a certain per cent, as 
may be agreed upon by the Council; the Tnistees shall 
also have a general supervision over the business of the 
Council. 

Abt. 16th. This Constitution shall be in force from, 
and after its ratification by the respective Granges of the 
county. 

Art. 16th. All Granges in this county ratifying this 
Constitution, shall bo entitled to representation. 

Art. 17th. This Constitution may be amended or re- 
vised at any regular meeting of the Council, by a vote 
of two-thirds of tho nierabers present; provliled notice 
of such change be given at least two mouths prior to 
the contemplated change. 

Resolutions. 

Resolved, That the Granges bo requested to ratify this 
Constitution and elect delegates to meet on tho first 
Monday in February, 1874, at one o'clock p. M., to effect 
a permanent organization of this Council. ' 

Resolved, That the delegation from tho various 
Granges hero assembled, consider such questions as 
may be of Interest, and appoint committees to report 
at the next meetiug of this Council. — Ucios. 



Stanislaus P. of H. Council. — We give in 
another column a report of the late meeting of 
the Stanislaus Council, P. of H. as reported 
for the Stanislaus county News. We give the 
Constitution entire as a foim for other countieB 
desiring to form county Councils. 



Addenda. — After our last issue had gone to 
press we received the following note from Bro. 
Wright: — "Since I wrote you, on tho 17th 
inst., I have learned something more accurate 
with regard to railroad distances, which you 
will please substitute in place of the figures 
sent at that time. 

"Distance from Delano to San Francisco, 
270 instead of 280 miles. From Merced city to 
San Francisco, 140 miles, the charge for wheat 
is 21 cents per cental. 

"The people here are much burdened in 
their trade ; 100 per cent, is the usual advance 
on their prices, 50 per cent, on coarser articles. 
Our people pay for many things in Modesto. 
Our purchasing arrangements, properly man- 
aged hero, would greatly assist our people. 
For the present, they have but little to ship 
except wool." J. W. A. Wbioht. 



PEEB8. 



[January 3, 1874. 




Buggins' Pork Crop. 

Farmer Buggins was a plain, staid, quiet man 
of the Old School, who lived on a little farm 
handed down to him by his father, and whose 
pride it was to cultivate his fields as genera- 
tions before him had done. His naturally fertile 
soil had become impoverished by bad tillage, 
and lack of manures; long rows of thorns and 
briars marked the lines of his dilapidated fen- 
ces; and the weatherbeaten, rickety buildings 
that domiciled himself, family and "stock," 
belonging to the past rather than to the present. 

Of course, good Old Buggins was opposed to 
• •V>/^r>l^ larnin' " and nil imnroved and scientific 



'book larnin'," and all improved and scientific 
modes of farming; and books, newspapers and 
agricultural journals were about as scarce in 
his house as applejblossoms are in the month 
of January! He had no use for them — hence 
he did not have them. His ancestors, he 
knew, got along somehow without them, and he 
could certainly do as much as they did. Some 
things he could not, however, fail to notice. 
His more enterprising neighbors tilled more 
productive fields, and their thrift and general 
comforts were immeasurably greater than his. 
He envied their fortunes, but from prejudice 
he stubborijly refused to employ the means 
that gave them the pre-eminence over him. 

He clearly saw that their cornfields yielded 
the yellow crop in much greater quantities than 
did his; their orchards produced better fruit 
and in more abundance; and their stock was of 
the finest in the country. All this he knew, 
and the question would often force itself upon 
him— what is the reason for all this? Why 
should he eke out a begi^arly living, and they 
be surrounded with comforts.and growing rich? 
That was the question that puzzled him; that 
was the problem that he smoked his clay pipe 
over for many a day, in trying to solve. But 
Buggins was blind — blind as a bat, and he 
would perish in his old boots, rather than see 
the light! 

His farm grew less productive year by year, 
and his pocket book was empty, and there was 
the tax-collector, and that note in bank, and 
Buggins junior would want a hundred dollars 
on his twenty-first birth day— where was it to 
come from ? That was just what he could not,tell 
but what he would have given a slice off his 
farm to know! At last a happy thought struck 
him, and he imagined he saw his way entirely 
out of his financial troubles, and he could do 
it too, without sacrificing his principles or un- 
dermining his prejudices. 

This is what he would do : iZe would ral^e 
hogs ! Pork was money, and hogs were pork ; 
and he could raise hogs without wasting his 
money on "stock journals." Book learning 
was not necessary in swine raising. Common 
Buggins'-sense, was all the capital tliat busi- 
ness required — and didn't he have common 
sense ? Who doubted that ? 

He would build a great rail pen, inclosing 
about five acres (he had plenty of waste land!) 
and he would stock it with hogs, feed them for 
a few months, slaughter them, take them to 
market, and carry the "greenbacks " home in 
his pocket book; and he was so elated at the 
idea, that he took out his old leathern wallet, 
but quickly returned it to ' his pocket, being 
frightened perhaps, at its consumptive appear- 
ance, and collapsed condition. His brilliant 
conception was to be put into practical shape 
at the earliest possible period. The rail pen 
was built, and farmer Buggins searched the 
country over for cheap hogs wherewith to fill it. 
Twenty odd farmers disposed of their refuse 
swine, and held notes, as pay, against the Bug- 
gins farm, which notes would become due three 
mouths hence ! 

If Noah's ark contained animals " clean and 
unclean," and in great numbers and variety, 
Bnggins' rail-pen could be likened to it ! They 
were all hogs in there, of course — that is, they 
were all " four-footed beasts, " with bristles and 
cloven feet, long snouts and the peculiar 
" squeal " that betoken the swinish race. Bug- 
gins was happy ! Buggins was elated ! But 
neighbor Simpson — who was a kind of thorn 
in Buggins' flesh — came by one morning and 
threw a "wet blanket " on the philosophy of 
hog raising according to the Buggins' theory. 
Said Simpson: 

"Good morning, neighbor Bnggins." 
"The same to you," said Buggins, removing 
his pipe from his mouth. 

"A collection of wild animals in that pen?" 
"Them — them's hogs, sir." 
"If you call them hogs, then I would like to 
know of what bretd they are?" 

•'Breed, do you say? Why, they are of the 
same breed that hogs generally are!" 

"Well, are there anjrBerkshires among them, 
for instance?" 

"I reckon not, Simpson; I bought 'em all in 
this section of connt:y. I didn't go to Berk- 
; shin lor 'em, at any rate!" 

"JjAt ns go down to the pen, neighbor Bng- 
gins, and look at your swine." 

The two farmers walked over to the rail-pen, 
the proprietor wondering in his mind what 
would be the opinion of his companion relative 
to the collection of animals to pass in review 



before him. On arriving there, Simpson broke 
the silence — 

"Ah! Buggins, you have some rare speci- 
mens in there!" 

"Yes, I would say they are rare! That rail 
fence, five feet high, as it is, hardly holds 
them! They rare right over it, whenever they 
get the least bit excited." 

"And what a variety of breeds, I must say, 
Buggins," continued Simpson. "There's the 
real ' hazel splitter' over there, with his nose 
through the fence; the "lean shank' is propped 
against the trough, and the 'lightning racer' is 
making a bee line there to the farthest corner 
of the pen." 

" The ' lightning— what did you say?" 

" Why, Buggins," continued Simpson, with- 
out noticing this last remark, "you have the 
meanest lot of hogs in there I ever saw! I 
wouldn't give you $3 per head and take them 
as they run — no, not by a great deal, I 
wouldn't!" 

"You are always a findin' fault with my 
arrangements— always, Simpson." 

" Well, I'll make amends by giving you some 
good advice." 

" Go on, and I'll listen." 

" Well, sir, steel-point hazel-splitter's nose, 
and get a patent out on him for a prairie plow, 
and you will make your fortune!" 

Buggins opened his eyes, and mouth too. 

" And ' lean shank'— just tie a knot in his 
tail, and save yourself a world of trouble." 

" How's that?" 

"The knot will keep him from slipping 
through the fence and you will not be pestered 
trying to catch him every day." 

"Come, Simpson," said farmer Bnggins, 
"vou are disposed to make fun at my expense! 
When the time comes for me to kill those hogs 
for the market, you will then acknowledge 
that I can raise pork without the aid of your 
books, and your journals, and other humbug 
appliances— just wait till then!" 

"I will," said Simpson, as he walked away; 
"and I'll be on hand with my hired men, 
hounds and fleetest horses, to help you catch 
those /ai porkers of yours; they can not be 
caught and killed in the ordinary way!" 

Buggins felt chagrined at the turn his neigh- 
bor's remarks had taken ; and he began to feel 
uneasy, too, with regard to the amount of 
money his hog speculations would be be likely 
to yield him. But he would wait, and stuff 
corn into them, and perhaps all would be 
well! 



Before the usual slaughtering time had 
come, Buggins had exhausted his corn. Then 
he tried "swills" for a week, and came to the 
conclusion that he might as well try to turn the 
Mississippi river into a stream of lard, as to 
fatten his "hazel splitters" and other choica 
breeds (!) on a "swill basis! " What little his 
hogs had gained on the corn, they seemed to 
lose on the new diet; and, as Buggins ex 
pressed it — "Them lank hogs, when they begin 
to go down hill, there's no telling where they 
will stop!" It was, therefore, determined to 
prepare the hogs for market a little in advance 
of the usual time, and preparations were made 
for the "slaughter of the innocents! " 

There was an unusual amount of hallooing 
and hurrahing, and of " running to and fro," 
in the vicinity of Buggins' rail-pen on that 
memorable day. Those hogs were fleet of foot, 
and " scary, " and the swell of blood excited 
them fearfully. "Lean shank" jumped the 
highest fence on the farm, which was quite a 
feat for a fat hog to do. And "lightning 
racer" — did you ever see a frightened deer on 
au open prairie with a pack of hounds at his 
heels ! ! Buggins, in despair, brought out his 
grandfather's rifle and opened fire on his 
porkers, and, by dint of powder and ball, suc- 
ceeded, at last, in bringing them to terms. But 
it was a great day for the boys of the neighbor- 
nood, and even Simpson seemed to enjoy it! In 
the calandar of that people the event is known 
to this day as " Bdogins' GkeatIIust." 

But the poor hog-raiser's troubles were not 
all over yet. When his pork reached the 
market, there seemed to be no special demand 
for it. A few buyers offered to take it, but at 
such a falling-off from the regular prices, that 
Buggins' heart and hopes both fell below zero: 
and then Simpson came up and made a sug- 
gestion — 

"I tell you, Buggins, yon don't seem to 
know how to sell your pork !" 

"Well, I acknowledge I don't know how to 
dispose of this lot !" 

" Have you any lard with you, Buggins ?" 
"Lard^no — why?" 

"Well, sir, a little lard would help to sell 
that pork. There not being fat enough in 
your hogs to fry them, people don't want them 
unless they can get a little lard with them!" 

"Simpson, you are too hard on a fellow — es- 
pecially when he is in distress." 

Simpson, though fond of a joke, was gener- 
ous hearted, and turning in to the aid of Bug- 
gins, he assisted him to dispose of the pork to 
the best advantage under the circumstances — 
went home with Buggins and gave him some 
excellent advice. He kindly loaned him a sum 
of money to meet his liabilities, feeling certain 
that Buggins would turn a new leaf in farm- 
ing. 

Five years have passed since that hog specu- 
lation, and now Mr. Bnggins' house is comfort- 
able; there is a small, l)ut well selected library 
in it; there are several good newspapers and 
agricultural works found on his table; his fields 
have improved, bis stock is in fine condition, 
and he is out of debt. He and Simpson are 
warm frionds. Oq each .inniversary of "Bug- 



gins' Great Hunt," there is a feast at Buggins' 
honse. and Simpson has the seat of honor at 
the table; and the host persists in saying to bis 
guest — "Simpson, them poor hogs was the mak- 
ing of me!" — Illustrated Journal of Agricul- 
ure. 

Farm House Chat. 

(Written for the Prf.sb, By Mabt Mouktain.] 

Perhaps we are partly led to think that men 
are most eager for all sorts of improvement 
because they make so much noise about it. 

Here goes Ed. Dugdale, of Griffin, Ga., to 
the Great National Panjandrum and takes out 
a patent for new coffee made of roasted Persim- 
mon seeds. There is no doubt in my mind 
that Ned's mother and grandmother knew all 
about the Persimmon coffee ages ago; but it 
takes the cute Edward to rally under Govern- 
ment protection and exact tribute for his herb- 
drink. 

Women are constantly making discoveries in 
the Domestic Kingdom that are both useful 
and ornamental; but they gushingly tell their 
neighbors and friends "all about it" and go on 
contentedly eating and drinking, and wearing 
the fruits of their patentable inventions with 
no thought of exacting royalty from anybody, 
or the privilege of a "grinding monopoly." 

In roasting and broiling and baking— in cut- 
ting and making and mending — to say nothing 
of devices in chicken-coops, and the vast field 
of fancy work, women are continually making 
nice little improvements and generally adding 
to the fund of homely and handy knowledge. 

If they should rush for a patent every time 
they discovered a new and delicious combina- 
tion of pepper and spice, or an original way of 
making old stockings over new, as Aunt Bobby 
did, or "a perfectly splendid way to spank the 
baby and not hurt him much," as a fond little 
mother truly did discover and triumphantly 
told it free gratis for nothing — but if she would 
not tell it until sacredly protected by a patent, 
there would be a howl of derision that might 
be heard, as grandmother used to say "from 
Dan to Bashaby . ' ' That is, we might ho wl or we 
might not; for we are a patient and long suffer- 
ing people, capable of bearing any amount of 
nonsense. 

When a man hits upon a new way of fixing 
his straps and buckles, and cart-wheels, and 
stable-door, actually when ho ties an old iron 
ring in the whisk of the cow's tail and thusele- 
vates that freakish member to a restful position 
during milkiug-time, he straightway sends his 
model and Bible oath or affidavid to Washing- 
ton, and gets his rights protectet under the 
broad and beautiful seal of our great and glo- 
rious country. Once upon a time there was a 
woman quick with ideas and suggestions; also 
a man rapid in practical application; and the 
fortunate result is 

The Patent Iron Gem-Pan, 
But the new and improved mixtures of dough 
to bake therein are still free for all to imitate 
and improve upon in turn. 

The first gems I knew anything about had 
no special pan, but the dough was dropped by 
the spoonful on a hot dripping-pan and rapidly 



baked. When we were all sick with malarious 
fever, nothing could so tempt the wayward 
appetite as those same tough little meal-and- 
water gems. Possibly the great original Dr. 
Graham must be credited with the first effort 
to make popular the simplest form of bran, 
meal and water. That such bread is really 
good and enjoyable when properly made of 
sweet, fresh wheat-meal, I can testify most 
heartily; but many people object that it is too 
tongb. 

Truth is, we are in such a rush to fill our 
stomachs in the shortest possible time and get 
to work again, that we demand soft and tender 
bread rather than that which might in strength 
and nourishment, become more truly 
The Staff of Life. 
Fortunately for toothless and hurried jjeople, 
the good qualities may be combined ; and Dr. 
Bellows declares that wheat-meal, stirred up 
with butter-milk, makes excellent bread, and 
especially good for children, as cont.-iining ele- 
ments most needed for the growing bones and 
muscles. 

Probably the cold water gems are best for the 
average dyspeptic, bat healthy stomachs will 
find no fault with 

The Buttermilk Gems. 
Two cups graham, two cups buttermilk (or 
sour milk ) , teaspoouf uU of salt , same of soda dis- 
solved in a spoonful of warm water — but large 
or small teaspoonfull of soda according to the 
sourness of the milk. A spoonful of brown 
sugar is sometimes added, and they should 
bake in a well heated oven abont twenty min- 
utes, or until nicely brown. 

The batter must not be thin— hardly soft 
enongh to level itself in the cups — yet D*t de- 
cidedly stiff. The happy medium that results 
in gems moist, tender and light, yet not sticky, 
will soon be discovered by that gem-of-a-wo- 
man, who never accepts a failure, but goes on- 
ward and upward with brave flourish of the 
dough-dish and the divine right to shont with 
other aspiring souls — " Excelsior!" 



The amount given above willifiU my gem- 
pans, containing eleven targe sized cups. 

For cold water gems some prefer pans with 
smaller and shallower cups, as better adapted 
to rapid baking; and oast iron pans are better 
than galvanized or tin. For the last named 
gems it is not necessary to grease the pan, but 
it must be very hot when they are put in — the 
oven also extremely hot. 

Those made of buttermilk need no such 
fierce heat, but the pan should be greased with 
a little swab of cloth tied upon a slick and 
dipped in lard or drippings. A nice mixture 
of corn meal and flour, or of oatmeal and flour, 
occasionally baked in the gem-pans, will have a 
delightful relish and all the charm of novelty. 
We must study to give such 

Variety at Tabe 
As will help to impart cheerfulness and zest to 
this terribly frequent business of eating. 

Many people who areiinclined to add graham 
to the Txsual household supplies are disap- 
pointed and finally discouraged by the inferior 
quality of meal, which is often held at higher 
price than fine flour. 

As far as our own experience goes, we have 
foudn the very meanest quality of meal put up in 
small sacks and sold at big prices ; but as that was 
an exceptional experience it must not be allowed 
to discredit the whole "small sack" business. 
There is a growing intelligence among Califor- 
nia millers upon this subject, and although it 
causes them some extra trouble to put up a 
good article they will generally be found ready 
to respond to any persistent demand; and I 
think nearly alt our large mills put it up regt:- 
larly in 50 i> sacks. 

In making first-class graham meal the con- 
ditions are: first, a superior quality of wheat 
thoroughly dry and clean; second, a sharp 
s'.one thnt will cut the hulls finely and evenly 
so that there are no coarse, offensive flakes of 
bran. 

This last condition would not suit the thor- 
ough-going Grahamite who likes his bran big and 
rough and plentiful that it may properly 
scourge and punish the rebellious stomach. I 
have seen it stated in Eistern publications that 
graham cannot be kept sweet for any length of 
time and that the best way is to purchase 
clean bran and mix with fine flour as required. 
Here is a chance for a little "California 
brag;" for we have more than once laid in 
yearly aLd half-yearly supplies of graham from 
the great Golden Gate Mill, San Francisco, 
and the last sack was as good as the first, and 
the whole most excellent. 

We never have trouble with corn-meal heat- 
ing as it used to "at home;" and I have some 
buckwheat flour two years old that seems as 
sweet and good as when first brought from the 
mill. 

Oatmeal also keeps well if really fresh when 
first obtained, and the same is true of cracked 
wheat and hominy. 

But hold! The benefit of this "brag" can- 
not be given to the whole State. 

Up and down the great interior there is a 
little bug or weevil that troubleth the keeper 
of grain, ground or nnground; but as yet no 
such pest appears in this region. 

Ah, blc^:sed and beautiful S.inta Cruz! No 
bed-bugs, no mosquitos, no grasshoppers, no 
fleas "to speak of, and the old-fashioned fire- 
place in nearly every house! 

We plead guilty to but few destructive agen- 
cies; just a gopher now and then, an occasional 
squirrel, plenty of morl^tges, and a modicum 
ot starvation for cattle. 

Possibly there is another trouble or two — 
but since that lovely snow-storm and plentiful 
rain upon the just and unjust, we look hope- 
fully forward while we 

"Count our bleRAingR o'er »nd o'er 
Aud tbtnk the Lord (or such a store: " 



A Lost Population. — About a thousand 
years ago, a colony of Icelanders was planted 
on the western coast of Greenland. They 
were hardy people, inured to cold and meager 
living, and there seemed to be no reason why 
they should not take root in the frozen soil of 
their new home. They bnilt a stone church 
there and stone houses to live in, of which the 
ruins are still to be seen. But what became of 
the builders is a question that has never been 
solved, and never will be. They vanished 
from the face of the earth, and that is all that 
is known. Whether cold or pestilence or star- 
vation took them off, or whether wandering 
savages killed them, no man can tell. Their 
settlement is known in history as Lost Green- 
land. — Ind. Age. 

Spoils of Wab. — It will give some notion of 
the vastness of the spoil of war that has fallen 
into German hands, irrespective of the pecuni- 
ary indemnity, when it is stated that the share 
of gun metal from captured cannon allotted to 
Bavaria alone, as the due of her two army 
corpp, amounts to no less than 460 tons. Of 
this King Louis has ordered fifty tons to be 
distributed to certain parishes, to be turned 
into church bells they are in need of. The 
rest is handed over to the Bavarian Govern- 
ment arms foundry, for future conversion into 
German guns. 

CmcuLAn LiTHooRAPHic Stonk. — Mr. C. 
Maurice, of New York, has invented a form of 
lithographic stone for direct printing, which 
promises to effect a complete revolution in the 
art. He boldly discards the ordinary flat stone, 
and by the use of diamond stone-working ma- 
chinery produces a solid cylinder, from which, 
of course, impressions may be taken with 
greater facility and rapidity. 



January 3, 1874.] 



* UsEfllL l^pOi^^i^TIO''- 



Preservation of Wood from Decay. 

Mr. Herman Haupt, C. E., ha» made the 
subject of the preservation of wood a special 
study, with results which cannot fail to be of 
great practical benefit to all wood consuming 
interests. The immense quantities of timber 
employed in the construction and equipment 
of railroads, and for various other purposes 
where it is exposed to conditions peculiarly 
favorable to decay, has long made some cheap 
and eflfective process for preserving it a much 
needed preliminory to its use. To meet this 
want numerous processes have been devised, 
all of which are more or less defective either in 
efllciency or economy, or both. These attempts 
have taken various shapes, but in most of them 
the aim has been to introduce some sort of 
preservative material into all parts of the 
woody mass. The first requisite of any suc- 
cessful process in the material, which must not 
only possess the necessary antiseptic proper- 
ties, but also be capable of taking a fluid or 
vaporous form, in order that it may readily 
enter the pores of the wood; and while solu- 
tion of corrosive sublimate, sulphate of cop- 
per, or chloride of zinc seem to answer the 
purpose very well, Mr. Haupt considers that 
dead oil, a product of the distillation of coal 
tar, is, all things considered, best adapted to 
meet the requirements of the case. 

The next and most ditficult point to be attained 
is the introduction of the preservative liquid 
into I he interior of the wood; but an absolute 
essential preliminary to this is the removal of 
the air and the moisture which the wood al- 
ready contains, as neither fluids nor vapors can 
enter its interstices in anything like the re- 
quired quantity when they are already occupied. 
In practice it is found necessary to extract the 
air and water, and replace them with the an- 
tiseptic materials by a single operation, as di- 
viding the two involves exposure of the timber 
to the air, which would again rush in and fill 
the place of that before withdrawn. In the 
Bethel proces.^ dead oil is used, and the opera- 
tion is conducted in a single tank made of 
boiler iron. At the bottom and sides of this 
tank are numerous pipes for heating by steam. 
"The timber is placed on an iron car and run 
into the tank. The tank is filled with dead oil, 
which is then heated by the steam coils. A 
pressure of one hundred pounds per square 
inch is applied by means of a hand-pump. A 
thermometer is used to note the temperature. 
The duration of the process is twelve hours. 
Timber twelve inches square is fully impregna- 
ted, as is proved by boring holes. An air- 
pump is also used in connection with the opera- 
tion, no doubt to remove the escaping air and 
steam, and relieve the pressure white the wood 
is being heated in the oil." 

This is the most efi'ective process for pre- 
serving timber from decay that is now known; 
but it is liable to strong objections, which have 
thus far prevented its coming into general use 
in this country. The wood takes up about its 
own weight of oil, or somewhere between three 
and four gallons per cubic foot, which is be- 
lieved by Mr. Haupt to be about one hundred 
times as much as is needed to prevent decay, 
and which, of course, involves enormous cost 
as well as enormous waste. Then wood thus 
saturated is exceedingly inflammable, a condi- 
tion which makes it highly unfit for railroad 
or ship-building purposes. Regarding the 
theory of the process as correct, the dead oil as 
far superior to anything else as a preservative, 
the author proposes to get rid of these objec- 
tions by introducing a smaller quantity of oil. 
To accomplish this he suggests the use of an 
apparatus consisting of two tanks, instead of 
one; " one a receiver corresponding to a retort, 
in which the material can be placed and sub- 
jected to the action of heat, the other a con- 
denser, in which all escaping vapors can be 
condensed and a vacuum maintained during 
the process in both vessels." Suitable means 
for establishing and maintaining a vacuum be- 
ing provided, the next step is the application 
of heat in the receiver by means of steam 
pipes. 

The water in the pores of the wood is thus vap- 
orized, and together with the air that is present, 
escapes, the water being got rid of by means 
of the condenser; and should the vacuum be- 
come vitiated by the escape of air from the 
cells, it may be improved by the use of an air- 
pump. ' 'When sufficient time has been allowed 
for the wood to dry thoroughly, cocks must be 
opened connecting the bottom of the receiver 
with a tank of dead oil at a lower level. As a 
vacuum exists in the receiver, the atmospheric 
pressure will force up the oil, and the timber 
will be immersed in the fluid. When the im- 
mersion has continued a sufficient length of 
time, which also must be determined by care- 
ful experiment, cocks may be opened at the top 
of the receiver to admit air. The oil not ab- 
sorbed will immediately flow back to the tank 
from which it was taken; the air, pressing upon 
the exterior of the cells which are partially 
filled with oil, while a vacuum exists in the in- 
terior, will force the oil before it, and thus coat 
in its progress the interior of the cells. It is 
probable that in this way a sufficient amount 
of dead oil may be introduced into the cells to 
prevent fermentation and decomposition while 
still far below the point of saturation, and the 
process may prove rapid and economical." — 
TaitU and Oil Trade. 



Waterproof Pasteboard. — One of the cheap- 
est and most eS'ectual coverings to render wood 
perfectly waterproof, and increase its durability, 
and which will impart to pasteboard the ap- 
pearance and strength of wood, is that employed 
in many ways by the Chinese, according to 
tests made with a sample sent from Pekin by 
Dr. Scherzer. It may be prepared as a slightly 
viscid fluid, fit for immediate use, by stirring 
into three parts of fresh serum of blood (or 
defibrinated blood) four parts of dry slacked 
lime and some alum. It should be laid on 
twice, or at most three times, in order to ren- 
der articles perfectly water-proof. 



The following is given as a soap soluble in 
sea water : Oil or fat, 40 parts; resin, 10; fish 
glue, 40; soda or potassa, 1; oxalate of potassa, 
1. The oil and resin are saponified as usual, 
but with an excess of alkali; the glue previously 
rendered gelatinous by solution in oxalate of 
potassa, is then added, and the whole heated 
with constant stirring to 50 degrees or sixty 
degrees 0. 

Black Bronze pok Brass. — Dip the article 
bright in aquafortis ; rinse the acid off with 
clean water, and place in following mixture till 
it burns black : Hydrochloric acid, 12 lbs. ; 
.sulphate of iron, 1 lb.; pure white arsenic, 1 
lb. Take out, rinse in clean water, dry in saw- 
dust, polish with black lead, and then lacquer 
with green lacquer. 



Solder. — A correspondent of the Emilbih 
Mechanic writes : " Solder of excellent quality 
is to be obtained from the joints of old sardine 
tins or meat tins. I believe it is almost pure 
tin. I have not analyzed any of it, but from 
the way it preserves its luster, it must be very 
much richer in tin than ordinary solder." 



Detkction of Water in Etherial Oils. — 
Oils distilled with water from plants contain 
water, although they may appear perfectly 
clear. On mixing such oils with an excess of 
so-called benzine, a cloudy efi"ect is produced 
by the precipitated drops of water. — American 
Chemist. 



To Assist the Sight. — Persons of defective 
sight, when threading a needle, should hold it 
over something white, by which the sight will 
be assisted. 



QooD He^^^tH- 



Health and Comfort in House Bull ding 

Dr. John Hayward, Vice-President of the 
Liverpool Architectural and Archaeological So- 
ciety, lately read a paper on Health and Com- 
fort in House Building, before the Royal Insti- 
tute of British Architects, which merits atten- 
tion. It will be noticed that Dr. Hayward re- 
fers throughout to the climate of England. 
Though wo do not have the same degree of cold 
here in California, we make up for it in damp- 
ness, and hence the conditions are similar. 

Dr. Hayward lays down eighteen conditions 
in house building as absolutely necessary in a 
sanitary and medical point of view, some of 
the more important of which are due exposure 
to fresh air and sunlight, positive freedom from 
damp, a large cubic space for air, and abundant 
means for the escape of the foul and the ad- 
mission of fresh air. He also shows that it is 
essential that the air should be warmed pre- 
vious to admission. Indeed, he maintains that 
ventilation is the great and main necessity of 
house building; that whatever be left undone 
that should be especially attended to; and as in 
this country, owing to the nature of the cli- 
mate, doors and windows can rarely be left 
open in the day and never by night with safety 
to health, it is necessary to provide specially 
for ventilation. And first as to the temperature 
of the admitted air. No contrivance that com- 
municates directly with out-of-doors air, he 
considers, can possibly answer in a country like 
ours. This is especially the case as respects 
bedrooms, which are often very improperly 
constructed and arranged, so that the sick oc- 
cupant has to be in winter in a current of air 
passing between the doorway and the fireplace, 
from 28° to 350 jn temperature, while the tem- 
perature of his body is 08^ or 99-^. To this, in 
ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, patients in 
this country are expose-.t, and the evil is inten- 
sified when the bed has to stand between the 
fire and window, and the beating draught is 
with the out-door air. 

To these unpropitious bedrooms Dr. Hay- 
ward holds may be traced very many cases of 
consumption, bronchitis and asthma. In fever 
cases much fresh air is required, and some- 
times endeavor is made to obtain it even by 
opening the doors and winaows, so that many 
typhus fever patients die of pneumonia, and 
many rheumatic fever cases are prolonged and 
complicated; and with all their knowledge and 
care medical men cannot prevent these evils, 
because of the defective construction of bed- 



rooms and ever of hospital wards. And it is 
not only patients in acute diseases who sufi'er 
from these imperfect architectural arrange- 
ments. Most persons occasionally take cold, 
and in the majority of instances the cold falls 
on the respiratory organs, as influenza, sore 
throat, or bronchitis, when the temperature of 
the air respired afi'ects very materially the pro- 
gress of the case, whether it shall be mild or 
severe, whether it shall be curable or fatal. In 
acute bronchitis the temperature of the air re- 
spired should never be lower than 65" ; but 
how is it possible to obtain this temperature in 
ordinary bedrooms in winter, when bronchitis is 
most prevalent ? And even when it is ob- 
tained by well-fitting windows and doors and 
large fires, matters are not much better, for 
the very means taken to obtain warmth exclude 
fresh air, and subject the patient and his at- 
tendants to the evils of foul air. And draughts 
are equally pernicious in sitting rooms, where 
persons may be roasted on one side and frozen 
on the other, resulting m neuralgia, rheuma- 
tism, colds, coughs, asthma, consumption, and 
a long train of cognate human ills, and the 
chilly lobby contributes materially to these 
evil results. 

The dangers of the water-closet system are 
forcibly expounded, the author showing that in 
many cases the supply of fresh air to a house 
is obtained principally through the water-closet. 
"This is one of the evils that our improved 
architecture and building have increased, if not 
absolutely provided for us. The water-closet 
opens into the lobby; the front door is made to 
fit as tightly as possible to prevent cold draughts, 
and this prevents fresh air coming in from the 
front ; whilst, with well-fitting intermediate 
doors to shut off kitchen smells, the admission 
of fresh air from the back of the house is pre- 
vented. These arrangements make the lobby 
into a chamber, with the termination of the 
main drain opening into it through the water- 
closet." In winter time the fires in the living 
rooms suck in the poisonous gases and disease 
germs through the closet-pen out of the drains. 

After a passing reference to a partial remedy 
for such an untoward state of matters, Dr. Hay- 
ward proceeds to unfold his general and com- 
plete remedy for the evils enumerated, which is 
concisely defined as "Ventilation with warm 
air by self-acting suction power." His first re- 
quirement, which he holds to be an absolutely 
fundamental condition of a healthy and com- 
fortable house, is an ample supply of fresh and 
agreeably warm air in the lobbies, corridors, or 
other central spaces out of which the rooms of 
the house open or draw their supply; this is 
provided for by a tubular pipe at the entrance 
opening, or somewhere in the lobby. The next 
thing is the admission of this air into the 
rooms, for which special outlets are provided, 
controlled by valves to accommodate the sup- 
ply to the partial occupation of the room. The 
abstraction of the vitiated air is managed by a 
separate flue from the ceiling of every room 
and water-closet, and from every gaselier in the 
house, terminating in a common chamber per- 
manently heated, and communicating with a 
shaft, which may be let into the kitchen flue, 
and must be so proportioned to the size of the 
house as to empty it of air three times every 
hour, and as often will the whole house be re- 
plenished with fresh air. This plan has been 
tried, proved completely successful, and very 
cheap. A few details superadded. Dr. Hay- 
ward concludes : "Finally, I am sure it is the 
warmest house in winter and the coolest in 
summer ; the most airy and fresh, and at the 
same time the house that is freest from cold 
draughts in this country, if not in the world ; 
and from personal experience of the comfort and 
advantage of living in a house built to live in, 
and of the discomfort of living in houses built 
for gain, I do not hesitate, in reference to 
ordinary houses, to vary the well-known epi- 
gram, and say that ' Knaves build houses, and 
tools live iu them.' " 



ESJIC EcQflOIlY* 



Floriculture and Hygiene. 

A writer in the Rural Carolinian gives the 
following facts in confirmation of the sanitary 
value of flowers : "In August, 1866, I bought 
a small house in the upper part of Charleston, 
in a locality where fevers were of frequent oc- 
currence ; I at once set to work, drained as 
much as possible the lands around the house, 
and laid out the grounds for a flower garden. 
My friends warned me, and predicted that 
before the end of the year I would leave the 
locality on account of the prevailing fever. I 
did not mind them, but kept steadily improving 
my property. During the winter I had planted 
a great many rose bushes, oleanders, shrubs, 
etc., as also a few fig and peach trees. In the 
spring I planted a great many summer flowers, 
as well as lavender, mint, etc., and wherever a 
small space was left I planted sunflowers. 
The consequence was, that although several of 
my neighbors were down with fever, I escaped 
with my family entirely, and have not had a 
fever to this day. Several of my neighbors 
have followed my plan, and the locality is now 
almost entirely healthy." 

It is not improbable in this instance that the 
draining of the ground should be credited with 
a part of the good results ; but there is no 
doubt that the odorous emanations of plants 
and flowers, or the ozone generated thereby, 
will do much to neutralize or destroy the mias- 
mata of malarious districts. The cultivation of 
flowers in such localities, will therefore be 
found a valuable auxiliary to other hygenic 
measures. 



Improved Buckwheat Pancake. 

Buckwheat pancake is an article largely 
used; but as generally prepared, it is not fit to 
serve up at any table. It is heavy and distress- 
ing to the stomach. Though the batter may be 
light, yet when it gets on the griddle it is apt 
to fall and become the heavy and indigestible 
thing we find it. Not unfrequently it is sour. 

Now, all this may be obviated, and a light, 
palatable cake made, with a little care, by the 
addition of Graham flour mixed with the buck- 
wheat, the propartion of Graham being a little 
over a quarter. Mix the flour to keep on hand 
ready for baking.' When wanted to be used, bring 
to a batter with buttermilk. Other sour milk 
will not do; it must be milk from the churn- 
and it wants to be quite sour. Raise with soda 
and bake at once. The first baking will in 
general not be satisfactory; it will lack light- 
ness. Still it will be better than the usual 
pancake. Now, leave what batter remains in 
a warm room. This will somewhat raise it; 
and the cake the next morning will be im- 
proved. Another twenty-four hours' exposure 
to the warmth, say of seventy or eighty de- 
grees, and there is still further improvement. 
After that there will be little difSoulty. 

It is best to have the batter, when it reaches 
the stove, as cold as possible without freezing. 
The soda will then have little or no efi'ect till 
the heat of the griddle sets it in motion, baking 
the paste as it rises. It wants a hot fire, so as 
to bake rapidly. The cake then will be brown, 
and as light as a sponge, and very tender, 
almost melting in the mouth. It causes no 
distress whatever, but digests readily and is 
healthful — medicinal somewhat, which results 
from the coarse Graham flour mixed with it. 
It is highly relished, and may be eaten two or 
three times a day, and the year through, 
though it will be less light in summer than in 
winter, yet palatable and agreeing well. It is 
our own mode, invented by ns after long 
tedious experiment. The object was to get a 
lioht palatable cake, and at the same time com- 
bine the medicinal virtue of the bran. Care 
must be exercised at first. Dissolve the soda 
in water, mix with the paste and bake at once. 
We have used this cake for many years, and 
use no other. Try it; but be patient at first.— 
Country Oentleman. 

Article of Food prom Cider. — Among the 
notices of recent patents we find the following, 
granted to Mr. Mahan, of Vermont: In making 
the said composition this inventor takes five 
gallons, for instance, of cider, as it comes from 
the press, and put the same into a suitable 
boiler, after which he mixes it with two table- 
spooniuls of flour and the whites and yelks of 
two to four eggs, first thoroughly compounding 
the flour and the yelks and whites of the eggs. 
Next, the temperature of the mixture of cider, 
flour, and the fluid matters of the eggs should 
be raised to a boiling heat, or about such, after 
which ten to twenty-five pounds of sugar are 
to be added, and the whole agitated or stirred 
up until thorough dissolution of the sugar may 
have taken place. Next, the solution is to be 
raised to a boiling temperature and skimmed, 
the boiling and skimming being continued un- 
til a sufficient evaporation may have taken 
place to reduce the liquid to the requisite den- 
sity. After this the liquid should be strained 
and put into bottles or suitable vessels for pres- 
ervation, use or sale. If desirable, the product 
thus obtained may be flavored with any proper 
essence, essential oil, or matter, the whole 
when completed, answering for various purpo- 
ses in cookery, as well as being eaten on bread, 
or of being used as a sauce for puddings. 

Peppers. — Seed the peppers from the top; 
make a brine strong enough to bear an egg, 
pour it boiling hot on the peppers, and let 
them stand until they are yellow. Take 
them out and put them in cold water for 24 
hours. Then boil your vinegar, adding to each 
gallon one ounce of alum ; throw your peppers 
into the boiling vinegar, and take it immedi- 
ately off, and let them stand ten or fifteen min- 
utes, and put into jars; when cold tie them up. 
No spices necessary. 

Cheese Toast.— Take a slice of good, rich, 
old cheese, out it up into small pieces, put it in 
a tin or iron stew-pan, and to one cup of milk 
add three eggs; beat eggs and milk together and 
pour on the cheese; set it on the stove, and 
when it begins to simmer, stir briskly until it 
orms a thick curdle, then pour over the toast 
and carry to table. 

To Remove Grease Stains from Wood.— 
Spread some starch powder over the grease 
spots, and then go over it with a hot flat-iron 
till you draw the grease; then scrape with glass 
or a proper scraper, and repeat the starch pow- 
der and hot iron. Ammonia liquid may be used 
as a finish, if the starch does not take all the 
grease out. 

Good Corn Meal Pitddino.— Stir the meal 
into^scalding skim milk, till it is thick as gruel, 
and, when cool, addginger,cinnamon, nutmeg, 
salt, and sweetening to suit the taste, and a 
little fine cut suet, and some raisins or dried 
peaches, and a fine cut apple. It should bake 
an hour or more according to size. 



WA^mm mwrnsM* wmmm. 



[January 3, 1874. 




PDBLiaBED BT 

DEZVTEIY <Sk GO. 

X. DBWII. W D. KWKB. a. H. BTBONO. J. L. BOOHI. 

KMonriL Editob W. B. EWER, A. M. 

OrFiCB, No. 338 Montgomery street, 8. E. comer ol 
O»liforni» street, where friends and patrons are Invited 
to our 801KNTIF10 Pbess, Patent Agency, Engraving and 
f rlntlDg establishment. 

SUBSCRIPTION AND ADVERTISING RATES. 

BUBSOBIPTIONS payable in advance— For one year (i; 
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names or more $3 each per annum. $B, in advance, will 

fay for 1 H year. Remittances by registered letters or 
. O. orders at onr risk 
AsvxBTiBiNa Ratm.— 1 werJc. 1 monOt. 3 monlM. 1 yar. 

Perllne 2S -80 $2.00 $8.00 

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Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
teadlng notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper. 
Inserted at special rates. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, Jan. 3, 1874. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

OENERAL EDITORIALS.— A veling & Porters 
Boad Locomotive; Our Jute Maniifactures, Pagre 1. 
Fourth Year of the Pacific Rural Press; Wool Growing 
in Fresno County; Beet Sugar at Anaheim; To Our 
Patrons; Hen-houses ou RunniTs; Wheat in the 
Southern Counties, 8- Hop Culture; Charles Hop- 
per; The New Motor; Notii-es of Recent Patents, 9. 
Patents and Inventions, 16- 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— A veling & Porter's Road Lo- 
comotivi\ Adaptfilto Direct Traction Steam Plowing, 
1. Horizcintnl Hop Yard: Charles Hopper, 9. 

CORRESPONDENCE. — Irrigation and Summer 
Fallow; Good Crops or Poor; Laying Hens: Eggs and 
High Prices; Jute Experiment; California Raised 

HOME AND FARM. — Farmers' Grindstones: 
FarmerK as Mechanics, 3- 

THE ORCHARD.— Gathering ol Ripe Fruit: How 
to Make tiraftiug Wax: Apple Barrels, 3. 

PATRONS OP HUSBANDRY.— Progress of the 
Patrons in California; New Granges; Meetings; Etc., 
4-5. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various coun- 
ties in California and Nevada, 12. 

HOME CIRCLE.— BuKgins" Porlt Crop; Farm House 
Chat; A Lost Population; Spoils of War; Circular 
Lithographic Stone, 6. 

USEFUL INFORMATION. — Preservation of 
Wood from Decay: Waterproof Pasteboard: Blacli 
Bronze for Brass; Solder; Detection of WateriuEthe- 
rial Oils; To ASBist the Sight, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH -Health and Comfort in House 
Building: Floriculture and Hygiene, 7- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Improved Buckwheat 
Paucalie; Article of Food from Cider; Peppers: Cheese 
Toast; To Remove Grease Stains from Wood; Good 
Corn Meal Pudding, 7. 

GOATS. — Mohair and its I'ses, 10. 

THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. — Onion Rais- 
ing; Depth of Covering Seed; .Asparagus and its Cul- 
ture; Potato Raising in the United States; Are all Po- 
tatoes Alike Liable to Attack? 10. 

WHEAT, ETC. — Changing Seed; Qualities of 
Wheat; Fultz Wheat. 10. 

THE IDAIRY.— Butter; Large, Medium, or Small 
Sized Cows; liran and Ciim Meal for Cows, H. 

MISCELLANEOUS— Revival of Manufactures, 2. 
What 1 See on tiie Streets and Elsewhere; Depth of 
Lake Tahoe; Smoke CouBuminu; A Wonderful Agri- 
cultural Miichine, 3. San Jose Farmers' Club, 12. 



On Fii^e. — Silk Culture in California; Sher- 
man Island; Two Little Poems; Letter from St. 
Inez; Note from Riverside; and, A Slight Mis- 
take. 

We aokmowledoe receipt of a hanging basket 
of flowers on Cbristma Day, from A. D. 
Pryal's nursery, Oakland. 

Fourth Year of the Pacific Rural Press. 

The publishers of this Journal design making its 
weekly issues during its fourth year (1871) still more 
acceptable and valuable than those of the past. To 
accomplish this, we propose to furnish 

More Editorial Labor; 

Better Prepared and Condensed Reading; 

A Greater Variety of Contents; 

Contributions from our now More Experienced 
Writers; 

Uniformly Better Ink and Paper; 

Uniformly Better Press Work; 

A Choic« Selection of Engravings; 

A Complete, First-Class Journal; 

A Journal Worthy of Its Field; 

A Paper Worthy of Its Patrons. 
We shall strive to make it an ever welcome visitor to 
those who desire to constantly 

Improve the Heart and Mind, 
And shall give a larger space to our Home Circle de- 
partment, which from the first has been a popular fe»> 
ture of the Rdbal. 

Our aim is to gather Information from all reliable 
Bourceft, in the varied forms in which it is to be obtain- 
ed. Ooiirork is to divest our gleanings o I allsnper- 
flnitiea; condense such information as U of most im- 
portenoetu our special class of readers— give it to these 
in the plklnest and fewest words possible,- saving 



their tim( by our labor. Thus we will render well 
prepared and 

Seasonable IntelUgrence, 
Devoid of useless verbiage. Our 

Leading Departments 
Will be continued under the following heads: 
The Home Circle, , The Horse, 

Young Folk's Column, The Swine Yard, 

Short Stories, Sericulture, 

Home and Farm, The Vegetable Garden, 

Useful Information, The Flower Garden, 

Domestic Economy, The Vineyard, 

Good Health, The Orchard, 

The Dairy, Tropical Fruit^, 

The Apiary, Small Fruits, 

Poultry Notes, The Cereals, 

Horned Stock, Pasturage, etc. , 

Sheep and Wool, Fertilizers, 

Ooats, Miscellaneons. 

Practical Farmers 
Know how important it is that the above subjects 
should be treated from a local standpoint— that gen- 
erally the farming tactics of the East will not do for 
this coast, that agriculture, in its infancy here, can de- 
rive greater benefits from an exchange of experience 
through the columns of the press than In older fields. 
Constantly observing and studying developments In the 
special field we represent, we can be expected to give 
truer Information on agricultural subjects, than more 
general writers at home or abroad. 

Our Travelinir Correspondents 
Will do much seri-ice by gathering a large amount of 
interesting information from various parts of the Coast, 
which, but for their research and practiced observation 
might never be placed on record or reach the eye of the 
reading public. Of our many 

Local Correspondents 
We have particular reason to be proud. No paper on 
this Coast— old or new — has ever been so higlily favored 
with volunteer contributions. They are talented, reli- 
able. Independent and generous representatives of an 
intelligent and enterprising people, noble types of good 
humor, unselfishness and true progress. 

Short Stories, 
Original and selected, will hercafttir appear in each 
number. Their selection, we trust, will bo such as to 
render them popular and unobjectionable to all. In 
addition to a large number of 

Fine Engravings, 
Representing Choice Stock, Farm Products, Scenery, 
Remarkable Productions, Improvements in Farming 
Implements and Machinery, Works of Art and the 
Beautiful in Nature, we shall from time to time present 
the modest 

Faces of Prominent Farmers 
Who, as pioneers in the development of agriculture on 
this Coast, or as active laborers in the "Farmers' 
Cause," are worthy of the distinction they enjoy, and 
the favor with which they are looked upon by our 
many readers at home and abroad. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 
We shall continue to give our weekly summary of 
matters connected witk the interest and progress of this 
growing and important movement. Wo shall aim to 
give information as fresh as possible in this depart- 
ment. Its readers are aware that the RinuL has been in 
the lead in calling farmers to organize. We shall con- 
tinue to work zealously with the Granges for the noble 
objects of the Order. 
The present is an 

Important Period 
In the history of our Coast. The coming 12 mouths 
promise greater developments in its agricultural pro- 
gress than has been experienced in any previous year. 
Agriculturists are alive to improvements in every direc- 
tion, and those who would keep up with the spirit of 
the times should certainly read the Rubai, Press. 

The 8. F. Market Reports 
Will receive greater attention in the department of 
Domestic Produce than that of any other weekly Jour- 
nal. Wo shall spare no pains to render the reiwrts as 
reliable and complete as possible. By the employment 
of our special reporter we hope to make this very im- 
portant part of our paper one of its best and most satis- 
factory features. 

Kind Words and Acts 
Have done much to build up In this isolated and 
sparsely settled coast so large and complete an agricul- 
tural journal as the Pacific R(;r.il Press. Wo com- 
mence the new year with a regular circulation of 

Over 5,000 Copies, 

A far greater issue than that of any weekly on this 
Coast, independent of a daily publicitiou. If our 
friends will continue to •' help us help ourselves," we 
hope to reach a circulation of 8,000 this year, and do a 
correspondingly greater service of good. While we have 
the greatest advantages and can make by far the best 
weekly for 

Agriculturists on This Side of the Continent, 
We cannot expect one-half so large a circulation as jour- 
nals in older and more populous districts. Consequently 
readers cannot rightly expect such a paper here at East- 
ern rates. 

No Premiums But a Good Paper 
Do we offer. A flashy chromo (or cheap map), 
with an ill suited paper, will hardly satisfy the farm- 
ers of this Coast, whose time is too precious for trifling. 
To many of yon the benefit of a reliable and valuable 
paper should reach a hundred fold its cost, while to 
all a poor journal would be dear at any price. 

Sample Copies Furnished Free 
On receipt of stamp for postage. 

Agrents are Wanted 
Who will do more or less active canvassing. To such 
we will furnish free samples and pay liberally for their 
scrrloes. 



Terms of Subscription : 

One year (payable in advance) (4. 00 

Six months a.25 

To Oranges and Farmers' Clubs, furnishing lib- 
eral club lists, $3 per annum. 

DEWEY i CO., Publishers. 
Office, No. 338 Montgomery i^treet, San Francisco. 



Wool Growing in Fresno County. 

Among the foot-hills of the Sierras, between 
the San Joaquin and Chowohilla rivers, is 
located one of California's wool-growers, Mr. 
E. J. Hildreth, and, of coursp, a patron of the 
RuBAL. Mr. H. is the possessor of about 
13,000 acres of land, and owns 12,000 sheep. 
He sold a band of 5,000 a few days ago. Has 
just built a fine wool-house, which is believed 
to be the best in the State; a description of it 
may interest other wool-growers. The dimen- 
sions are as follows: 72 feet square on the 
ground. The wool division is 72 by 25 feet, 
12 stalls each 6 by 18 feet; each stall will hold 
about 60 sheep; there is' one small door in 
wool-barn end of stall; one large door in the 
other end of stall opening full width of stall (6 
feet) and closing the passage q{ same width, to 
allow more sheep being driven in to the shear- 
ers; each stall is numbered; the space for the 
unsheared sheep is 72 by 12 feet; two doors (6 
feet each) opening inwards, allow ample room 
for driving in more of the unsheared from the 
corral, which is 50 yards square, at south end 
of the barn; the barn is 16 feet high; shearing 
portion of roof sloping down to 12 feet from 
the ground. Cost of wool-house about $2,000. 

Mr. H. has built a water-tank large enough to 
hold 2'1, 000 gallons, built on a raised foundation ; 
a Davis wind-mill supplies the tank with water, 
which is used for irrigating garden and sup- 
plying stables, one of them 150 yards, the other 
350 yards from tank; it also supplies the wool- 
house with water to use in doctoring sheep. 
Mr. H. complains of the extortions of the rail- 
road company and their unjust disciimination 
against wool-growers. He says that it costs 
more to get his wool to San Francisco by rail- 
road than it did by teams before the railroad 
was built, and is now thinking of fitting out 
t«ams to hiinl his wool to Stockton. 



Beet Sugar at Anaheim. 

A few weeks since we were in receipt of a 
communication from Wm. R. Olden, of Ana- 
heim, in which he mad^the suggestion that 
probably lands in that vicinity would be found 
well adapted to the growth of sugar beets for 
sugar making. We have been carefully exam- 
ining his reasons as set forth, and as we claim 
to be well posted in beet sugar making in Cal- 
ifornia, having personally inaugurated the 
Sacramento Valley Beet Sugar Company, and 
now largely interested therein, we have arrived 
at these conclusions: 

That the quality of the soil is all that can be 
desired. It simply wants the artesian wells 
mentioned by our correspondent, to secure a 
certain amount of irrigation iu unfavorable or 
very dry seasons. The advantage that would 
pertain to the undertaking, in being able to 
plant and gather beets every mouth of the year, 
can hardly be estimated. 

It would enable the company to keep a steady 
force of hands and the necessary teams in con- 
stant use, and therefore to much better advan- 
tage than is now done where the entire planting 
is done in only one or two months. The 
sugarie could also be run the year round, at an 
immense advantage over that of a four or five 
months' campaign, as at present at Alviao or 
Sacramento. 

We have our doubts whether beets ripening 
in December and January, even at Anaheim, 
would contain that high percentage of sugar 
which those would, ripening under a more ver- 
tical sun ; but we could spare these two months 
and dry beets enough in August to be worked 
for sugar in that state, to carry the sugarie in 
constant operation the whole year. There 
should be a beet sugarie at Anaheim. 

Fish Hatching in China. — A curious mode 
of fish hatching is said to be followed in China. 
Having collected the neccss&ry spawn from 
the water's edge, the fishermen place a certain 
quantity in an empty hen's egg, which is sealed 
up with wax and put under a sitting hen. Af- 
ter some dnys they break the egg and empty 
the fry into water well warmed by the sun, 
and there nurse them until they are sufficiently 
strong to be turned into a lake or river. 

Ebuoe Cobrected. — In a communication ap- 
pearing in our Nov. 1st issue, regarding the 
preparation of strychnia for poisoning squirrels 
— instead of three, eight ounce bottles, it should 
have read -we think — three eighths of an ounce 
bottle. 



To Our Patrons. 

It seems hardly necessary, and yet weHeel 
rather inclined to remind a portion of our old 
subscribers whose term of subscription expired 
with our last number, that the beginning of the 
New Year and New Volume is most opportune 
for a renewal of subscription. 

From this number of the Rural and that 
wbich is next to follow, our readers can form 
something of an opinion of the future merit of 
our enterprise. In aid to our own endeavors 
and to add to the interest of the Rubal's col- 
umns, we invite our old and new correspond- 
ents to send forward their usual valued and in- 
teresting contributions for our next number, as 
we shall issue a large number of extra copies 
with extra reading matter, tu be circulated 
broadcast over the world. 



Hen-houses on Runners. 

A call on Mr. Baxter, ou the Merced plains, 
about ten miles southeast from Flaiusburg, 
will disclose the following novelty in the method 
of growing hens for the production of eggs 
and chickens. 

He has ten hen-honses built of wood, of 
light material, 8 feet by 12 feet and 9 feet high. 
They are placed upon rnnners of sufficient 
strength, so that the buildings can be drawn 
from place to place upon them with horses or 
oxeu. They are set at various distances apart, 
and as often as the ground under the bouse 
becomes unclean, instead of the usual cleaning 
and renovating process, he hitches on his team 
and in three minutes, house and hens, nests, 
eggs and roosts are on new, clean ground. 

The hens are allowed free range over all the 
outside grounds, and yet each knows its own 
home as well as bees do, where numerous 
hives are kept in close proximity. One hun- 
dred hens are kept in each house, or a thousand 
in all, and to the present time he has not lost 
by disease a dozen in all, during the year. 

Mr. B. is evidently a model chicken grower. 
Moving bis houses is equivalent to spreading 
the manure evenly over the field. He secures 
the perfect health of his hens and gets more 
eggs from the same number of hens than any 
other known egg producer. And lastly, as a bit 
of advice to all chicken keepers, he says : Have 
all your roosting poles in the houses on the 
same level, that is, have no one higher than 
the rest, for hens will fight till they tear all 
their ftathers out to get Ihe highest roost. 

Wheat in the Southern Counties. 

From the southern counties we learn of the 
almost unexampled prospect of the wheat crop 
for the coming season. Summer fallows, that 
were early sown, awaiting the hoped for rains, 
are already green with the new blade, and the 
thousands of acres dry sown upon fallows and 
dry plowed lands, are every where full of prom- 
ise. 

If the broad area this season sown upon 
lands fitted for seed in the manner mentioned, 
should make a favorable crop at the coming 
harvest, no one can hardly place a limit to the 
quantity of land that hereafter will be sown 
under like conditions. 

If we can go on fitting our land for wheat, 
through all the months of summer, when to 
stir the ground is death to all weeds, and have 
it ready for sowing just before or during the 
first autumn rains, it will be adding just bo 
much to our capacity for supplying tb« world's 
wheat market. 

This waiting for rain to soften the ground so 
that we can plow, with from ten to a hundred 
horses waiting in the stables upon costly feed, 
and hands enough to guide them the moment 
the ground is wet to the depth of four inches, 
is at best an expensive idleness of animal and 
manual power, which makes a wide difference 
in the margin of the year's profit account. 

And here is just where steam labor should 
come in; we want a motor to drag onr plows 
that won't constantly be eating us up when not 
at work, and Californians are not going to rest 
satisfied till they find one that will answer 
their purpose. 



Thk Pactfic Monthly. — We have received 
a late copy of this San Francisco Monthly, 
which appears quite creditable to its amateur 
publishers. Masters Harry K Dore and Paul E. 
Vandor. Its columns are mostly filled with 
original matter. Young men who show a zeal 
to accomplish such a work should be encour- 
aged. 



January 3, 1874.] 



IIWI 



m 



'm^ 



Hop Culture. 

We have been hoping to hear something 
from one or more of our California growerfi 
on the subject of hop culture in our peculiar 
climate — peculiar as regards its effect on the 
quality of the hop and method of culture — but 
our most successful growers seem altogether 
chary of communicating their views on the 
Bubject. 

Soil and Situation. 

Any good corn land, if properly located and 
climate favorable, ought to produce good hops. 
As a general rule, alluvia of rivers are good 
hop grounds, but they can be successfully 
grown on uplands, if not subject to gales of 
wind . The hop-yard should have a free ex- 
posure to the sunshine, and in a climate as 
free as possible from fogs. 

Planting Time. 

The ground should be well manured in 
autumn, if an old, impoverished land, but river 
bottoms seldom require this. A deep and 
thorough plowing should be given in the fall, 
and in early spring, depending upon the sea- 
son, again made completely fine and in perfect 
tilth by plowing and harrowing. 

It should now be marked off with the plow 
into squares, the corners being eight, nine 
or ten feet apart, depending upon the strength 
of the soil. 

Sets for Planting. 

These are taken from the hills of old vines, 
and are called runners. Three or more of 
these sets nre then put into the ground at each 
corner, their bottoms inclining outwardly, and 
covered to a depth to secure them from drying, 
and with moisture sufficient to secure their 
growth. 

The hop being'a dicecious plant, or one hav- 
ing the staminate or male flowers and the 
pistilate or female flowers on separate plants, 
there should be about one male plant to every 
eight hills each way, or one to every sixty-four 
hills throughout the yard. These hills should 
be marked when set, that they may always be 
easily distinguished whether in bloom or not. 
Cultivation. 
The cultivation the first year consists mainly 
in keeping down all weeds and the ground soft 
and mellow . Some devote the space between 
the rows to crops of potatoes, beans, or other 
hard crop, whilst others prefer to leave it fal- 
low; but kept free from weeds with plow or 
sultivator. If the sets are strong and an early 
growth is secured, it will generally pay to raise 
a crop the first year, and the plants will be all 
the better for it. 

Set one stake to each hill as soon as the sets 
show signs of starting, or when the' ground is 
first laid off, as most convenient. The poles 
need not be more than 7 or 8 feet above 
ground for the first year, as they will "hop" 
better than on longer ones. 

Some use no stakes the first year, but the 
produce will pay for all the trouble, and serve 
to keep the vines up out of the way of the cul- 
ture of the intervening spaces. 
Horizontal Poling. 
We give an illustration of a mode of hop 
training, adopted in many places where the 
cost of the ordinary poles, from their scarcity, 
is very considerable. Instead of poles 16 or 18 
feet in length, to be taken up and reset every 
year, short and stout poles 8 feet long in each 
hill, and from the top of these, strong twine or 
small hempen cord is fastened, making a com- 
plete net work over the whole field, as repre- 
sented in the cut. 

The hills having the male plants, should 
have a long pole 18 or 20 feet above ground, 
but disconnected from the general system, be- 
cause they are liable to be swayed by violent 
winds. By allowing the male plants the taller 
poles, their pollen is more evenly and certainly 
distributed over the whole yard. 
Training. 
When the vines are up two or three feet, all 
such as have not taken kindly to the poles 
should now be brought to the poles, twisted 
around them the way the sun goes — as they 
will not run the opposite way — and tie lightly 
with any kind of soft string, and the vines will 
immediately take care of themselves. But, as 
often as they incline to straggle at a less hight 
than near the top of the poles, they should be 
retied. 

Cultivate the ground often and well, keeping 
down all weeds, and with a fair season, a 
largely remunerative crop may be expected or 
not, depending more on the condition of the 
crop in Europe than any amount, more or less, 
that may be produced in all North America. 

The gathering of the hop and fitting for 
market, may well form the subject of a future 
writing. 



Charles Hopper. 

As we enter upon the first week of a new 
year, in which the future now seems full of 
hope and promise, it occurs to us as a fitting 
time, to go back into the past and review for a 
moment one of the reminiscences of early days 
in California; and in no better manner can we 
do this, than in presenting the likeness and a 
brief biographical sketch of one of our early 
pioneers. 

Mr. Charles Hopper was born in North Caro- 
lina, A. D. 1800. He set out in May, 1841, for 
California, with a party of thirty men, one 
woman and one child, from Jackson county, 
Missouri. John Bartleson was Captain of the 
company, which was increased to seventy-five 



orous as a man of twenty, and his eye-sight is 
as keen as ever. No one stands higher as a 
conscientious, true-hearted and generous man, 
whose word is inviolable. He is universally 
respected, and is afifectionately called " Uncle 
Charley ' ' by all who know this brave old 
pioneer. 

The New Motor. 

On our first page we give a very fine engrav- 
ing of a new motor about being introduced to 
California for public favor. That we want 
something to take the place of the horse in the 
culture of our immense and every year in- 
creasing wheat area, no one can for a moment 
question. 

If the one we here illustrate, will take hold 




HORIZONTAL HOP YARD. 



before starting, by another party commanded 
by Captain Fitzpatrick, bound to Oregon, and 
which separated from Captain Bartleson's com- 
pany at Soda Springs, near Fort Hall. Mr. 
Hopper reached California the same year and 
describes San Francisco, then called Yerba 
Buena, as follows: 

" It was a miserable place— nothing but a lot 
of sand-hills, a little trading port of the Hud- 



of half a dozen plows or a common cultivator 
running six inches deep — no reference to the 
chisel cultivator in this instance — and drag it 
through our lands when in condition for plow- 
ing, and then when that is done, turn right 
round and cross plow, seed and harrow the 
same, and do it at less cost than it can be done 
with horses, then it is just what we want; but 
if it cannot do this, nor go upon the road and 




CHARLES HOPPER. 



son Bay Company. There was one hut, said 
to be a sort of tavern, and Col. Chiles and I 
went in and called for something to eat. The 
landlord said, ' Gentlemen, I have nothing in 
God's world to give you, but will look around 
and try to get you some beef.' Well, he did 
get some after a while, and broiled it for us. 
That was the kind of accommodations you got 
in San Francisco in those days. It's a little 
different now I" 

Mr. Hopper returned to Missouri in 1842 by 
way of New Mexico, and in 1847 returned to 
California with his family. He then purchased 
a large farm on the Caymus Grant from Mr. 
Yount, upon which he still resides. His early 
life was spent as a trapper and hunter in the 
great wilderness between the Mississippi and 
the Pacific, and many are the hair-breadth es- 
capes which he has experienced, from the sava- 
ges and the fury of the elements. He cor- 
roborates Mr. Yount as to the great number of 
grizzly bears in this region, having killed no 
less than nine within a mile of his house in the 
summer of 1848, and seen great numbers of 
them. Bear hunting seems to be his favorite 
sport, and he still sometimes takes the field 
against them, when tired of the monotony of 
in-door life. He is apparently as hale and vig- 



draw our produce to market cheaper than 
horse teams or railroad can do it, why then we 
don't want to be troubled with it. 
The proprietors of the Aveling & Porter mo- 
tor should bring one of the machines here, 
come themselves with it, as Parvin did with the 
Parvin motor, call upon the best mechanics, 
and the most scientific farmers, and editors of 
the first papers of the State, to witness what it 
can do, and then the public will know some- 
thing of its merits; until then we can express 
no opinion. 



PtowiNQ Down Grass. — Notwithstanding the 
utmost pains and care in plowing, the grasses, 
especially if long, will bristle up beards and 
tufts here, there and everwhere, injuring alike 
the appearance of the growth. Do you wish to 
remedy this great difficulty ? If so, use the 
chain and ball to your plow. No matter what 
kind of a plow you have, try them. A piece of 
ordinary trace chain will do very well. Fasten 
one end of it to your coulter and to the other 
end attach a round iron ball of two to three 
pounds' weight— leaving the chain long enough 
to permit the ball to r'-ach V)ack to about the 
jQiddle or the mould-hoard, and there let it 
drag along, on the offside, of course.— C'ajirtcirt 
FamuT. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the Patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Go's. Minino and Scientii'ic Press 
American and Foreign Patent Agency, the fol- 
lowing are worthy of mention : 

Wire Eope Tramways. — C. W. E. Bunster, 
Valparaiso, Chili. This invention relates to ' 
an improved pulley for supporting the endless 
wire rope which is used lor transporting sub- 
stances from one place to another, and it con- 
sists of two puli^s, each of which is provided 
with inclined fingers forming an inverted coni- 
cal series of fingers. The two pulleys are so 
arranged that their fingers interlock and serve 
as teeth to drive each other, and also to sup- 
port the wire rope in the angle formed by their 
covering each other. By this means the load 
can be depended in a direct line below the wire 
rope, and the hanger or connecting rod will 
pass between the fingers of the pulleys readily. 
Hydraulic Elevator. — Philip Hinkle, San 
Francisco, Cal. This patent covers a novel 
application of hydraulic power for raising and 
lowering a cage or platform for hoisting pur- 
poses, and is especially useful for operating a 
passenger hoist. One or more cylinders are 
mounted on wheels, and the wheels move on a 
track similar to an ordinary railway track. 
Each cylinder is provided with a stationary 
piston and hollow piston rod. Water is ad- 
mitted between the stationary piston and end 
of the cylinder through the hollow piston rod, 
so that the pressure causes the cylinder to 
travel on its track and raise the cage or plat- 
form. By releasing the water from the cylinder 
the weight of the descending cage will draw the 
cylinder back to its first position. 

Sheep Shears. — Andrew S. McWilliams, Co- 
lusa, Cal. Mr. McWilliams provides ordinary 
sheep shears with an elastic thumb plate and 
rest upon one branch of the shears and finger 
saddles upon the opposite branch, so that the 
operator will have a better grasp upon the 
Shears, while his fingers and thumb, being pro- 
vided with convenient and neatly fitting seats, 
will not become fatigued by the operation of 
shearing, while they also form guards and pre- 
vent accident to the fingers and thumb. 

Steam Plow. — P. J. McDonald, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. In this invention Mr. McDonald 
combines the English Fowler system of oper- 
ating steam plows with the American system 
of dragging a series of plows after a traction 
engine over the field. Mr. McDonald provides 
an ordinary traction engine with ways or guid- 
ing beams extending twenty or thirty feet 
upon each side of the engine. The plows 
to any desired number are mounted upon these 
ways and are drawn by a rope towards each 
other and towards the engine. After making 
each cut of forty or sixty feet, the plows are 
hauled back along the ways by another rope to 
the outer end of the ways, ready to make an- 
other cut. While the two gangs of plows are 
in the ground and moving towards each other, 
the engine remains stationary, but when the 
plows are being hauled to the outer ends of the 
ways, empty, the engine moves forward to the 
proper position to give the plows a new land. 
The main driving shaft is driven uniformly in 
one direction by the engine, and the changes 
of motion necessary to move the plows back 
and forth along the ways, are accomplished by 
ingeniously arranged mechanism, which is very 
simple and effective. Thus the engine alter- 
nately moves forward into position and remains 
stationary, while the plows are working, cut- 
ting a land of forty or sixty feet in width as it 
proceeds according to the length of the ways 
employed. 

Saddle for Wire Bopeways. — Thomas M. 
Martin, San Francisco, Cal. This invention 
relates to a saddle for supporting the load upon 
wire ropeways, which is provided with an in- 
side lining of india-rubber, for the purpose of 
giving great adhesion to the rope, as well as a 
perfect seat of the saddle upon the rope. 

Type. — William Shaw, Hollister, Monterey 
Co., Cal. This invention is intended for the 
benefit of printers, and it consists in making 
types with a small shoulder at some point of 
their length, so that in correcting a "proof" any 
letter can bo roadily removed by inserting a 
thin bodkin having a hook formed on its end, 
so that the hook will catch upon the shoulder 
and allow the type to be raised vertically with- 
out disturbing any of the adjoining type. 

Scrubbing Brush and Mop Combined. — J. D. 
Smith, Sacramento, Cal. This invention is 
intended to benefit housekeepers, and it con- 
sists of a very neat long handled scrubbing 
brush, which is combined with a mop cloth so 
that the entire operation of scrubbing, mopping 
and wringing the mop cloth can be done without 
knee work, as is usually necessary in order to 
do good work . 

Device fob Unloadino Header Wagons. — 
Richard Threlfall, Centervillo, Cal. Heretofore 
header wngoushave been unloaded by means 
of forks operated from a swinging derrick or 
crane, but this method is too slow to keep the 
threshers supplied with a uniform feed. Mr. 
Threlfall proposes to spread a netting or other 
fabric over the bottom of the wagon bed and 
fill the grain into the wagon bed upon the net- 
ting, and when it is desired to unload the grain 
the corners of the netting or fabric are gather- 
ed together, and the crane employed for lifting 
the entire load out at one operation. 



10 



[January 3, 1874 



Qo^TS. 



Mohair and its Uses. 

As growing mohair promises very short- 
ly to become an important industry on the 
Pacific coast, a few facts and figures con- 
cerning that industry may prove interest- 
ing to some of our readers. Until within 
the last few years the production of this 
clothing material has been confined chiefly 
to small districts of Europe and Asia — 
Angora, in Central Asia Minor, being the 
principal one. The world's production of 
Angora fleece amounts to only about 7,000 
000 pounds annually, as shown by statis- 
tics, and it is asserted on good authority 
that the mohair manufacturers number 
but eleven in the entire world. A com- 
parative monopoly on th e part of the pro- 
ducers has been the consequence, and a 
corresponding monopoly on the part of 
the manufacturers the result. Hence the 
fabulous prices of mohair goods. Of 
these eleven manufactories of mohair 
goods, not more than two or three are in 
the United States. The proprietors of 
one mill in Providence,, Rhode Island, 
imported in 1868 seventy thousand dol- 
lars' worth of machinery for the exclusive 
purpose of working up Angora fleece. 
Within a year after starting they had con- 
sumed all the fleece that could bo obtained 
in the country, being the accumulation of 
ten years among wool dealers, besides 
importing '20,000 pounds from Asia Minor, 
and still they are short of the needful sup- 
ply to keep their machinery in motion. 
Within the last three years more than fifty 
difi"erent new varieties of mohair goods 
have been produced by American manu- 
facturers and introduced into the com- 
merce of the world. These include 
■watered camlets,, possessing a beauty 
and brilliancy of surface unapproached 
by fabrics made of luster -wools, 
and barely rivaled by silks, decorative 
laces, buttons, braidings, coat trimmings, 
light and durable cloths of elegant tex- 
ture and repellant of water, light, lustrous, 
rich articles of dress for tho wealthiest 
ladies of fashion, and possessing an un- 
equaled gloss, softness, strength and du- 
rability. In France a kind of lace is now 
made which is substituted for the very 
costly fabrics of Valenciennes and Chan- 
tilly, said to be cheaper, more durable, 
»nd equally beautiful. Utrecht velvets 
have been for some years made in the 
same country, and more recently in En- 
gland, for hangings, furniture trimmings, 
linings of carriages, fringes, tassels, etc. 
Ten pounds of this hair thus manufac- 
tured have been known to bring at retail 
five hundred dollars, while the best 
shawls made in Prance and the East from 
mohair warp, using the fur for tho weft 
or filling (tho hair giving strength and 
durability, and the fur warmth and soft- 
ness) sell at retail at enormous prices 
from 8500 to 82,500, The skins of the 
young goats are frequently dressed for 
furs, colored or not, and used for trim- 
mings, for the costliest ladies' dresses, 
cloaks, etc., and for muffs and tippets. 
A single skin thus dressed has been known 
to sell for from 825 to .§100. Besides 
the fabrics made exclusively from mohair, 
it is used in Irish poplins, brocades, and 
in the famous cashmere shawls. In Amer- 
ica the insufficiency of home production, 
the existence of a monopoly on the part of 
foreign manufacturers, and the exorbitant 
price of the raw material, have all con- 
spired to discourage the manufacturers. 
Special machinery with expert workmen, 
commanding high wages, are required, 
and these cannot be set ufj, and employed 
with profit, when the price of the raw 
Taateri&l is three dollars a pound —a, vrice 
the proprietors of a mill in Lawrence, 
Masschusetts, refused to pay only a short 
time ago, stopping their machinery rather 
than submit to the extortionate demands 
of the foreign producers and dealers, and 
being unable to procure in this country 
an adequate supply. By a calculation the 
natural increase of 5,000 ewes reaches in 
ten years the enormous number of 386, 713. 
The sales of wethers and ewes (old) from 
time to time during this period amount to 
8943,000, allowance being made for selling 
all the wethers, and 10,000 old owes the 
seventh year; 37,711: the eighth year, and 
39,028 the ninth year. The fleece, count- 
ing from the second year, (the first year's 
being valueless) amounts in nine years to 
951.162 pounds. Its value, estimated low, 
at CO cents per pound for the second, third, 
and fourth years; at 80 cents for the fifth, 
sixth and seventh years; and at $1 for the 



eighth, ninth and tenth years, amounts to 
a total of 8877,959.40. Sum up these re- 
sults and we have the following: 

Value of -wether* and ewes sold $643,000 00 

Value of -wool Bold ■ 877,959 40 

Value of stock on hand tenth year (75,000 
ewes at $10 each) 750,000 00 

Grand total $2,270,959 40 

Liberal margin has here been allowed 
for expenses, losses, and all reasonable 
contingencies, first, by throwing ofi'25per 
cent, of the natural increase; second, by 
deducting from the count the 5,000 com- 
mon goats to start with; and the third, 
by making low estimates of sales of fleece 
and stock. The increase of the Angora is 
never less than 100 per cent., often reach- 
ing to 150 per cent. The ewes bear when 
one year of age; and when the practice of 
"breeding to points" is carefully pursued, 
each succeeding generation improves in 
quality and increases iu value in propor- 
tion to its grade. Hence, by retaining 
all the females as long as they continue 
good breeders, and marketing only the 
males, the ranchero gets the benefit of an 
increase which, in a few years, attains an 
apparently fabulous figure. — Colorado 
Agriculturist. 




Onion Raising. 

Does it pay to raise onions ? I have heard 
a great deal about the profits of the busi- 
ness, and have been told that on suitable 
land they could be grown for seventy-five 
cents a bushel while they were almost sure 
to sell for a dollar, and sometimes bring 
twice that sum — these and similar things I 
have heard in favor of growing this parti- 
cular crop. The past season I have been 
giving it a practical test. Owing to the 
drought I did not get more than two-thirds 
as many onions as I should if the season had 
been favorable. The best spots on my 
piece yielded at the rate of about two 
hundred and forty bushels per acre. Al- 
lowing this to be two-thirds of a crop it 
would give three hundred and sixty bush- 
els. Some claim to obtain a great many 
more, even as high as nine hundred bush- 
els an acre, but many good growers admit 
that an average yield, on good land, with 
good cultivation, will not exceed four 
hundred bushels. Of this, if a man does 
not own land, one-half is to be given for 
its use. The one who hires the ground 
furnishes the seed and does all the work 
even to preparing for the market the half 
which pays for the use of the land. In 
the four hundred bushels which he ob- 
tains he will probably find from twenty- 
five to thirty bushels of small ones, 
which are worth not more than seventy- 
five cents per bushel. But suppose we al- 
lo-n' full price for all, place the crop at 
four hundred bushels, and call them worth 
a dollar a bushel when ready for mar- 
ket, and sold at the barn without expense 
for moving. This is allowing more than 
the average grower, in an average season, 
will be likely to obtain, and makes no es- 
timate for losses in any way. At the 
price which the best seed commanded last 
spring it would cost him sixteen dollars 
for seed. To take good care of an acre of 
onions would require the work of one 
man for five months, and he would need a 
sower and a wheel hoe. A man who 
would take good care of an acre of onions 
would be worth for common farm work, 
twenty-six dollars per month, or forty 
dollars per month if he boarded himself. 
At the close of the season he would find 
himself with two hundred dollars' worth 
of onions on which he had done two 
hundred dollars' worth of work, and paid 
sixteen dollars for seed, besides furnish- 
ing tools with which to work. For the 
last two months of tho fall he would be 
out of work and that at a time when labor 
does not command a high price. 

Now allowing nothing for tho risk, 
which is very great, and taking it for 
granted that he obtains a good crop and a 
fair price, we see that a man will not 
be likely to hire land and make onion rais- 
ing pay. If ho cannot, can the owner of 
the land profitably engage in the busi- 
ness ? My own experience with this crop 
has been a great deal of work for little 
money. — Practical Farmer. 



es and lima beans, such plants especially 
as push up the shells of the seed itself, 
find it difficult to force their -way up 
through much depth of earth, after it is 
packed down by rains. A quarte-, or half 
an inch at most, is quite siifiicient for 
these seeds. Care should be taken that 
no lumps of earth be left over them. We 
like long rows of beets, carrots, parsnips, 
etc., and don't believe in wasting half the 
laud in useless paths and walks, with short 
rows running crosswise. Long rows are 
more easily worked and kept clean than 
short ones. We should study economy 
both on tho farm and in the garden. On 
the field the too frequent turnings consume 
much time in plowing, and to some extent 
this is so in the garden. — Mass. Plough- 
man. 



Depth of Covering Seed. — As a general 
rule, the smaller the seed the lighter 
should be the covering. We are very apt 
to cover too deeply. Nature hero is safe 
to follow. She covers lightly. The seed 
fall from the ripened stalk upon the sur- 
face of the ground, to be covered only 
with leaves, or to be washed into tho soil 
by tho rains. Onions, parsnips, sqnash- 



Asparagus and its Culture. 

To raise asparagus from seed, sow in 
rows, one foot apart in a finely pulver- 
ized soil, well enriched with old manure. 
Keep tho bed perfectly clean and mellow, 
and the young plants will be large enough 
to set out after one season's growth, and 
will be much better than plants two, or 
even three, years old that have grown fee- 
bly from a want of proper care. 

To obtain plants enough for an acre, 
five or six pounds of seed will be required, 
which will give 15,000 or 16,000 plants for 
this purpose. For setting out finally, the 
ground should be well plowed and sub- 
soiled, so as to give a deep bed of mellow 
earth, and well enriched with manure, 
worked in by plowing and harrowing. In 
setting out the plants allow i)lenty of 
room; a common en or is in planting too 
closely, especially if the beds are deeply 
dug. It is better to give more horizontal 
space, and the shoots will be large and 
fine. For extensive plantations, the rows 
should be about three feet apart, and 
plants not nearer than nine inches in the 
row. Stretch a line, cut a trench beside 
it seven or eight inches deep, or deep 
enough to receive the plants, and set them 
nine inches apart, spreading out the roots 
evenly, and covering the crown about two 
inches below the surface. This -work 
should be done as early in the spring as 
the ground can be got ready, and the 
plants will make a better and stronger 
growth than when planted later. Then, 
to save labor, and have a clean plantation, 
go over the whole surface with a rake ev- 
ery few days, and stir the whole surface 
well, which will break and destroy the 
young weeds as they are just peeping at 
the surface. If the rows are marked, this 
work may be done more rapidly with a 
horse and a light and fine-tooth harrow (a 
smoothing harrow would be best), the 
teeth of which will not go down more 
than one inch. A common harrow will 
not answer at all. As the young sprouts 
approach the surface, which will be in 
two or three weeks, the cultivation must 
be confined between the rows, and any 
weeds in the rows pulled out by hand. — 
Cultivator. 

Potato Eaisino in thb United St.\tes. 
— According to the last decennial census. 
New York is the "Banner State" in the 
amount of Irish potatoes produced, return- 
ing the enormous yield of twentyeight 
million bushels; Pennsj'lvania follows with 
nearly thirteen million, Ohio with eleven 
million, Illinois and Michigan each with 
ten million, Maine with nearly eight mil- 
lion, Wisconsin with six million, Iowa, 
Indiana, and Vermont each with upward 
of five million, and New Jersey and New 
Hampshire with more than four and one 
half million bushels. The particular 
parts of the country which yield the most 
according to tho area cultivated are Maine, 
New Hampshire, Vermont, and Northern 
Now York. Tho best potatoes, also, come 
from these States, as the millions of bush- 
els shipped to the Southern States each 
year will attest. 



Are Aiiii Potatoes Alike LiabiiE to At- 
tack ? — During the course of our inspec- 
tion, we frequently met with gardens and 
fields containing two or more kinds of po- 
tatoes, and observed in many instances 
one sort was very much more aflfected by 
the insect than others. Tho Meshannock 
is particularly liable to attack, while the 
Early Rose and Peach Blow are less so; 
but where the latter are the only varieties 
planted, those insects do not hesitate to 
devour them. The only practical sugges- 
tion we can make in reference to this 
point is, that it might be well to plant a 
few of such sorts as are most liable to be 
injured, so as to attract the larger propor- 
tion of the insects to one spot, and thus 
enable the cultivator to destroy them with 
less labor and expense. — Colonial Farmer. 



WHe^T; ^TC. 



Changing Seed. 

If farmers were always carefal to sow 
none bat plump grains, of pure seed; that 
is, seed of one variety, unmixed, we see 
no reason why they should change their 
seed. Where seed of a good variety is 
mixed with seed of a variety inferior in 
quality, but of greater vigor, tho more 
vigorous kind will gain upon tho better 
kind, and the quality will deteriorate. 
Also, when inferior, shrunken grains are 
sown the wheat must dett^riorate; but 
•where pure, plump grains are always sown 
upon soil in good condition, we do not be- 
lieve that there is anything in the seedbed 
that should aS'ect the quality, or constitu- 
tion of the wheat. We have known in- 
stances where farmers have carefully saved 
the most perfect ears of seed corn for a 
succession of years, and the quality of the 
variety has improved. We believe, that 
if equal care were excercised iu saving 
seed wheat, the result would be similar. 
We do not doubt that benefits have result- 
ed from changing seed, but we suspect 
that it was where a careless farmer bought 
his seed of a more careful one. 

We would advise, where a change is 
made, procuring seed from a better and 
cleaner soil, and we should consider tbia 
of greater importance than a soil of difi"er- 
ent texture or composition. 

We should prefer seed already adapted 
to the climate, and we should change just 
as often as our seed became poor. — Rural 
Home. 



Qualities of Wheat. — A subscriber, 
in New Haven, wishes to know whether 
England or America raises the best wheat. 

Reply. — If price is to be taken as a guide 
to quality, we may say that California 
wheat IS better than England wheat. Wo 
find the following latest quotations in , 
the English papers, viz.: "English wheat, 
fifty-two to sixty-three shillings per quar- 
ter of eight bushels; the best English 
white wheat, (Essex and Kent,) sixty- 
seven shillings; California wheat, sixty- 
six shillings." California wheat may, 
therefore, be considered better than the 
general run of English and equal to tho 
best of it. at least so far as price goes. 
But millers in England often pay a high 
price for a very dry, hard foreign wheat, 
such as California, because it helps their 
soft wheat to grind better and yield more 
flour. So, after all, this may be an ex- 
treme case. The price of ordinary Amer- 
ican wheat in England is now fifty-five to 
fifty-nine shillings per quarter. This is 
mainly No, 2 Chicago or No 2 Milwaukee 
— reallv inferior grain. Ordinary Eng- 
lish wheat is quoted fifty-three to sixty 
shillings. It may be concluded that there 
is no appreciable difierence between these 
wheats. — T/wies. 



FuLTz Wheat.— In Yates county. New 
York, a carefal experiment was made by a 
correspondent of the department with Fultz 
and Treadwell wheats, with reference to 
testing their respective merits. During 
the summer of 1872, an eight acre field of 
gravelly loam, which had been cultivated 
the previous year in fodder-corn, was sum- 
mer fallowed. The field was manured in 
1871 and 1872, in the latter year the ma- 
nure plowed under at first ploughing. 
Under a plot of one-eighth of an acre of 
this ground, five quarts of Fultz were sown 
broadcast, September 10, 1872. Treadwell 
was drilled upon the remaining part of the 
field September 18th, at the rate of two 
bushels per acre. The former was har- 
vested July 7th, and yielded four and a 
quarter bushels, or thirty-fold upon its 
seed; the latter was harvested July 25th, 
and yielded twenty bushels per acre, or 
ten-fold upon its seed. 



All who are perfectly acquainted with 
tho subject must have seen that the best 
crops of wheat are produced by being pre- 
ceded by crops of clover grown from seed. 
I have come to the conclusion that the very 
best preperation, the best manure, is a 
good crop of clover. A vast amount of 
mineral manure is brought within reach 
of the corn crop which, otherwise would 
remain in a locked up condition in all the 
soil. Tho clover plants take nitrogen 
from the atmosphere, and manufacture 
it into their own substance which on de- 
composition of the clover roots and leaves, 
produces abundance of ammonia. In 
reality, the growing of clover is equiva- 
lent, to a great extent, to manuring with 
Peruvian guano. — Pro/. Vockler. 



January 3, 1874.] 



TfiE D^if^Y- 



Butter. 

The milk of a cow or other female mam- 
mal is seen under the microscope to con- 
sist of a clear fluid, containing a number 
of minute oil globules. If a drop of acetic 
acid (purified vinegar) be added, many of 
the globules will be seen to coalesce and 
form little granular masses of fat. The 
globules are enclosed in a delicate mem- 
brane which the acid seems to break 
down. This result is accelerated by agi- 
tation. The operation of .churning con- 
sists in agitating the milk till the globules 
adhere together, or, as it is technically 
called, till "the butter comes." It was 
formerly thought that the cohesion of the 
butter-globules was brought about by the 
formation of an acid in the milk, as shown 
by the sourness of the buttermilk, even 
when the cream used is perfectly sweet. 
But it has been found that if this acid is 
neutralized by bi-carbonate of soda, the 
butter will come quite as readily. The 
best temperature for churning has been 
found by experience to be between 50° and 
56°, Fahrenheit. 

Butter, chemically, is a mixture of fats, 
being composed of glycerine, in combina- 
tion with palmitic, stearic, oleic, and 
small quantities of capric, caprylic, caproic 
and butyric acids. It is to the glycerides 
of the last four acids that butter owes its 
peculiat odor and flavor. In practice, 
butter always contains more or less but- 
termilk which has not been separated from 
it. This buttermilk consists of water 
holding in solution a kind of sugar called 
milk sugar and casein, or the substance 
which forms curds, and from which cheese 
is made. This casein difi'ers from the 
other constituents of milk by containing 
nitrogen, and like all nitrogenous organic 
bodies, is very liable to putrefaction. If 
the casein contained in the butter becomes 
putrid, it will communicate its decom- 
posing condition to the. other constituents 
of the butter, and hence the latter will be- 
come rnncid. Rancidity consists in the 
separation of the fatty acids mentioned 
above from the glycerine with which they 
are united in the fresh state, which separa- 
tion brings out the peculiarly iinpleasant 
taste, smell and other properties of these 
acids. Intimately connected as this pro- 
cess is with the presence of readily 
putrescent casein in the buttermilk re- 
tained in the butter after churning, it be- 
comes a most important object to get rid 
of this most injurious impurity — an impu- 
rity far worse in its influence on the 
preservation of the bntter than many an 
adulteration, the detection of which would 
be fatal to the sale of this important pro- 
duct. Too much stress cannot bo laid 
upon the care which should be taken to 
free the butter from the buttermilk by 
the ordinary methods of washing with 
water, kneading, etc. In addition to these 
methods, the admixture of a proper pro- 
portion of salt. One quarter of a pound 
of salt to six pounds of butter has been 
recommended for this purpose. Another 
method of preserving butter is as follows: 
The butter is melted in a vessel immersed 
in hot water, and the heat continued until 
all the curdy matter has subsided to the 
bottom and the butter is transparent. The 
clear melted butter is then poured off, 
or strained through a cloth, and cooled 
by cold spring water or ice. Batter cured 
in this way is said, if kept in a cool place, 
or in a close vessel, to keep for six months 
or more, as sweet and good as when first 
prepared. There has been much discus- 
sion recently in England on the subject of 
the adulteration of butter, the detection 
of some of the ingredients fraudulently 
added being very difficult. The usual 
adulterations comprise water, salt, and 
various kinds of fat, such as lard, suet and 
dripping. The water and salt are added 
by melting the butter and pouring them 
in while it is in the fluid state. By stir- 
ring round until all is cold, the salt and 
water are thoroughly incorporated with 
the butter. The presence .of ihe water 
may be ascertained by placing the butter 
in a common four-ounce phial, and put- 
ting this into hot water until the butter 
melts. On standing, the water sinks to 
the bottom, while the butter floats at the 
top. To determine the presence of a fraud- 
ulent quantity of salt the butter is calcined, 
when the salt is left as an ash. Of course 
butter always contains a certain propor- 
tion of water and salt; but there should 
not be more than 1 per cent, of the former, 
and 5 per cent, of the latter. — Canada 
Farmer. 



Large, Medium, or Small Sized Cows. 

The larger a cow may be, the better she 
is— provided she has the necessary organ- 
ization to constitute her a first-class milk- 
er, but large sized cows are not very likely, 
as a general rule, to possess the requisite 
qualities which go to make up the best 
milch cow, but the reverse is generally 
the case, that in the organization of a large 
sized cow she is better adapted for beef, 
and therefore less profitable for cheese or 
butter. The difference between a large or 
small sized cow, in case neither are very 
good cows, would be in favor of the small 
cow, if kept for a series of years as milkers, 
on account of the less amount of food con- 
sumed by her; and observation will justi- 
fy the positive conclusion in case a large 
sized cow is only a tolerable milker, 
that the cheese and butter made from her 
milk do not pay for her feed, and con- 
sequently instead of being a profit is worth- 
less to her owner. There has been a desire 
for many years among dairymen, either 
in the raising of cows or in the purchasing 
of them, to obtain a small or undersized 
cow; it being the general opinion, all 
things considered, that she is the most pro- 
fitable, and, consequently, dairymen, when 
they could do so, obtained the small sized 
cow, and in this way quite a contrast in 
the size of cows now kept as compared 
with those that were formerly kept, can 
easily be seen. 

In this selection, for quite a number of 
years, of small cows, much loss has occur- 
red to dairymen, and that too, without 
they, as a general thing, being aware of 
the fact; but nevertheless it is so, that a 
dairy of cows is much inferior in milking 
qualities to the dairies formerly kept, nor 
is this the least bad effect in making the 
small cow less profitable, for in this con- 
tinued selection of stock, in size has not 
only dwindled down to an inferior kind in 
the formation of a cow, but she is so de- 
generated from various causes, that she 
does not last over two-thirds the time she 
ought to as a milker. 

If medium sized cows were raised or 
purchased by farmers which possessed the 
right points for a good multiplier, these 
cows would not only last longer but there 
would be other advantages gained over 
the small sized cow, for in her superior 
constitution less care would be required 
in keeping her; and she would also pos- 
sess less tendencies to disease. 

There is a law in physical science of 
universal application in the whole animal 
creation, and it cannot be violated with 
impunity without serious results, and this 
law has an exact aiiplication where the 
effort is made to so breed stock that when 
all the natural elements are not developed 
the physical equilibrium is lost; and as 
an inevitable consequence degeneracy and 
premature decay are the natural result. 
Nature has no law save the one that gov- 
erns it, and this law involves certain 
causes and consequences. — Pomeroi/'s Dem- 
ocrat. 



Bran and Corn Meal for Cows. 

The Practical Farm r says: It is well 
settled in the o^jinion of all our best dairy- 
men that bran greatly promotes the milk 
secretions in cows, and it is fed almost 
universally. About equally mixed with 
corn meal is the usual proportion. This 
mixture seems to promote both quantity 
and quality of milk. From several souces 
we hear that buckwheat bran is a great 
producer of milk, and it is being used con- 
siderably among our Chester county dairy- 
men, in about the same proportion as the 
other. Thomas Gawthrop, near West 
Grove, Chester county, also by repeated 
trials with his own cows, has fullj' satis- 
fied himself that they do as well with corn 
and cob meal and bran as with pure corn 
meal and braUi The amount of nutriment 
in corn cobs is so very small that this re- 
sult will have to be exx^lained on the sup- 
position of the ground cob acting to pro- 
mote digestion by distending the stomach. 
The presence of bulky material being 
necessary to promote distension and fill 
up the stomach of ruminating animals, 
before digestion can bo accomplished, is 
frequently lost sight of. Hungarian grass 
is also found for milch cows to be rather 
superior to the ordinary run of hay. The 
last year or two Hungarian grass has loom- 
ed up wonderfully in the estimation of 
our dairy farmers: and a very large scope 
of land will be sowed with it the coming 
season. It matures for cutting in about 
sixty days, and produces two to four tons 
per acre — the latter of course on good 
soils. Three pecks to the acre is the usual 
allowance of seed. 



Laws Concerning Corporations. 



[Under tbe New Code— January 1, 1873. 



GENERAL PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO ALL COR- 

PORATIONS. 
WAGON ROAD CORPORATIONS. 
WATER AND CANAL CORPORATIONS. 
HOMESTEAD CORPORATIONS. 
MINING CORPORATIONS. 
LAND AND BUILDING CORPORATIONS- 
Also, MINING PARTNERSHIP LAW. 

A pamphlet contaiuing the above provisions concern- 
ing Corporations has been printed from the Statutes of 
California. It fiirniBhes those who wish these special 
laws an opportunity of obtaining them for the small 
Bum of 25 cents (post paid). Address, Dewey & Co., 
Publishers, and Patent Agents, S. F. 



Buyers' Directory. 



Under this head will be found the names and address of 
Boms of our most enterprising and reliable business men. 



T. R. Church, 223 Montgomery Street, 

(Russ House Block,) San Francisco. Wholesale and re- 
tail dealer in Men.s', Youths' and Boys' Fine Custom- 
made Clothing and Furnishing Goods; also Trunks, 
Valises, BaRS, etc. 



Brittan, Holbrook & Co.^ Importers of 

Stoves and Metals, Tinners' Goods, Tor Is and Machines, 
HI and 113 California, 17 and 19 Davis streets, San Fran- 
cisco, and 178 J street, Sacramento. 



San Francisco Wire Works. 665 Mission 

St., S. F. O. H. Gruenhagen A Co., Manufacturers of al 
kinds of Wire Work tor Gardens, CemetcricB, Flower 
Stands, Baslt-Cts, Tree Boxes, Arches, Bordering and 
Railing. 

Saul & Co., 579 Market Street, San 

Francisco. Manufacturers of Carriages, "Wagons and 
Stage Work, of the most improved and practical styles. 



Warner & Silsby Manufacture all kinds of 

Bed Springs, including the Obermann Self-Fastening 
Spring, and the VVestly Double Spiral, 147 New Mont- 
gomery street. 

Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits; also for the sale of Butter, Eggs, 
Cheese, Hops. Orccn and Dried Fruits, etc., 75 Warre i 
street. New York. Refer to Anthony Halsev. Cashier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank, N Y.; hllwanger A Barry, 
Rochester, N. Y. ; •'. W. Reed, Sacramento, Cal.; A. 
Lusk & Co., Pacific Fruit Market. San Francisco. Cal. 



THE DR. BLY ARTIFICIAL LIMBS. 

16G Teliama Street, 

COK. OF THIRD, BETWEEN HOWAKD k FOLSOM. 




THE " ANATOMICAL LEG," WITH A ONIVER- 
snl ankle motion ; the above cut is its illustrati' n. 
This artificial leg approaches so much nearer an imita- 
tion of the functions of nature than any other, that it 
stands without a rival among all the inventions io arti. 
liclal legs, old or new. (The very latest announced 
new inventions duly considered.) 

Address: MENZO SPRING, 

166 Tehama St., San Francisco, Cal. 
26v27-lam-bp-3m 



THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

SANITARY HOTEL AND INDUSTRIAL 

College Association. 

inoobpor.'ited under the laws of the state of 
Califoknia. 

CAPITAL STOCK $2.50,000.00 

Divided into 2,600 shares, of $100 each. 

The fcubscription books of this Associution will bo 
open on the 24t)i of this mouth (May, 1873) , at the 
present ofHce of the Association, No. 10, Temple Block, 
Los Aneeles, California, where copies of the By-Laws 
and Articles of Incorporation can bo had. 

President J. K. TOBERMAN. 

Treasubee F. P. r. TEMPLE. 

Secretary GEO. C. GIBBS. 

Directors— George Stoneman, Thos. A. Garey, and 
Wm. Moore. 

General Superintendent, F. M. Shaw. 19v6-lam3m 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN that the office of Secre- 
tary of the State Grange has been removed to San 
Francisco in connection with that of the State Agency 
320 California street. Room 9, third floor. By order of 
the Executive Committee. 

W. H. BAXTER. 
Secretary State Orang'e . 

Horse Clipping— Price, $6 per Horse. 

Our friends and patrons are hereby notitted that wo 
are prepared with the Best Housk Clippino Machine 
in the country to do and guarantee first-clasu work. 

20vG-3m PRINCE & CHANTRY, 

Norfolk Stables, Cc. Ellis and Mason, S. F, 



I>?t 1/v *>OAr''''i'"vl Acreiitiiwni.lrcil/.llc^ni'.r.oiworlctiicr'o 
^t) lOfl>jWrl<<,c,rcltl..r«o5, j_uuii,(nr<ilJ,iii:.ki)inorcnioii.-)i«t 
wuik roninlii tti'-l*- ftpaie rNuinfiit', ornU Itio tliiio ttunatanylblag 
•iaa. rurtloalAr« frc, A<ldr«aa0.lltlaaonAl'".,rortUlid,ll«tB*. 



More Subscribers Wanted for 
the Pacific Rural Press. 



That many more than now may find in it a 
aource of improvement to mind and body, as 
well as in the conduct of their respective avo- 
cations. 

That more farmers' wives and children in 
their isolated homes, may be cheered by its 
weekly visits, laden with its pleasing, yet moral 
reading and sound instruction. 

That a more extended interchange of views 
and opinions may be had among farmers, upon 
all the great questions touching their mutual 
interests and progress. 

That the agricultural resources of the Pacific 
States may be more wisely, speedily and 
thoroughly developed, by an open and free 
discussion in our columns. 

That all the other great industries of our 
State may be advanced in connection with 
that of agriculture, our columns being ever 
open to the discussion of the merits of all pro- 
gressive improvements. 

That the Kueal, after having been read and 
pondered over by the home circle, can be filed 
away for future useful reference, or forwarded 
to the old Eastern fireside of the Atlantic bor- 
der, in aid of an increasing immigration to our 
sunny clime. 




MOUNTAIN RANCH FOR SALE. 

A valuable and productive ranch is offered for sale, 
located on the public road, between Grass Valley and 
Colfax. The ranch contains 560 acres of land — 320 paid 
for, and patent received for 160 — containing all the best 
meadow land, and 400 apple trees 16 and IS years old. 
There are six lots of 40 acres each, railroad land, which 
will make the title good to any buyer. The dwelling 
house is not furnished yet; it contains ten rooms, 
lathed and plastered; 6 on the upper ffoor and 4 on the 
lower, with hall; a good stone cellar and one good barn. 
Last year 1,000 boxes of winter apples were shipped. 
There are 200 pear trees, and plums and peaches enough 
for family use. The owner cuts from 30 to 40 tOHs of 
meadow hay per year. There are from 5,000 to 7,000 
cordt of wood, worth $1 per cord, now standing upon 
the ranch. Terms liberal. Apply to 

p. H. SUMNER, 
No. 311 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

September, 15, 1873. 

Valuable Farm for Sale or Exchange. 

1,000 ACRES OF THE BEST FARM LAND IN THE 
STATE OF MICHIGAN, a portion of which is well 
timbered . Rapidly increasing in value. Title perfect. 
Will be sold or eichai ged, in lots to suit, for REAL. 
ESTATE IN CALIFORNIA. 

Apply to O. D. CROCKER, Room 16, No. 316 
California street, San Francisco. 15v6-3m 



Valuable Dairy and Grain Ranch 

FOR, SA-T^E, 

In San Mateo County, comprising 900 acres, 400 acres 
under cultivation, and all well watered and substan- 
tially improved. Inquire of 
20v6.3m JOS. W. JORBAN, 

N. E. cor. Clay and Front tts., San Francisco. 



BIBBINS & CO., 
LAIVD EXCJa:A.IVOK, 

402 Kearny street San Francisco. 

(sncCESSORS TO BRANDON i BIBBINS.) 

Deal extensively in Country Property 

WANTED— FARMS TO SELL AND LEASE. 

Farms, Orating: Lands and Tule Lands 

5v5-ly Throughout the Coast, 



TO KEIST. 

An improved Farm— including a Vineyard— about one 
mile from Napa City. Address 

P. H. SUMNER, 
311 Montgomery street, San Francisco, 
Or Pacific Rural Press Office. 



P. H. SUMNER, 
XS.ea.1 Estate Brolior, 

311 Montgomery street SAN FRANCISCO. 

The Improving, Purch "ing and Selling of Real Es- 
tate, and Negotiations i> Loans, in San Francisco and 
Oakland. 

Also, Farms and C nntry Property sold and ex- 
changed- 9v6tf 



Buy Real Es^.ate while at Low Rates. 

ELEVEN W TER-FRONT LOTS, CHEAP, 
Qift Map 4, 
Forming about half of a block fronting on the brood 
ship channel of Islais Creek; will be sold so low as to 
make it an inducement to the buyer. Inquire for the 
owner. Room 18, No. 338 Montgomery si., S. F. bptf 



CALIFORNIA LAND AGENCY. 

Will attend to the Location, Purchase and Sale of 
Lands and Farms, the Examination of Titles, and 
the Payment of Taxes. 

1,000,000 Acres of well selected Lands in Cali- 
fornia Oregon, and Washington Territory for sale. 
Also, buy and sell prop( rty in the city and vicinity. 



20vO-ly-lCp 



W. M. BRANDON. 

B36 California street, San Francisco. 




m ^msi 



(January 3, 1874 



/^qf^icdLjUR^L flojES. 



CALIFORNIA. 

ALAMEDA. 

Transcript, Dec. 27: The ribbon factory at 
Oakland is kept in full operation. It now turns 
out the best of silk ribbons and sashes of all 
colors, from four to seven inches in width. 
AMADOR. 

[Not altogether an agricultural note, but as we 
can get no other, we take a Christmas one. — 
Editors Press.] 

Chbistmas in Jackson.— 2)ispa(c7(, Dec. 27: 
The natal day of the Christmas era was observed 
in this place, in the usual manner, last Thurs- 
day, by both Jew and Gentile. There were no 
great bombastic displays of rejoicing over the 
occasion, but each individual unmolestingly 
celebrated after his own manner— some by 
holding divine service, and others by drinking 
egg-nog and other glee-giving fluids, and de- 
molishing sacrificed turkeys, chickens and oth- 
er pleasant eatables, while the less aged 
amused themselves with their various Christ- 
mas presents, spinning tops, etc., etc. Good 
feeling and brotherly love seemed to be preva- 
lent throughout the day. On Christmas eve 
there was a beautiful tree erected in Armory 
Hall and loaded down by that philanthropic 
old individual of the polar regions, Santa 
Claus, with magnificent presents for the old 
and young. After the presents were distributed 
the seats were cleared away and those who felt 
so disposed engaged in one of the most enjoy- 
able social dances that we ever attended. 
AXFIKE. 

Miner, Dec. 27: The weather has been fine, 
and stages arrive and depart with usual regu- 
larity. Both lines seem to be doing a good 
business, as they come and go well loaded with 
passengers and freight. 

Old Santa Claus has been supplying the little 
folks with goodies. The stage-sleigha present 
a queer mixture of candies, curios, and other 
necessary supplies. 

Mr. Emery brings the mail on time, and dur- 
ing the week we have had a daily mail several 
times. Altogether Monitor is looking quite 
lively. Snow-shoes by the half cord may be 
seen about McBeth's, Larson's and Stevenson's 
at all times of the day. 
CrONTRA COSTA. 

The Yf ekther.— Gazelle, Dec. 27: WitMn the 
past four weeks full seven and a half inches of 
rain have fallen, and most of it has been ab- 
sorbed by the earth, which is now well charged, 
and with the absence of rain for the past five 
or six days, though the weather has been 
cloudy most of the time, it is getting in toler- 
able condition for plowing, of which compara- 
tively little has yet been done through the 
central section of the county. The grass has 
got an inch or two above ground, and has done 
well considering the cold weather that has 
prevailed. With a week or two of mild sun- 
shine it would get a good growth and afford 
some pasture for stock; and the farmers could 
improve such a turn of weather in getting a 
tolerable breadth of land ready for seed. 

The Martinez Chblstmas Tree Festtval — 
The girls and boys and the older people of 
Martinez, to as large a number as could crowd 
into the room, were at the Court House on 
Wednesday evening, to witness or take part in 
the glad festivities of the crowning hour of the 
season when it is the object to make everbody, 
and especially the little ones, as happy as is 
possible for mortals. The festival was an en- 
terprise of the united efforts of the Congrega- 
tional and Episcopal Sunday Schools; and the 
exercises were directed by Messrs. Clark and 
Monges, the Pastors of the respective societies. 
The stage was prettily arranged and set off with 
evergreens and scenic drapery, behind a por- 
tion of which the "Tree" with its showy attrac- 
tions was concealed until the moment for dis- 
closing it came. The exercises opened with a 
welcome song and chorus by the children, fol- 
lowed by recitative pieces, and two dramatic 
charades in which several leading parts were 
well rendered by the young people who assum- 
ed them. The advent of Saiita Claus, who was 
represented in typical furs and back load of 
multifarious toys by our full bearded Deputy 
County Clerk, Mr. M. H. Bailhache, was wel- 
comed by most boisterous and jolly clamor of 
shouts, and a chorus of laughter, invoked by 
the good saint himself. Then came the un- 
veiling of the "Tree," with its brilliant hang- 
ings, in the midst of tables piled with showy 
treasures to juvenile eyes, and which were 
speedily distributed to the hands held ready 
for them amidst the pleasant shouts and merry 
laughter of glad young voices. 

COLUSA. 

The Weather.— (Situ, Dec. 27: The weather 
has been splendid so far— plenty of rain and 
no very cold weather. The grass and grain are 
growing finely. We have at Colusa, up to date 
9.08 inches of water, and yet, strange to say, 
the river has not been within five or six feet of 
high-water mark. At Eddy's landing, twelve 
miles below Colusa, the river was within gix 
inches of bank full, and the water was all the 
while running out at Butte Slough — the pond 
caused by the Parks-Robeit dam not having 
been filled up. There is an immense deal of 
snow in the mountains. Joe. Evans tried to 
cross the mountains from Susanville, but had 
to turn back after three or four days uusuccess- 
ful effort. He got as far as Humbug Valley, 
and then had great diflSculty in getting back to 
SnBanTille, From there he weut down to the 



Central Pacific Eailroad. and came home that 
way. He says the "oldest inhabitant" has not 
seen so much snow at this season of the year. 

Co-operative Store. — A number of the 
Grand Island farmers have agreed to form a 
joint stock company to carry on merchandising, 
blacksmithing, storing grain, etc., etc., and 
have purchased the stock of goods of Jas. 
H. Goodhue, at Grimes' Landing, and five 
acres of land of Mr. Grimes. The articles of 
incorporation have been drawn up and signed 
by some of them, but not filed yet. The names 
to the aggreement, and yrho took the initatory 
step and purchased the property above men- 
tioned, are: J. J. Hicok, Wm. Ogden. Thos. 
Eddy, L. D. Gleason, Isaac Howell, C. Grimes. 
The capital stock of the company is one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. Some twenty of the 
most prosperous farmers of the island have 
promised to take stock. 
EL DORADO. 

Republican, Dec. 25: The weather in these 



The ground is soft so that the holes can be 
easily made and the dirt will settle around the 
roots. Both sides of Mill and Main streets 
should be planted with trees. They will not 
only be beautiful in summer, but they will 
protect against fire. Plant trees. 
PLACER. 

Plowing. — Herald, Dec. 27 : Since the ground 
became wet enough to plow at all, many of our 
foothill farmers have been restless from their 
desire to get to work. Some have from day to 
day attempted it, only to be driven in by 
another rain storm. It is decidedly better, we 
think, to go slow, and not try to plow until the 
soil is in proper order, for it has been posi- 
tively tested, a fact which, perhaps, all our far- 
mers are not aware of, that plowing ground 
when it is muddy is the most effectual way to 
kill it, or in other words, to destroy its produc- 
tive qualities known. We have seen evidence 
of this assertion where the plow has been run 
through low, wet places, to obviate the neces 



parts is beautiful overhead, but terrible muddy sity of short rounds and frequent turning, 
under foot. The stages arrive about an hour snch nlaces for vears afterwards beine corn- 
late every day, in consequence of the bad con- 



dition of the roads. 
MARIN. 

County Jow-nal, Dec. 25: We have had fifteen 
inches of rain this season, yet so gentle and 
gradual has been the fall that the streams are 
comparatively dry. The earth has drank 
deeply, and will give back in due time rich and 
generous harvests. The grass is already 
started, so that cattle incline to the fields more 
than the corral, and if the present weather 
holds a few days more, feed will be good. 

We should be ashamed to complain of the 
weather, for the rain that falls, is all valuable, 
and its effects will gladden the whole year. 
But it has now been raining or cloudy three 
full weeks, and it is only human nature to long 
for the bright sun to come out in his beauty 
and dry and warm things. The rain fall this 
week has been 1 35-100 inches, and for the 
season until yesterday morning, 14 93-100. 
MONTEREY. 

Weather. — Democrat, Dec. 27 : The weath- 
er record this week bears no note of rain, 
though, in respect to active farming operation?, 
it has been exceedingly formidable. The wind 
has been southerly, and the temperature very 
mild, stimulating the growth of the grass, 
which, since its birth at the first rains, has re- 
ceived no check. The rain-fall this season up 
to Friday has been 4 and 1-5 inches, being less 
than at the corresponding period last year. On 
the other hand, the water which has fallen has 
been absorbed by the earth which has been 
wetted down far below the course of the plows. 
Stock is considered now to be out of the woods 
and, altogether, as the new year opens, confi- 
dence and hope prevail among the workers in 
our county. 

Eatheb Dangerous. — An Irishman, named 
Morau, whilst shingling the roof of Arques' 
new dwelling house on Sixth street, slipped 
his foot and fell to the bottom of the building, 
a distance of nearly forty feet. Fortunately he 
alighted on a heap of shavings, and escaped se- 
rious injury. Some of the other hands en- 
gaged hastened to the scene of disaster, when 
Moran stood up and offered to bet his bottom 
dollar none of them could do the same feat. 
NAPA. 

Imported Fowls. — Register, Deo. 27: Col. M. 
Eyre received this morning 30 white Leghorn 
fowls, from Mautiia, Ohio. They are pure 
white, and said to be very superior as layers. 

Bright Prospects. — A letter from Paris 
Kilburn, Esq., says that 40,000 acres of new 
land are being sown in wheat in the neighbor- 
hood of Salinas. He has 28 plows running, 
and 18 more on the San Joaquin. There is 
every prospect of good crops. Every body is 
lively and in fine spirits. 

Wheat in Store. — Messrs. Ellis & Keys 
have stored in their warehouse 3,800 tons of 
wheat. They will ship a considerable amount 
to-morrow. Mr. Sheehy's warehouse has 
about 2,500 tons — making 6,300 tons in all. At 
present prices, this will bring a goodly sum of 
money. 

Picking Geapes in December. — Mr. K. S. 
Thompson informs us that he is still picking 
and shipping grapes from his " Hope Vine- 
yard " in Brown's Valley. He has picked and 
shipped over 100 boxes within two weeks past. 
He has about 40 boxes yet to ship. They are 
picked right off the vines, with stems as fresh 
as in summer. Tke latest varieties picked are 
the Muscat, Black Morocco, Flame Tokay, 
CornecLen Violet and Miller's Tokay. What 
do you think of this. Eastern people? 
NEVADA. 

Cold. —Republloan, Deo. 23 : It was intensely 
cold here this morning, the thermometer at 
six o'clock marking four degrees below zero. 

Our Eastern readers will bear in mind that 
the Republimn is printed at Truckee, near the 
summit of the Sierra Nevada. 

Swearing Mad. — The cold weather this 
morning was rather disagreeable. We noticed 
one individual just in from a logging camp, who 
had imbibed a lilieral quantity of Bourbon 
juice, on the street, swearing mad because of 
the cold. He said he'd tried to get warm by 
sampling all the liquor in town, but still he was 
cold, and then he swore that he would get 
heated up if he had to whip every man in 
Truckee to do it. He succeeding in getting a 
"head" built on him during the forenoon, and 
we presume he is comfortable now. 

Grass Valley Union, Dec. 23: The rainfall for 
the 34 hours ending at 4 o'clock p. m., was 0.12- 
inch. The barometerat that hour showed that 
a small shower may occur to-morrow. 
This is the time of year for planting trees. 



such places for years afterwards being com 
paratively barren. Wait until the soil is in 
proper condition, and then go to work with a 
will and an assurance that you are not destroy- 
ing the fertility of your land, nor your pros- 
pects of being remunerated for your labor. 
PLUMAS. 

SLEKiHiNG. — National, Dec. 20: The storm 
left about three feet of snow in our valley, and 
the sleighing is excellent, in fact bettor than it 
has been for years. Everybody enjoys it, and 
all sorts of "rigs" can be seen on the road. 
Horseflesh suffers, however, and they can't see 
where "the laugh comes in." 

Suggestive. — We are informed that a large 
number of teams have recently been engaged 
in hauling lumber from Fletcher's saw mill, on 
this side of Sierra Valley, to Virginia. This 
saw mill is only seven miles from McLears, in 
Mohawk Valley. As many as eleven teams 
loaded with lumber, have put up at the Sum- 
mit House in one nisht, which shows that the 
traffic must have been considerable. This ar- 
gues well for the chances of Plumas county 
timber soon being in such demand as to make 
a railroad a necessity. If teamsters can take 
lumber to the Virginia market and make a 
profit, it looks as though the supply on the 
line of the C. P. K. B. must be giving out. 
The grand old forests between this valley and 
Sierra valley will not stand for many years 
langor. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Oranges. — Telegraph, Dec. 27: Three oranges, 
fully ripe, were plucked from an orange tree 
growing in the garden of Dr. Bates. 

The quarry is in full blast. A great many 
men of families in the neighborhood, have 
found useful employment In getting out blocks 
to ijave the streets of San Francisco. Why 
don't Sacramento take a hint and put down a 
pavement that will never wear out, and always 
be an ornament to the city? 

Cotton. — Time and again we have shown 
that cotton can be made a profitable crop in 
the foot-hills. It has been raised in many 
gardens in this town, and many have pronounced 
it to be equal to Southern cotton. But some 
how or other, no one can be induced to go out 
of the old rut. Many complain that though 
they have good farms, they cannot make a 
living. The reason is evident. The most of 
our farmers have been raised in the North and 
the consequence is, that although living in a 
semi-tropical clime, they year by year insist 
upon raising productions such as they have 
been used to upon the old farm at home in an 
extreme northern clime. Cotton can be made 
to pay here, but no one has the pluck to plant 
it. So it is with various other southern pro- 
ductions that could be made to pay here. Try 
cotton for once, some of you enterprising men, 
who can get out of the old rut. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

rajaronvan: One of the most beautiful sights 
in the State of California, at present, is a view 
of the Pajaro Valley, and the surrounding 
mountains, hills, and ocean. The landscape 
presents a beautiful dark green appearance, 
and the dark clouds passing over the sun make 
a beautiltil effect of lights aud shadows, that 
would delight the soul of a painter. One can 
almost see the green grass growing, and the 
question is often asked, " can there be a more 
beautiful, prolific spot, where all thinjts are so 
favorable to healthy life and permanent pros- 
perity." 

A Fine 'Fit.i.-a.—Eiderprux, Dec. 27; Mr. T. 
Maloney, one of our most substantial and en- 
terprising ranchers, has leased of Flint, Bixby 
& Co., five hundred acres of their choicest 
land, between here and Gilrdi', all of which he 
has sown in wheat. The grain is above the 
ground three or four inches, and the field pre- 
sents a magnificent appearance. 
SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

Weather, Tribune, Dec. 27: We have had no 
rain this week, no drying winds or scorching 
heats to evaporate the moisture, and our lands 
are still in the best condition for plowing. 
Only in low places, where the ground is still too 
wet, will there be found any difficulty in put- 
ting in seed for the next harvest. We shall 
have a splendid year this time without perad- 
venture. 
SUTTER. 

A AVhat is It.— Banner, Dec. 27: Monday 
last Allie Hubert brought in for our inspection 
a little animal about the size of a large mouse, 
but whose anatony resembled that of a kanga- 
roo, having hind feet about three times as long 
as its fore ones, and a tail about six inches 
long. It has a very long nose, and by the side 



of its mouth are two pouches, which were full 
of wheat when the animal was caught. Its 
back is of a reddish brown color, while its 
belly is entirely white. We have consulted all 
the animal sharps who have been in our office 
this week, and don't know any more about it 
than we did before, for while one school of ex- 
perts pronounce it a kangaroo rat, the others 
as positively assert it is not. Who will help 
us to classify this anomaly? 
SIERRA. 

Messenger Dec. 20: Deeb. — About thirty deer 
have been captured near here since the first 
fall of snow this year. 

Snow.— We are informed from a reliable 
source, that at least twelve feet of snow fell in 
the Northern part of the county, during the 
late storm, and the outlook is fair for thirty or 
forty feet more before spring. As we go to 
press, there is every indication of a severe 
storm being at hand. 
TUOLUMNE. 

Democrat Dec. 27 : Captain Eakin last week 
introduced in the Senate, An Act granting the 
right of way to the Yosemite Turnpike Koad 
Company, to construct a toU road over the Yo- 
semite grant. It was referred to the Committee 
on Roads and Highways. We have not seen 
the bill, but presume it asks from the Legisla- 
ture what the Commissioners refused — the 
privilege of constructing a wagon road from 
Gentry's into the valley. 
YOLO. 

Jfaii Dec. 22: The rains have fallen exten- 
sively and liberally. There is no portion of 
the State that has not been sufficiently wetted 
for all present purposes. Up till Friday last 
there had fallen at Grass Valley 14Vi inches; 
at Healdsburg, 143^; ; at the town of Alameda, 
7%; at Santa Bosa, 12^4; at San Francisco, 
8^4, and at Sacramento, abo'it S'^. 



San Jose Farmers' Club. 

Club met Sat. 27th, and was called to order 
by the President. 

The following question was selected aa the 
subject for discussion at the next meeting: 
"Resolved, That the proposed squirrel law now 
before the Legislature should be made applica- 
ble to Santa Clara county." 

On the question of irrigation, Mr. Hobson 
thought that all means convenient and proper 
for irrigation purposes should be mads use of. 
We need all the water we can get in this valley, 
and that which is most convenient and handy 
should bo saved. The water that runs to 
waste from the many artesian wells in the val- 
ley should be saved and utilized. The bay gets 
the water which we should have, and some sys- 
tem, compulsory, if necessary, should be adop- 
ted for checking the waste. The farmers on 
the hills should save their rain water, build 
reservoirs and dams, irrigate and thereby have 
fine gardens and make money. We are living 
too extravagantly. Every drop of water that 
goes to waste can and should be saved. 

Mr. Erkson said that this county depended 
very much on irrigation. Frequently there is 
a lack of rain, and the farmers should try and 
equalize the condition of affairs so that the 
land may be made habitable. If we can aid 
Nature in that which we lack, it is a great thing 
gained. It would be good policy to save the 
surplus water in reservoirs to be dealt out 
whenever required. The water which runs to 
waste in the bay if husbanded would more 
than double the products of the valley. 

The Board of Supervisors should institute a 
survey of the valley with reference to irriga- 
tion; the streams should be examined, and the 
facilities for the construction of dams, reser- 
voirs, aqueducts and ditches, to convey the 
water from the hills to be distributed over the 
various farms below. This would be a large 
job, but the people can well afford to pay it. 
It would lead to the wonderful advancement 
of the wealth in this county, and the farmers 
along the hills who now barely make a living 
would become rich. In Greeley, Colorado, 
lauds which were comparatively worthless be- 
fore the introduction of irrigation now bring 
from $20 to $100 per acre. If irrigation will 
do that in Colorado, why will it not as much 
and more in California? 

Mr. HoUoway said that while he was in fa- 
vor of preventing the water supply of this State 
being gobbled up by monopolists, and of insti- 
tuting meastires for a prompt and effective 
riddance of that evil, he was decidedly opposed 
to any system of taxation as far as irrigation 
was concerned. He thought that this valley 
did dot require artificial means to increase its 
productiveness and wealth. That a judicious 
system of farming, a close approximation to the 
laws of Nature, would be of more benefit to the 
people, and a surer means of getting good 
crops than by changing the waters from their 
natural courses, and taxing the people to an 
enormous extent. 

Mr. Erkson thought there was no question 
about the propriety of irrigation. The great 
volume of water which annually runs to waste 
is charged with vegetable life, and might be 
saved. If saved and under control we would 
have no freshets. 

We have given the gist of the arguments pro 
and con. Other members ventilated their 
opinions, which would only be a repetitioR of 
what is above given.— iXu/s/ .Mercury. 



January 3, 1874.] 



I 



At wholesale when not otherwise Indicated. 

Weekly Market Review. 

[By our own Reporter.] 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

San Franciico, December 30, 1873. 
Business during Holiday week is proverbially dull. 
Little has been done In the Grain market, and we can 
chronicle no advance in the Cereals to gladden the 
hearts of producers. Reports from the East and Europe 
indicate a similar dullness. But during this period of 
enforced inactivity the attention of all is turned, nat- 
urally, to the weather and to prophecies of the pros- 
pective crops. So far we have had a very large supply 
of rain, and it has fallen in such a manner as to best 
prepare the waiting land. Some say, however, that we 
may yet have too much of it— an unusual circumstance 
certainly for California, where the regular complaint is 
of a dearth of water. But the great majority of the 
prophets unite in promising abundant harvests for the 
ensuing year. If such should prove the event, Cali- 
fornia will have, for once, two consecutive good seasons 
and the effect upon the whole State will be most favor 

able. 

Receipts 

Of Bay Produce at this port for the week under review, 
have been as follows; Flour, 15,504 barrels; Wheat, 
174,336 centals: Barley, 4,875 centals; Oats, 1,411 centals; 
Corn, 2,178 centals: Beans, 758 sacks; Castor Beans, 16 
sacks; Potatoes, 14,881 sacks; Sweet Potatoes, 176 sacks; 
Onions, 775 sacks; Hides, 2,554; Wool, 277 bales; Hops, 
17 bales; Salt, 162 tons; Hay, 531 tons; Straw, 20 tons; 
Wine, 11,320 gallons; Brandy, 90 gallons, Peanuts, 196 
sacks; Cotton, 9 bales; Oranges, 49,700; Lemons, 16,000. 

Broom. Corn 

Is a delicate subject for quotation. There is, in truth, 
very little business being done'at present in the local 
market. At the beginning of the season the stock on 
hand was nearly all taken up by a few parties, who now 
And that they will have a surplus which will have to 
be carried over till next season. Two houses have, it is 
said, about 200 tons over and above what they can pos- 
sibly make use of. But while they arc willing to sell 
to foieign and interior dealers at $200, and perhaps less, 
for the finest grades of straight, small corn, the large 
broom makers, who control this market, demand $250 
from local buyers. This is evidently a policy intended 
to prevent competition in the manufacture of brooms in 
this city and State. Yet it should be added that this 
top price of $250 V ton is only asked— not obtained — 
and hence Broom Corn can not be said to be worth that 
figure. This, ve hope, will prove a timely hint to those 
farmers who, dazzled by the apparently large profits to 
be made from Broom Corn raising, propose to enter too 
extensively into this specialty. At the same time there 
Is certainly a fair market for the article abroad, if not 
here, and its culture will in time bo made a matter of 
more importance in the future than at present. Farm- 
ers mvist not, however, count on $250 as a sure price for 
next year's crop. 

Wheat 
Is still stationary. As we have snid, business has 
been very light, most holders being satisfied to wait 
for better terms, which all believe are coming— though, 
as in the mining stock market of the past few months, all 
do not back their opinion. Receipts have been moder- 
ate, of course, as so much of the crop has already been 
sent down, though we hear that still large stores are 
waiting for the expected turn. Some of the members 
of the Produce Exchange are in favor of not making 
the statistics public; it Is not yet settled what course 
will be adopted. It is for the interest of the fanners 
that all accounts of stock in the country should be pub- 
lished in full— such is the universal custom abroad. We 
have altogether too much manceuvering and manipula- 
ting,and although farmers have long seen and understood 
all this, and lately have been taking effective steps to 
protect themselves, there still remains much to be ac- 
complished. It is the intention of the Departmet^t of 
Agriculture to make all Grain statistics more thorough, 
correct and accessible. It will only be when farmers 
are each and all exactly informed as to the state of the 
market and its probabilities, that they will be in a 
position to realize the best returns for this, the most 
important, as well as other staples. Last evening's 
telegram to the Associated Press gave 13s.5d.®13s. 8d. 
as the price for Average, and 13s. 9d.@14s. 3d. for Club 
T^ cental. This, with the moderate rates ruling for 
freight to Liverpool, ought, it would seem, to give us 
s little lift. The New York Shipping List says: Al- 
though a steady export demand Is looked for, it is not 
thought that extreme high prices will prevail, for 
the reason that the dependent markets of Europe have 
laid under contribution a large quantity from various 
sources, while Potatoes and Turnips have not been as 
plentif\il and cheap in the United Kingdom as they are 
at the present time since 1845. They are also being 
shipped from France and Germany to England, and 
sold at merely nominal prices. And, besides, the au- 
tumn and winter in England and on the Continent, 
so far, has been altogether unexceptionable for seeding; 
the best season, indeed, for five or six years, and, from 
all accounts, it Is availed of for planting an unusually 
large area. Of course, this is rather a remote influence, 
and yet it is not without present effect in keeping down 
speculation. 

According to a calculation recently published in the 
Liverpool Daily Courier, respecting the probable sup- 
plies of foreign Wheat in the four months from the 1st 
of December to the .'ilst of March, 1,4.58,000 qrs were 
afloat on the 27th of November, and 1,422,000 qrs were 
assumed to arrive besides, tlms making a total of 2 880 - 
000 qrs, or at the rate of 720,000 qrs per month. The 
largest proportionate quantity would arrive in Decem- 
ber, while in January there would be a great falling off 
pointing to the probability of prices being more easily 
kept in check this month, and experiencing a greater 
rally in the beginning of next year. A private London 
gram circular, commenting upon the above calculation 
says: The quantity which may be diverted from the 
British coast, and also exported from British ports has 
it will be seen, been advisedly omitted; the exports 
would, indeed, be most difficult to compute, but by 
their extent future prices will, of course, be essentially 
Influenced. No doubt is entertained of the resumption 
of the Continental demand, and the same will necessa- 
rily be on a more extensive scale in the New Year, the 
more it may remain In abeyance in the meanwhile. 



According to the of&cial report just published, the im- 
ports of Wheat into France in October had amounted to 
683,111 qrs, and the exports to only about 70,000 qrs. 
Flour. 
Latest mail advices from England quote Flour fully 
Is per sack dearer in several markets. In London, 
American barrels were 6d dearer on Monday, December 
st, and 6d per sack and barrel dearer in Liverpool on 
Ithe following day. Flour was firm, with still upward 
tendency, and the Continent was manifesting some 
wants in competition with those of Great Britain Our 
Central American export trade holds good, while it said 
that less calls are made from China and Japan, since 
the lower prices. The market here is rather undeter- 
mined, and not very much Flour has changed hands. 
The mills are still in full work. 

"Wool. 

Quotations are nominal here. Business has been 
very active at the East, but is now quiet. We copy 
from a telegraphic commercial letter to the AUa: There 
have been few unimportant transactions, stock fleece is 
well controlled and is light, in view of a profitable 
want by consumers during the coming season. The 
stock of the Manchester Mills, which was put on the 
market by reason of their having given up the produc- 
tion of worsted goods, has been taken by the principal 
consumers of these wools and has naturally checked 
the demand for the present. California wool is strength- 
ened in the market and buyers are firm at full quota- 
tions. The sales were 1,200 bales and 40,000 pounds at 
27@40 Fall, and 30@30';i Spring. At Boston, the mar- 
ket was quiet and with a limited demand, but as the 
dealers' stocks are light they are not seeking business or 
are inclinedjto make concessions. California has been 
quiet. Choice lots of Spring have been inquired for, 
while inferior grades of Spring and Fall are less sought 
for. The sales were 9,310 Itis. at 28@37 for Spring, 
27fg)28)4 for Fall, 8 for scoured, and 15 for black. 
Dairy Produce. 

Butter is slowly declining, still lower prices obtain- 
ing this week. A little sharp weather would bring it 
up again. Cheese holds the advance. Attention is 
called to the Dairy Agency to be established here on 
the Ist or 2d, by Mr. Hegler, State Dairy Agent of the 
Granges. The office will be on the corner of Sansome 
and Commercial streets, this city. 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

Tuesday M.,Dec. 30. 1873. 
The supplies of Fruits and Vegetables are gradually but 
steadily thinning off. Oranges and Lemons are quite 
plenty, and thus help to make up the deficiency in the 
other Fruits. Grapes are few and poor, but such as are in 
market bring good prices. Vegetables are, almost without 
any exception, scarce. Cucumbers and Green Corn 
have at last dropped off completely; for some time the 
supply has been very slight. Sweet Potatoes are poor in 
quality, and the supply is limited. Mushrooms are quite 
plenty at 2.') cents for small yet good ones, ^ Tb. Cranber- 
ries are taken up as soon as offered, the demand keeping 
pace with that for holiday poultry. 



FKiriT MARKKT. 

Tahati, Or. ^ lUO (m 

Mexican do.... 2 00 @ 3 50 

Gal. do 1 50;^ 4 00 

Limes, 1ft M.... 8 0O@10 00 

Cal.Lemons. 100. 2 50@ i 00 

Messina do ... . 6 — @ 7 — 

do per box 12 00@14 00 

Bananas, ^ bnch m 

Pineapples, ^dz 12 00^@]8 00 
Apples.eat'g. bx.l 2^ (^2 2.'> 




BCANS. 

Beans, sra'l wh.tt) ii?^@ 

do, butter 4 m 

do, large, do... — @ 

do. bayo 2%(gi 2' 

uo, pink 2'4W V 

do, pea — ^ 4 

do, Lima — @ 4 

JtROOJML COR^. 

Perton $I00r(^250 

DAIRTT I»RODlJt;K 

Butter,Gal, frsh.ft.40 

do, ordin'y roll 

do, new tlrkin. 

do. pickled, . . . 

do, Western ... 

Ohc-ese, Oal. new 

do. Eastern . .. 

Eggs, V&[. fresh 

do, Oregon 

do. Eastern — 

FEED* 
Bran, per ton. ... IS 00(^20 00 

Middlings 27 50'q)3U 00 

Hay 12 OO'SIB 00 

Straw S UOdt 

Oil cake meal... @3i 50 

Corn Meal S7 50®39 Oil 

Fr.O UK. -Superfine & 

Kxtrit. 
Alviso Mills, bbl..5 60 

California 5 SO 

City Mills 5 00 

Comnie'l Mills...') SO 

Golden Gate 5 .W 

Ooldea Arc S ■"» 

National Mills.. . 5 SQ 
SantaClaiaMills 5 5i) 
Genesee Mills....'! 50 

Oregon S fjO @ 

Vallejc) Star .•> 50 ta' 

Venus,Oaklaiid...'> .50 ©' 
Stockton City... 5 .'iO @ 
Lam hard. s«c. . .5 :>{) 6fl 

FKESH MHA.T. 

Beef, fr l|uality..lb 7 (ffi 8 

del, second do. . b @ 7 

do, third do 4 @ 5 

Veal 6 i 8 

Mutton 5 J^a fi 

Lamb H'-i® 7 

Pork, undressed. ■''^^ *^' 

do, dressed — 7 @ t^ 

GKAIN, KTC. 

Wh'tCal. c'st.cl.2 15 m 25 

do, shipiiing..2 25 ^2 m 

do, miltinc 'i 25 @2 :10 

Barley, Keed 1 35 @1 45 

do, Brewinu..,! 55 (0)1 (iO 
Oats, O. ast.Feedl WJ .^1 B." 
do Choice Bay. I 75 

do Oreeon 1 80 

Corn, While 1 JO 

do. Yellow 1 40 

Buckwheat — 

Rye 1 75 

HOPS. 
California,1872. . 40 
Eastern, 1873, tb.. 05 
do New York 



®1 00 

a? OU 

«7 00 

»7 00 

t" UO 
7 on 
(a»7 110 
®'i 00 
' 00 
00 
00 



00 




1 10 ©1 20 
1 10 @l 20 
90 m 05 
90 @1 10 
— (U) — 

m fto 1 05 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

TCKSDAT M., Deo. 30,1873. 
IChile Walnuts.. 12 @ W4 

35^ Pecan nuts ~ ~ " 

ii-2 Hickory do — 

Brazil do 15 

Ooc'anuts.W lOii. . 7 00 
Alm'dsh'rd shell 10 

do, soft 20 

Filberts — (5) 

East'nOhestnuts — (a) 

POTATOES. 
Sweet.Der 100 )bs — (o) 
New Cuffee Cove — (3) 
do H. M. Bay. - ■ 

do Pmeon Pt.. 
di) Hiimboliit. 
do Pelaluina . 
do Tomales... 
do Mission . .. 
do Salinas. ... 

poui^TKir *'gam"e. 

Live Turkeys lb. 17 (aj 19 

Hens, perdz 6 00 io)7 25 

Roosters 6 110 (a;7,00 

Spr'e ('hicker.s. .4 00 (3)5 00 

Broilens 400 @5 .50 

Ducks, tame.dozS 00 @io iiO 
Geese, per pair. 2 25 @-( 00 
Hare, per doz... 2 .50 @8 50 
Snipe, Eni!., dozl 25 fail .',0 
Quail, per doz . ..2 00 @2 25 
.Mallard Ducks.. 3 00 @3 .50 

do small 1 25 Si 75 

Wild Geese, grayl 00 @l .50 

do white 2 lO (tt)2 .50 

Dcives, per dozen 50 (oj 75 

Rabliits 1 UO ai 50 

Venison, per lb.. 5 Ja 6 
." PKOVISIONST 
I'al. Bacon, Liuht — (ffl 

do Medium — ^ 

do Heavy — 

Kastern do 10 

Oal. Haras l?*^ 

do Whittakers — 
do Duflicld. ch 
do IMankion i 

Harmi n 

doHarm 'dACo 

Eastern Should's 

do new bams 

Cal. Smoked Beef 

Lard, Oal 

do Eastern 

SEUBS. 

Alfalfa 21 (a\ 

<!nnary 6 fn. 

Flaxseed 4 (ai 

Ivy. Blue Grass.. 40 cii} 
Mustard, white. 1}^ @ 

do. Brown 2 (SI 

Italian Rye 25 

Perennial do — 

Timothy 14 

Sweet V Grass.. 30 
Orchard do.... — 
Red Top io... .•iO 
Hungarian do - 

Lawn do 5il 

i':ioverRed - 

do White 60 

Alsike — 

Esparto Grassin 

Packets 

WOOL 



do Common 

Cherries 

Blackberries .... 

Strawberries^D) — 
iiooseberries.... 

Raspberries — 

Currants — 

Apricots — 

h*lum8 » — 

Peaches,^ lb. . — 
Pears, Eating... 2 00 

do Cooking. ...1 00 

do, Bartlett... — 

Crab Apples..'. .. — 

Nectarines . . — 

Wafrmel'siaiOO — 

Cantelo'81^100... - 

Pomegran's,^ dz — 

Figs — 

Grapes.Bl'kH'g — 

do Muscat.. — 

do Malavo'e.. — 

do SweetwV. — 



(jo (a 1 00 
- (4) - 



;«i3 00 

&l 25 

® — 



@l 90 
fell 90 
»l 110 

@i m 

@2 00 

m 80 

(3 45 

(a) m 
(tfl 60 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



Beeswax. per lb.. 25 (3) ^2'4 

Honey olioice. . 17 ® 25 

doex. ch'iceMt — (m 30 

do Los Ang. .. 20'<@ 27'* 

do choice Nrlhn 15 1^ 20 

dnDark S a 1214 

do Strained.... 8 @ 15 

Pulu 8 (5) 8^ 

Onions \'4(a> 2 

KUTS-aOBBING. 

Oal. Walnuts .... 13 @ 14 
Peanuts per lb... 4 3) 6 




oo Mission ~~@ — 

do Rose of Peru -@ — 

doTokav 3 OOim 4 OU 

do Morocco. ... 4 OOife 6 00 
BKIED FRUIT. 

Apples. * lb 6 ® 8 

Pears, l^tb 8 69 9 

Peaches, f lb 8 @ 9 

Apricots,^ lb — m— 

Plums.^lb 5 ®S 

Pitted, do ^ lb 17 fa>18 

do Extra, 'S* lb.. — @- 

Eaisins, ^ lb 5 ©16 

BlackFigs, Hf* lb.... 6 ®8 

White, do 12)-2®20 

Prunes 6 © f* 

do German.... \2'A& 15 

VEGETABLJ®*. 

Cabbage. H 100 lbs..— ®1 37'i 

Garlic,^ lb 8 MlO 

Green Peas 6 @ 7 

Green Corn '^ doz./— Ot— 
Sunl'rSquash, bx. .. — t§) — 
Marro'tat S()'sh,tn 12 00(0)1500 
Artictaokes. ^ lb... 
String Beans, ^Ib . 

Lima Beans — 

Shell Beans 2 

Peppers,^ bx,4eib3..— 

Okra^ tb 4 

Okra, Green — 

Cucumbers, bx - 

Tomatoes, per box. .76 
Egg Plant It m — 

FKTIITS, ETC., PKESEKVED rNBEB THE 
A.L»EN PROCESS. 

We give below a table of prices for Friiit, etc., pre- 
pared by this process, as reported by Messrs. Littlefield , 
Webb & Co., the agents of the San Lorenzo establishment 
at whose warehouse, Nos. 316 and 318 Washington street, 
the articles may be seen, and from whom any further infor- 
mations may be obtained. The preparations are put up in 
bulk, in boxes, containing from 30 to .50 lbs., and also in 1 lb. 
caddies, in cases of 2 dozen each. We add, parenthetically, 
that 1 tb. of fared Apricots equals 9 lbs. of the Iresh fruit : 
lib. unpared equals 8 lbs. of fresh. This represents the 
average contraction of bulk. Tomatoes show the greatest 
reduction. 1 lb. of the preserved vegetable equaling 20 lbs. 
of the fresh : while the lowest degree of compactness is in 
Beef. Currants and Sweet Potatoes, in which the propor- 
tion is 1 lb. to 5 lbs. 
Apricots, pared. ^ lb* 
do unpared, ^ Ibt.. 



do Bagicalupi. — @ — iDwaif Twist.... .57 @ 62!^ 

Linseed, raw.. .1 00 Wl 05 12 inch do .... 57 @ 62>4 

do boiled 105 @1 10 Light Pressed... W @ 75 

China nut in 08.. S 80 Hard do .. 60 @ 70 

do bulk 70 (ol 72 Conn. Wrap'r.... 40 @ 50 

Sperm, crude..,. — (g)l 40 Penn. Wrapper. . 35 @ 45 

do bleached.. — mid Ohio do .. 30 @ 40 

Coast Whales... 40 @ 45 Vrigi'aSniok'g. . 60 @ 95 

Polar, refined.... .5.5 @ 70 Fine ct che'g,gr..8 50 ®9 25 

Lard 85 @ 95 Fine cut chew- 

I'oal, reiiiied Pet 37>4@ 40 Ing, biic'ts.^ Ib..75 @ 90 

Oleophine — U 33 Banner fiae cut..8 75 @9 25 

Devoe'8 Bril't... 43 @ 45 Eureka Oala 8 00 ®8 .50 

Long Island.... — @ 34 TUKPENTIME. 
Eureka 3TA0) 40 lEastern 60 ® 62>i 

LEATHER. 

Tuesday, m., Dec. 30, 1873. 
No change to report in the Leather market. Trade is 
(luiet, and prices hold. 

City Tanned Leather, D lb 26@29 

Santa Oruz Leather, ft lb 26@29 

Country Leather, » IS 2.5®28 

Stockton Leather,* B) 26@29 

Jodot,8 Kil., per doz ...».50 Om 54 00 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil., per doz 66 00® 85 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 16 Kil. ^ doz .55 00® 70 00 

Oornellian, 12 to 16 Ko 57 00® 67 00 

Cornellian Females, 12 to 13 60 OOS 64 00 

Cornellian Females, 14 to- 16 Kil 66 iiO® 74 00 

Beaumcrville,15 Kil 60 00(5 

Simon, 18 Kil.M doz 61 00@ 63 00 

Simon, 20 Kil.* doz 65 00@ 67 OU 

Simon. 24 Kil. ^ doz 72 00® 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 OOtgi 40 00 

Krench Kips, * B) 100® 135 

California Kip, » doz 40 00@) 60 00 

French Sheep, all colors, ^ doz 8 OOigi 15 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, ft lb 100® 126. 

Sheep Roana for Topping, all colors, ?» doz 9 00® 13 00 

Sheep Roana for Lining8,|t doz 5 50a 10 50 

California Russelt Sheep Linings 175® 4.50 

Best Jodot Oalf Boot Legs, * pair 9 OO9 5 25 

Good French Oalf Boot Legs, * pair 4 00® 4 75 

French Calf Boot Legs,* pair 4 00® 

HarneBS Leather, * Bb 30® 37X 

K^air Bridle Leather, « doz 48 00® 72 00 

Skirting Leather, ft B 34® tlii 

Welt Leather, ft doz 30 00a SO 00 

Buff Leather, ft foot 19® 23 

Wax Side Leather. V foot 17Ui 19 

Eastern Wax Le*tb«r — ®— — 



Peachts, do, W Ibt 

do pared, ft lb* 

do do ^Ibt 

Bartlett Pears. pared. ft* 

Pears, pared, (sliced) lb* 
do do (ring) "ii» tb,t.. 

Pears, 10-lb boxes, family 
use, extra. 22'-^ 

SeckelPears,uni>ar"d.tbt 12*2 

Cuirants, stemmed. U)*. 40 
do unsteinmed,^ Ibt 32,!^ 

Royal Ann Cherries. pit- 
ted. * lb* 25 

KentishCherries, pitted, 
^ tb» 55 



Apples, pared (rinOIbt 12! 
do do (whole)* ft+ 12' 
Apples, 10-lb boxe<, fam- 
ily use. extra 18 

Plums, pitted, ft Ibt.... 25 

do do iS lb* 40 

Rhubarb, ft Bit 35 

Corn, ft Ibt 30 

Beans. * Ibt 60 

Potatoes, * Ibt 14 

Sweet Potatoes, ft Ibt .. 15 

Onioiii.,ft Ibt 40 

Beef,* Ibt 40 

Tomatoes, * Ibt 75 

" t '20 

ies. tin bulk. — 



Squash, ft 1 
*In caddie 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

Tuesday m.. Bee. 30, 1873. 
The most marked movement in Groceries has been in 
Coffees, all the different kinds being now held at much 
higher figures than ruled for 80 long. Preserved Fish are 
dull of sale. Bags and Bagging remain quiet. Su'^ars and 
Syrups are meeting with good business at the advance, 
and exports of the latter are well received. 



San FraaolsGO Retail Market Rates. 

Tuesday m., Dec. 30, 1873. 
FK.XIIT8, VEGETABLES. ETC. 

Pineapples are very scarce, and have trebled in value. 
Apples, also, are rising, $2 25 * box being obtainable for 
the best. Eating Pears bring $2 00@3 00 ft box, an ad- 
vance of 75 cts on top prices of last week. Cooking are 
held in proportionate advances. Muscat Grapes are out 
of market; other kinds very strong in price, though poor in 
quality. 

Cabbage, each .. . 10 @ 15 
0y8terPlant,bch 10 m 15 



.50 



(S) 



23 
6 
5 

.50 
Vi 

.10 

(a) 35 

(A 15 

(S) 35 

C«) - 

(fll 40 

(«1 12 

(ft) (10 

@ 20 

(ol 75 

(a! — 



frill 00 
ETC. 



Spring, .short.tb. 16 ® IS 

docnoiceNort 22 (Si 23 

Medium grades.. 15 (^ 18 

ciood to Olioice.. 16 (g 19 

Burry 10 @ 13'^ 

Hides, diy 17''i'a \S^ 

do wet saltcd8 50 ^aO 00 

Tallow, Crude.. 6H® >>% 

do Reflned... — (3 7 



SAN FRANCISCO METAL MARKET. 

Tuesday m., Dec. 30, 1873. 
The metal market is quiet, building being much inter- 
rupted by the constant rains. A fair amount of metal suit- 
able for machine construction is, however, being taken up 

Scotch Pig Iron,lft ton $52 00 

White Pig. * ton 52 00 

Retined Bar, bad assortment, ft lb 

Reiined Bar, good assortment, ft lb 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 — 0.5^1 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 — OSH' 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — OT^i 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 — 6 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 — 08 

Horse Shoes, per keg 7 50 

Nail Rod — 9>i(a 

Norway Iron — 8 @ 

Rolled Iron ~ 6 (q) — 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. — 6 ® — 
OOPPBB.— 

Braziers ;... @ — 40 

Copper Tin'd —50 @ 

O-Nlel's Pat — 55 (a) 

Sheathing, ft lb ® — 25 

Sheathing, Yellow a — 25 

Sheathing, Old Yellow ffl — 12 

Composition Nails — 25 (§) 

Composition Bolts — 25 ® 

Plates, Charcoal, IX ft box 14 00 

Plates, lOOharooal 13 00 

Roofing Plates ; 13 00 

BanoaTin, Slabs, ft ft — 40 

Steel.- English Oast, ft lb 

Drill .T. 

Flat Bar 

Plough Point* 

ZiNO 

Zinc, Sheet 

Nails— Assorted sizes 

QoiOKsiLVER, per Ik 



Eng, stand. Wh't 12 
Detrick'sMacb e 
Sewed, 22 x. 36, 

Cilroy E.. 

do, 22x36, do W 
do. 22x10. do... 
do, 23liO... . 
do, 24x40 15 




Flour Sacks Ha. 
" Ms. 
Stand. Gunnies.. 

"■ Wool Sacks. 

*' Barley do... 
Hessian 15-in.fid3 

do 60 
Burlaps, yard ^.^ .. 

canMed ooobs. 

Asst'dPie Fruits 

in 2)4 B) cans. 2 75 @ 3 00 

do Table do... — ® 2 75 
Jams 4 Jellies 4 00 @ 4 .50 
Pickles .'-^ gl.. — @ 3 .50 
Sardines.qi- bnx2 00 ® 2 25 

do hf boxes.3 50 ® 3 75 

COAL— Jobhlner. 

Austrnlian,*tolilO 00 (ojH 00 

Coos Bay @ll 00 

Rellintjham Bay. ^ 8 50 

Seattle (oill— 

Cumberrd,cks..25 Oi ®28 00 
do bulk.. .21 00 @25 00 

Mt. Diablo 6 .50 m 50 

Lehigh 14 — ®15- 

Liverpool II 00 ffll2- 

Wcst Hartley. ...12 00 @14- 

Scotch :) 50 

Scranton ..10 00 

Vancouver's I81..12 00 
Charcoal, *sk... 75 
COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — 
Costa Rica per lb 24'<i@ 

Guatemala 24)ifc@ 

Java — @ 

Manilla — W 

Ground in cs — 25 ® 

Chicory 10 ® 

FISH. 
Pao.Dry Cod, new .5)^® 

cases 8 (^ 

Eastern Cod 7 (tf 



10 '4 




9 

Salmon in bbls . .8 50 @9 00 

do H bbl85 00 m .50 

do 2)^ft cans — 

do 2tb cans.. 2 80 

no 1ft cans .2 25 

Do Col. R. hb... - 

Pick. Cod. bbl3.22 00 

do a bhlsllOO 

Bos . Sm'k'dHer'o;40 

Mack'l.No.l.tiblsll- 

Extra. ... — 

*' in kits — 2 75 

" Ex mess. 3 .50 

Kx raess.^bs— 

Sm'k Herr'g. bx. 40 

KAILS. 
Assorted size. ft. 5 (3) 

KAVAL STOKES. 
Tar & Pitch, ft lb 7 ® 8 
Oakum pr bale .501b 4 (mi .50 

Rosin 6 00 @ 6 50 

Anchors 8 @ Sii 

Chains 7 @ 7)i 

OILS. 
Pacific Qlue Co, 
NeatF'tNo. I. — (31 00 

Pure 1 25 @ - 

Castor Oil, N0.I..I 40 ©145 
do do N0.2..I 25 ^1 35 

Cocoanut 55 & 60 

Olive PlagnioL.S 00 @ — 

do Possel 4 75 ® — 

Palm 9 @ - 



Devoe's Petro'm 37 @ 39 
Barrel kerosene 30 frn ^ 
Downer Kerose'e 50 @ 
Gas Light Oil.... — fa) 

FAINTS. 
Atlan. W. Lead. 

Whiting I'ii 

Putty 4 

Chalk — 

Paris White 2Hi 

Ochre 2,'- 

Venetian Red... 3 

Red Lead 8 

.itharge 10 (3 

Eng. Vermillion — @1 3.5 

KICE. 

China No. 1, ft ft 5J^@ 6 

do 2, do. 6 @ 5 

Japan 6^7 

Siam Cleaned... 7 @ — 

Patna 7 @ — 

Hawaiian 6}^^ 7 

arolina 10 © 

SALT. 

Oal. Bav,per ton 10 00(3114 00 

do Common . . 5 00 ©K On 

Mexican 11 00(<$Vi 00 

Carmen Island.. 12 00(a)20 00 
Liverpool fine... — fru20 00 
coarselS 00 (§19 00 
SOAP. 

Castile 1^ tb lO;^® 11 

Local brands 5 @ 9 

SPICES. 
Allspice, per ft . . 15 @ 16 

Cloves 37,'-^@ 40 

Cnssia — (ai 21 

Nutmeg. 1 07 @1 10 

Whole Pepper... 25 S ::6 

Pimento — SJ 15 

Or'nd Allspprdz — @l 00 

do Cassia do.. — @1 .50 

do Cloves do.. — ml 25 

do Mustard do — @1 .50 

do Ginger do.. — @l OO 

do Pepper do.. — ml 25 

do Mace do....l 20 (ail 30 

SUGAR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube per ft.. ll.S@ — 

Circle Acrushed ll'i® — 

Powdered — m il^ 

Granulated — @ 11 

Dry granulated ll.'^;m — 

Extra do — @ — 

Hawaiian 8 (^ 10 

California Beet. 1 OHfti 11> 

Golden 10 g) — 

do R'.y'g grade 7 (ai — 

Cal. Syrnpinbls. — ^ 47' 

do in H bis. - @ 50 

do in kegs.. — m 55 

do Hawaiian.. 20 @ 22> 

TEA. 

Oolong,Canton,ft 19 @ 25 

do Amoy... 2S @ .50 

do Formosa 40 (a) 811 

Imperial. Canton 25 (^ 40 

do Ptngsuey 45 (^ 80 

do Moyune . 60 @1 00 

Gunpo'der.Cant. 30 @ 42' 

do Pingsuey 60 (^ 90 

do Moyune. 65 (0)1 25 

Y'ngHy., Canton 28 @ 40 

do Pingsuey 40 @ 70 

do Moyune.. 66 ® 85 

Japan, }4 cnests, 

bulk 30 @ 76 

Japan,lacquered 

bxs m and 5 fts 46 @ 67 

J«;>an do,3 ft bis 45 @ 90 

cfo prnbx,43^ft 35 (^ 65 

do!i.tl ft paper 30 ® 55 

.VtflK AtH-n — .1n1.l.lnfl.. 



Lady Apples ft lb- 
Apples, pr lb. . .. 4 

Pears, per lb 5 

Apricots, lb — 

Peaches, ;ft — 

Plums — 

PineApple8,each 50 
Crab Apples — — 

Grapes 6 

Bananas, ft doz. . 75 

Canteleups — 

Watermelons... — 
Blackberries — — 
Cal. Walnuts, lb. - 
Green Almonds. — 
Cranber'es, Or.,g 

do Eastern 
Huckleberries.. 
Strawberries, ft 
Raspberries, lb.. 
Gooseberries*. . . 
Currants. 

do Black 

Cherries, ft ft,.. 

Nectarines 

Orange8,ft doz.. 

(iuincew 

Lemons — 

Limes, per doz. .. 
Figs. dried Cal. * 

Figs, fresh 

Figs, Smyrna, ft 
Asparagus, ft.* 
Artichokes, doz. 

do .leru.salem. . 

Beets, ^do2 

Potatoes, ^ ft... 
Potatoes, sweet,* 
Broccoli, each.. 
Caulitlower, + .. 
POCLTKY, 



Vi'i® 25 
- @ - 
25 (8 35 
75 ($1 00 
.50 m 60 



20 
75 @ 



Carrots, ft doz. 
Oelery.'S* doz .. 

Cucumbers, dz. _ 

Tomatoes, ft ft., 8 ® 

Green Peas 10 (^ 

.String Beans 15 & 

Egg Plant, ft — @ 

Cress, ft doz Dun 20 (0 

Onions 3 @ 

Turnips, ft doz 

bunches 20 ® 

Brussels Sprouts H (m 

Eschalots 20 ® 

Dried Herbs, doz 25 t& 

Garlic ft ft 12>5@ 

Green Corn, doz. — @ 

Lettuce, ^ doz.. 20 M 

Mushrooms,® ft 25 @ 

Horse radish ft ft 20 @ 

Okra, dried, ft ft — @ 

do fresh, ft ft. — @ 

Pumpkins, ft ft . — (^ 

Parsnips, doz — 15 lai 

Parsley 15 @ 

Pickles,fr8h.ftft - @ 

Radishes, doz.. 20 ^ 

Summer Squash — @ 

Marrowfat, do* 4 (oi 

Hubbard, do 2 ® 

Dry Lima, sh.."'- S m 

Spinage, ft bskt. 25 @ 

Turnips, ft doz.. 20 @ 

Rhubarb — '^ 

Green Chillies. 

Dry do 

Pepper.s, dry... 
Butter Beans . . 



10 

IVA 

20 



- (Si - 

— (i 25 
20 (u) ' 

6 (a» 8 



FISH. M EATS, ETC 



TOBAC-'CO- 

Bright Navys — 
Dark do 



Turkeys area little scarce to-day, and average will readily 
bring 25 cts. ft ft., the supply being variable. No higher 
price is anticipated. Fish of all kinds are scarce, on ac- 
count of unusually bad fishing weather. 
Spring Chickens 37,'.^fa> 75 

Hens '0)1 00 

Eggs 35 (o) 60 

do Ducks' 60 (o) 65 

Turkeys, ^ ft.. 25 m — 
Duck.s,CanBk,pr — @1 00 

do Mallard, pr — ©I 00 

Tame, do 1 60 (fili 00 

Teal, * doz.... — (33 00 
Geese, wild, pair. — (at 75 

Tame, ¥ i>air..:i .50 @4 00 
Snipe, V doz.... 2 .50 S3 UO 
yuiiil, per dozen2 00 @i 50 
Pigeons, dom. do — (0^4 50 

Wild, do — @2 00 

Hares, each ... 3Tim 50 
Rabbits, tame.. .50 @ 75 

Wild,do,ft dz.2 00 @ - 

Squirrels do 10 @ 15 

Beef, tend, ft ft. - @ 20 

Corned, ft ft.. 6 '3 8 

Smoked, ft ft . 8 @ 10 
PorterllouscSt'k — ® W 

Sirloin do 12 (a) 15 

Round do 8 (ol 10 

Pork, rib, etc.. ft — a 15 

Chops, do, ft ft 15 ® 
Veal, ft ft 10 @ 15 

Cutlet, do 10 ta 15 

Mutton— chops,* 12 @ 15 
LegMutt.in, ft ft 8 a 12 

Lamb, ** ft 10 a 15 

Venison 10 (g 15 

Tongues, beef, . . 75 <^ — 

do, do, smoked — ^100 
Tongues, pig. ft 10 ^ — 
Bacon, Cal., ft ft - @ 18 
Hams, Cal, ft ft. 16 9 — 
Hams, CJross' s c — ^ — 

Choice D'ffleld 18 @ — 

Whittaker's.. 18 a 20 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

[eorreotcd weekly by B. SdarboboA Beo., Orooers, No.535 

Washington street, San Francisco. 1 

Coffees have advanced considerabiy. We quote Sbar- 
boro's Family Ground at 35 cts. and ordinary Green Coffees 
at 2.5(oi30 cts., an advance of about 7 cts. on former quota- 
tions. A really fine article of butter will bring 55 cts., 
though the market is falling and common samples can be 
had at a much lower figure. Sugars and Syrups still 
strong. 



I'lounder, * ft... 


— 


@ 40 


Salmon, « ft.... 
Smoked 


— 


3 30 


12'^® - 


Pickled,?* ft.. 




W 6 


Salmon bellies 


30 


§ 35 


Rock Cod, ft ft.. 


— 


® 15 


Dod Fish. dry,|ft 


H 


ta 15 


dp fresh 




@ 15 


Percn, 8 water, ft 


15 


^ 20 
^ 40 


Fresh water, ft 


— 


Lake Big. Trout* 


— 


Smelts.largeftft 
Small Smells 


— 


m 15 


— 


® 12H 


Herring, Sm'kd. 


Vb 


(* — 


do fresh 


— 


(0) 5 
i 20 


Pilchards.^ ft.. 


— 


Tomcod, ft ft.... 


— 


9 20 


Terrapin, V doz. 


— 


36 00 


Mackerel, p'k,ea 
Fresh, do ft . . . 


12; 


s® — 


— 


w — 


Sea Bass,* ft... 


— 


® - 


Halibut 


60 


® 75 


Sturgeon,^ ft.. 

Oysters, ft 100... 1 

Chesp. ft doz.. 

Clams ft 100 


— 


® 5 


00 


® - 


75 


® - 


— 


(a 50 


.Mussels do 


- 


(Oi 25 


Turbot 


— 


(9(1 00 


Crabs ft doz....l 
Soft Shell 


00 


® - 


— 


® 50 


Shrimps 


12' 


Sardines 


8 


t- 


Anchovies 




.Soles 


.50 


(U) 60 


YoungTrout.bay 


76 


&l 00 


Young Salmon.. 


— 


Si 50 


.Salmon Trout ea 


— 


Skate, each 


25 


@ 50 


M'hitebait,ft ft.. 


— 


1 15 


Crawfish ft ft... 


— 


M _ 


Green Turtle.. ..6 00 


@I2 00 



Buttcr.Osl.ch'icc .50 (d) 55 

do common 37/^® 40 

Cheese, >'al.. ft.. 17 (cp 22 
Lard. Cal.. ft.... Vi'i§ 15 
Flour, ox.fam, bl 6 75 (g)7 00 
Corn Meal, ft.... 2'4(g) 3 
Sugar, wn.crsh'd 11 to) 12 
do It.brown.ft 10 (o) U 
Oofl'ec,Sbarboro'8 

family gr'nd, ft — (d^ 35 
Collee, green, ft.. 25 (q> 30 
Tea. fine blk,, 50, 65,75 (Si 00 
Tea,flnatJap,.5.5,75, 90 (ffll 00 
('andles,Admant*el7 w 25 
Soap, Cal., ft.... @ '0 
Oan'dOvHtsrs.dz.^ 50 @3 75 
• Per 111 f Per dozen. 



Syrup.S F.Gol'n. 60 O fO 
Dried Apples.... 10 'S I'^H 
Dr'd Ger.Prunos 10 (^ 12>i 
Dr'd Kigs, Oal... 9 (3> 10 
Dr'd Peaches.... 8 M 10 
Oils, Kerosene . . 40 @ 45 

Kggs 65 W — 

do Eastern 35 ^ 40 

Wines. Old Port 3 .50 @5 00 

do Fr. Claret.. I 00 (all 25 

do Cal ,dz.bot3 00 @4 50 

Whi8ky,O.B,gal.3 50 W.5 00 

Fr. Brandy. •.. 4 00 @10 00 

Rice, ft 10 m liM 

Yeast Powders, dz.l 50S2 00 

Per callOD. 



14 



[January 3, 1874. 





Pure Blooded French Merino Rams and 
Ewes, 

For Bkle by ROBEUT BLACOW, of CcntrCTille, Alaniedk 
County, Cal., near Niles Station, on the Western and 
Southern Pacific Railroad. 

These Sheep are ffuaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Rambouillet. 

Also a few well-bred young Bulls of the Durham 
blood. 12T6-3m 



, CJLM0I\E 




SITLTA^ SF.rOXD. 



See description in Pacific Rural Press January 4, 1873. 

Address N. GILMORE, 

eow El Dorado, El Dorado Comity, Oal. 



THOMAS & SH:iR,LA.lVr>, 

Imperten ukl Breeders of 

Cashmere or Angora Goats, 

— OF— 

PURE BLOOD AND ALL GRADES, 

For Sale in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 

Including a Choice Lot imported by A. EDTYCHIDE8, 
% natlTtt of Angora. For particulars apply to 

S, P. THOMAS, Sacramento, Cal. 

— -OR— 

E. D. SHIRLAND, Auburn, Cal. 
3vC-3m 



Pure Bred Spanish Merino Sheep. 

ONE HT7in)RED BOOKS AND A FEW EWES, 

Bred firom Vermont Stock. 

A portion were bred byJEWETT BBO., of Kern Co. 



Can be seen at Sweriier Yards, corner Howard and 
Tenth streets, San Francisco, 



6v64f 



JEWETT & MTJN30N, 
Coamopolitan Hotel. 



THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 



99L 



rnSm 



Breeders and Importers of the 

Cotawold, Lincoln, Leicester, Tezel and 

South Down 

SHEKI?, 

— ALSO— 

THiE A.1VGOR,Jl GOA.T. 

Now offer tor sale the Pure Bred and High Qrades. 
We have a good lot of Bucks of crosses between the 
Gotswold and South Down, between the Lincoln and 
Leicester, and the Lincoln and Jlrrino. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD k SON, 

19T4.tf HoUister, Monterey County, Cal. 



U. K. CUMMUOa. 

18S8. 



H. B. KAL8TON. 
1873. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Oommisalon 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1868. 

Removed to 124 Battery street, southeast comer of 
Washington, San Francisco. 

Our bnslDMs being exclusively Oommisslon, we have 

o mterestathat will conflict with those of the producer. 

ivOS-ly 



100 AGENTS WANTED. 

$5 to t2S per day, selling the attractive little "C 01. 
by 's Washers." *Or«at inducements offered. S^nd 
for ClrcDlars. Address, 

20vC-Sm a. R. CODDINO, Petalums, Oal. 




The attention of Wool Growers is continually invited to the 

Thoroughbred Stock Bred and Kept upon the 

MERIIVO KA-IMCH 



H 



Situated at NUes, Alameda County, Cal., only five minutes walk 
from the station, junctit>n of San Joseand 0. P. R. R. Parties 
desiring to visit our ranch can leave San Francisco at 3 o'clock 

p. M., and have an bonr at the ranch, retuniiug on Overland train at 6 p. x. Or coming out'in morning, can 

return to city at 11 o'clock a. m. The proprietors make the 

THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINO SHEEP A SPECIALTY, 

Believing them to be the BEST SHEEP IN THE WOULD, and are constantly receiving fresh importations from 

Addison County, Vermont. 
Our flock arc all Imported Sheep, and have no superiors in the United States. Wo always have on hand 
choice young RAMS and EWES, of all ages, tor sale at Reasonable Prices, giving time, if required, to responsible 
parties. City Office— 316 California Street, San Francisco. 

SEVER A-NCE A r»EET, 

9vG-3m Importers and Breeders of Spanish Merino Sheep. 




TUSTIN'S PATENT 

FIRST PREMIUM WINDMILLS 

ARE THE MOST POPLLAR 
Of any on the Pacific Coast. 
State and Cousty Rights for sale. 
Bend for a Descriptive Circular containing Price List 
and all other particulars, postage free. 

TUSTIN'S ECLIPSE HORSEPOWER 





Exirelca. 'fflll^^?~l-=='^;r:^£;::^^ ^I"T!^-""""!™™I"* ' Economy 

Ib now the favorite of this State, and sells three to one of any other make. 
B^ N. B. — A few Windmills have heretofore been made by parties in this city, and advertised nnder the 
name of the Golden State Windmill, which is an infringement on the Celebrated "Eureka " Wind- 
mill, lor which the undersigned holds a IINITED ST.VTES PATENT ; and any persons making, selling or using 
the same without our consent will be prosecuted. We warn purchasers against deception, and will pay a liberal 
reward to any person giving iiJ'ormatioa that will lead to the detection of parties infringing on the aforesaid 
Patents. 

MANurAcroBT, corner of Market and Bcale streets Sah Fbahciioo'. 

"W. I. TUSTIN, Inventor and Patentee, 

sel6-Iam3m And Pioneer Windmill Manufacturer of the PaoMc Coast. 




R-fiei*^^. 




THE "VICTOR" 
GANG 



BEST. 



Huie's Patent, with all Improvements to '73, and with 
"JONES" Plow Bottoms, the ••VICTOR" is the 
best OA-lNCi f»L,OVV in the world. It is 
simple, strong' and durable, and does its work 
cflfeciually. Don't fail to see it before buyiug. Price, 
$75. Sold only by TREADWELL & CO.. San 
Francisco. K^ Send for circulars. We have also a 
large Htock of Singlo Plows, iucludiug the •• JONES," 
COLLINS, Boston Clipper, Peoria, etc., etc. Cultivators, 
Harrows. Seed Sowers, Drills, etc., etc. 

*/" Smd for our new lUuilra'ed Price List. TREAD- 
WFLL & CO., San Francisco. 16v0.3m 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It isquickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Oang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 



llv3-3m 



MATTESON k WILLIAMSON, 
Stockton. Cal. 



c. rmiao. 



8. O. BOWLXT 



CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Importers and Alnniinicturers 



OARRIAaES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 Merchant's Exchangre. 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCISCO. 



Keep constantly on hand top and open Buggies, top 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Wagoss, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and tinest workmanship. 

Wo would call particular atteutlon to our fine stock 
of light lioad and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles 8. Coffrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

HelHeld k Jackuon, Rahway, New Jersey; 

Gregg k Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 
And other tlrst-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double Har- 
ness, of the most celebrated makers: 

0. Oraham, New York; J. R. Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
& Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes. Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO k BOWLEY, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

24v6-3m San Francisco. 



NOTICE TO WOOL GROWERS. 

On the 28th day of January next we will sell at public 
auction, at our ranch, near Waisonville. Santa Cruz 
County, California, a choice lot of pure breed Angora 
Bnckt,alsoa few pure breed Angora Ewls and high 
grade Angora Bucks if desired by the bidders. We will 
sell at least thirty head of pure breeds without reserve. 
Wo luive the stock. The breeders of this Coast are in 
need of it. and we wish them to come together and 
make their own prices. English breeders have followed 
this practice for centuries, and we will try it in Cali- 
fornia. It afl'ords breeders an opportunity of getting 
stock to suit them both In quality and price. 

del3-lm L.ANBRUU & RODQERS. 



Piqneer Screen W^orks, 
John W. Quick, Manufacturer, 

203 FREMONT ST., (near Howard) SAM FRANCISCO. 

Screen Punching of all kinds and qualities for 
QUARTZ AND FLOUR MILLS, 

AT E.\STERN RATES. 

I would call special attention to my slot cut and slot 
punched screens, which are attracting much attention 
and giving universal sal isfaction. I was the first mann 
facturer who introduced these Screens to the Millmen 
on this Coast. This Is the only establishment on the 
Coast devoted entirely to the manufacture of Screens, 

Mill Owners using battery Screens extensively can 
contract lor large supplies at favorable rates. 

K^Orders solicited and promptly attended to. 
v2Tn9-cow-ly 



SQUIRRELS. 

For Game Traps, none are better than the 
*♦ PTe'wlionee Traps," 

Nos. 1 and 1 ii being the best sices for Squirrels. 

For sale by CONBOT, O'CONNOR k CO., 

Nob. 107 and 109 Front street. 



19vC-eow-3m 



Ban Francisco. 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS! 
X Line to Liverpool. 

DIRECT. 
The A 1 Iron Ship 



la intended to sail with dispatch. To be fol- 
lowed by other Teasels. 
Freight taken in lots to snit shippers. 

Apply to E. E. MORGAN'S SONS, 

320 California Street, 
San Francisco. 



CHINESE EUPLOTMENT COMPANT. 

We are prepared to furni.«h at short notice, Domestlo 
Servants, Hotel V oka. Lauiidrymon. Waln-r-i, (•'»mm»)n 
Laboiers. Farm liandn, Oardeners, Mechanics. Faclory 
Hands, Wood Choppers, etc. Special attention given to 
furnishing Domoati^ Servants. 

PIERCE a CO., «r; Sncramento 8t., 

deii-tt bet. Moot«omery and Kearor 8lB.,S. r. 



HUMBOLDT WASHER. 




Tliis Machine has been thoronghly tested bv compe- 
tent judges, and has proved itself to be the most re. 
liable and speedy, doing its work more perfectly and 
with less Injury to clothes than any other Washer ever 
offered to the public. 

It will wash from a pocket handkerchief to a bedqnilt 
or blanket in a perfect maimer, and is never out of 
order, but always ready for use, and if properly taken 
care of will last many years. 

It is BO simple In construction, having but little or 
no ornament, that the only way to properly appreciate 
its value is to gtve It a trial. 

There are now over one thnnsand of these Machine* 
in use in this State, and they have as yet only been In- 
troduced into a few counties. They were first offered 
in Sonoma, at the District Agricultural Fair, held at 
Petaluma. September, 1872, where were also several 
other marhlues on exhibition, and some of them held 
in high estimation, but after a trial the premium was 
awarded to the '• HUMBOLDT WASHKB." It was also 
exhibited at the State Fair, at Sacramento, the sanie 
year, where its merits weie thoroughly tested and the 
First Premium awarded to it. 

We challenge competition, firmly believing tbe 
" HUMBOLDT WASHER " to be the bbst uaciii-ix ever 
offered to the public. 

List of Agents. 

For farther puticiUara address 

J. n. ROSE, Oentral Agent, 
Stony Point, Sonoma County. 
Or the following agents: 

HOLLY k DRUMMOND, Agents for Marin and So- 
noma Counties, Stony Point. 
MARCUS HAWLEir k CO., San Francisco. 
J. M. LOGSDON, San Bernardino. 
J. BIGGS, Napa City. 

L. D. WISNER, FarmersvlUe, Tulare County, 
I9v6-l8m3m 



ATTENTION, DAIRYMEN ! 



RALPH'S PATENT 

ONEIDA CHEESE VATS, 

TO HOLD FROM 
One Hundred to Five Thousand Oallona. 

CHEESE HOOPS, 

FROM SMALLEST TO L.VRQEST SIZE. 

PRESSED UILK-PANS, 

PIECE SirLK-PANS. 

STRAINER FAILS, 

CREAM PAILS, 

MILK PAILS, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

The above are made of the best materials and in tbe 
bei't manner. Wo are making a specialty of DAIRY- 
MEN'S GOODS, and sell the same at prices that are 
very low, as compared with the Eastern States . Dairy- 
men will find it to their advantage to call uj)on u*. 

GEOllGE II. TAY A CO.. 

614, 616 and 618 Battery St., 
3Sv6.3m SAN FRANCISCO. 





COLLEGE 



It educates practically. Its graduates are qnalilled 
tor business and enabled to fill lucrative altuations at 
once. Its course of instruction is adapted to all claasea 
and all professions— to the farmer, mechanic, lawyer 
and physician, as well as to the man of business. It 
is just the school for young men or ladles, who wish 
to learn how to earn their own living and succeed in 
life. Pupils can enter at any time, as each receives 
separate instruction. Sessions day and evening through- 
out the year For full particulaas call at the College, 
34 Post street, or address for clrculara 

E. P. HEALD. 

2v6-tf President Business College, San Francisco. 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE, 

SANTA BARBARA, CAL. 

A Boarding School for Boys and Oirl'. ofTarlni; all Ih* 
advantage, of a thoruugti raod^-rn aducation. Pratiob. 
German, ■'-'patil.h. Latin. Greek, Drawintc, th» Natural 
Sciences, Gymnastics and Dancina tauk'ht without extra 
charge Vocal ami Instrumenul Mnaic rrceitra pKrticular 
attention. Pupils farnlah only a pair of heavy blankets. 
Next term opens January 6th, 1874. 

Write for Catalogue to KLWOOD COOPER. 

23TMf Presidant Board of Directora. 



January 3, 1874.] 






Stock for Nurserymen and Florists. 

TERMS CASH. 

Cherry Seedlings— Mazzard $12 per 1000 

— Mahaleb 20 per 1000 

Apple Seedlings 12 per 1000 

Pear Seedlings 15 per 1000 

Walnnts, English, 4 to 6 ft 15 per lOU 

California bl'k, 4 to 6 ft 15 per 100 

Spanish Chestnuts, 6 to 12 in 15 per 100 

Cork Elm, 4 to 6 ft 15 per 100 

•• 6to8ft 20perl00 

Blue Gums, or Eucalyptus, in varlety..$3 to 10 per 100 

Magnolia, Grandlflora, 3 to 6 in S per doz. 

" " 6 to 12 In (iperdoz. 

12tol8in 12perdoz. 

Golden Arborvlta 8 to 12 In G per doz. 

" 12tol8iii Cperdoz. 

Heath-leaved Arborvita, 12 to 18 in 6 per doz. 

Cratagus Arboria, 12 to 18 in 2.50 per doz. 

" <■ 2to4ft C.OOpcrdoz. 

EnonymouB Reptans, Varigata 2.50 per doz. 

Pulchella 2.00 per doz. 

" Argentea Marginata 3.00 per doz. 

" Japonica 3.00 per doz. 

" Aurea 3.00 per doz. 

Swedish Juniper, 12 to 18 in 3.00 per doz. 

Heath, Mediterranean "Hardy" 2.50 per doz. 

Will only sell in quantity specified at these prices. 
If less, 10 per cent, added; if more, 10 per ct. discount. 

BERNARD S. FOX, 

13v6-tf Ban Jose, Cal. 



Fruit Trees ! Fruit Trees ! 

AND WHERE TO PURCHASE THEM. 

The Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society luis 
awarded : 

Largest collection of Pears, 8rst premium. ..B. 9. Fox. 

Best twelve varieties of Pears B. S. Fox. 

Largeht collection of Apples B. S. Fox. 

Best twelve varieties of Apples B. S. Fox. 

Best collBCtiou of Plums B. S. Fox. 

Largest collection of Nuts B. S. Fox. 

Best Boft-shellcd Almonds (Languedoc) B. S. Fox. 

Forest Trees, Shade Trees, larg^i and gmall, in 
quantity . 

BERNARD S. FOX, San Jose, Cal. 

Agent, Mr. THOS. MEHEBIN, Battery street, Pan 
Francisco. ocl8 

Fruit, Shade and Ornamental 

EVERGREEN TREES AND 
Plants Tor JSale, 

At the old stand, corner Oregon and Battery streets. 
Directly opposite Post Offlco, San Fbancisoo. 

I NOW OFFER FOR SALE 

The Largrest and Beat CoUeotion of Fruit, 
Shade and Evergreen Trees and Plants 

Ever oflered in this market, and at Reduced Prices. 
Persons laying out new grounds would do well to call 
and examine our stock before purchasing elsewhere. 

Orders from the Country 

Promptly attended to and packed with care. 
Send for Price Catalogue. 
AGENT »0R B. 8. FOX'S N0RSERIE3, SAN JOSE 
Address THOMAS MEHERIN, 

516 Battery Street, 

San Francisco. 
P. O. Box 722. 24yC-3m 



KING'S NURSERY, 

ELM Street, between Telegraph Avenue and Broadway, 
Oakland, Cal. 
GREEN HOUSE PLANTS, 
EVERGREEN TREES, 

SHRUBS, ROSES, ETC. 
100,000 MONTEREY 

CYPRESS TREES. 
A superior stock o( large sized AUSTRALIAN GUM 
TREES, including:— EUCALYPTUS GLOBOLUS (Blue 
Gum)— extra fine street and shade trees. EUCALYPTUS 
VIMENALIS— both sorts very popular. ACACIAS in 
variety. Monterey Pines, Lawson's Cypress, etc., etc. 
Orders attended to. Address: 

M. KING, Nurseryman, 





23v6-3m 



OAKLAND, CAL. 



Horticulturist — Los Angeles, Cal. 

Has for s.ile as per catalogue the following varities of 
trees, adapted to the climate of California. 

ORANGE TREES, BUDDED AND GRAFTED; 

ORANGE TREES, SEEDLINGS; 

LEMON TREES, 

LIME TREES, 

CITRON, 

SHADDOCK, 

POMEGRANATE. 

ITALIAN CHESTNUT— This tree is unsurpassed for 

beauty, and very prolific. The Chestnuts are delicate 

in flavor and very large, and an almost endless variety 

of rare, useful and ornamental trees. 

Send for priced Catalogue. 24v6-6m 



TREES, TREES, TREES 




FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

GLEN GARDENS, 

ONE MILE EAST FROM SACRAMENTO. 



My stock embraces all the most desirable varieties 
known, including several new Peaches, among which 
are the Beatrice, Louise, Early Rivers, Rivers' Early 
Y'ork, Stanwii Early York, Victoria, Prince of Wales, 
and several others, (all hybridized by S. Rivers of En- 
gland) and fiuited on my grounds this year for the 
first time in California. 

The liOuise and Beatrice are 15 and 20 days 
Earlier than the Hale's Early. 

Being the first to Import these new fruits, including 
many sorts not mentioned, purchasers may rely upon 
getting trees true to name. Also, the FREEMASON and 
SALWAY, the most valuable late peaches in culti- 
vation. 

Blackberry, Raspberry and Strawberry Plants; fresh 
Locust Seed— CHEAP FOR CASH. 



In any quantity from one tree to 10,000, both whole- 
sale and retail, at lowest market rates. Fruits guaran- 
teed true to name. I liave many new varieties of fruit 
in my coUoction which are far superior to the old stand- 
ard vurirties. Among them is the celebrated Beatrice 
Peach, guaranteed true; this Peach is 20 days earlier 
than the Hale's Early, and in every respect a fine peach. 

My stock of Shade Trees and Grape Vines is the 
laigest in the State, and a fine assortment. 

Send stamp for printed Catalogue, Price List and 
directions for planting and training, or come and see 
the stock, at the CAPITAL N URSERIES. Office and 
tree depot U street, bc^tween 15th and IGth streets, Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 

ROBT. WILLIAMSON, Prop'r. 

Special rates to Patrons of Husbandry. 24v6-3m 



TREES FOR SALE. 

T'he undersigned ofifor for sale at their 

Near Niles Station, Central Pacific Kailroad, Alameda 
county, Cal., a fine stock of Standard Fruit 
Trees of the orchard varieties, best adapted for Cali- 
fornia. Our Trees are one and two years old, and all 
well grown and well rooted, and true to the label. 

We invite Planters and Dealers to examine our stock be- 
fore purchaisinft. Send for a Descriptive Catalogue and 
Price List. Trees can be sent by regular freight routes ur 
by Express, as directed. Caret ul attention f;iven to pack- 
intr for Biiipraont- Local Agents wanted, to whom a Jineral 
commi>aion will be paiil. Address the undersigiH-d, either 
at Centerville, Alameda Co., Cal,, or at 4l8 California st. 
Siin Francisco, Cal. 

18vti-4m SHINN «fe CO. , Proprietors. 



ALMOND TREES. 

The subscriber has a large lot of young Almond 
Trees, one, two and three years old, in a thrifty con- 
dition, of the celebrated Languedoc variety, which will 
be disposed of at reasonable rates. 

Orders may be sent to the undersigned, and the trees 
will bo properly packed and delivered at Niles Station. 

B. D. T. CLOUGH, 

(By Express) Niles Station, Alameda Co., Cal. 

P. O. Address, Centreville, Alameda Co., Cal. 
14v6-tf 



de27.1m 



Proprietor. 



TO FRUIT GROWERS. 

Tne undersigned offers for sale a fine stock of one- 
year old and dormant budded Trees of the following 
new fruits: 
EARLY BEATRICE PEACH— The earliest Peach in the 

world; one to three weeks earlier than Hale's Early. 
ST. JOHN— The best second early Peach in the South. 
PLC WDEN— Said to be earlier and finer than Hale. 
FREEMASON— The best Peach ripening about Sept. IB. 
PICQUETS LATE— See Rural Press, Juno 7th, 1873. 
BLOOD LEAVED PEACH— New and very ornamental. 
VAN BUKEN'S DWARF, and ITALIAN DWARF— Good 

fruit, and adapted to small gardens. 
WILD GOO.«E PLUM— Early, good and productive. 
MINER PLUM— Later, fine. 

Also, a general assortment of other varietteg of fruit, 
inclDding Cherries. Nursery, three miles west of Va- 
caville, on the Suisun road. Address 

D. B. HoxraH, 

l6T6-3m Vacavllle, Cal. 



FRUIT, 

Ornamental and Evergreen Trees, 

SHRUBS AND PLANTS, 

VEGETABLE AND FLOWER SEEDS. GREENHOUSE 
AND BEDDING PLANTS, 

Embracing all of the most desirable kinds. 

Are ]Vo>v Ready and. For Sale. 

BLUE GUM AND OTHER VARIETIES OF 

EUCALYPTUS. 

Boxwood Plants for Garden ~Walkii, 

KoRes of all the Kew and Old Varlettea. 

Correspond with me, and, if possible, come and see 
my trees, etc. All orders will receive prompt attention. 
Address: 

A. D. PKYAL, 
Oakland, Alameda Co., Cal. 
DEPOT AND SEED STORE— Broadway, opposite the 
City Hall; Nursery and Greenhouse, 3H miles north of 
Oakland, and one mile from Oakland Horse Railroad 
depot at Temescal. 

Botanical collectors in all parts of the world are re- 
quested ta correspond. 2Bv6-tt 



Brooklyn Nursery, 

13th AVENUE, OPPOSITE BROOKLYN P. O. 

Thi.'i Nursery has for sale at low prices about 20.000 Cy- 
press, ($3 to $1.5 per hundred). lU.OOO Australian Blue fiunis. 
and ab"ut 3,000 assorted Hoses. Also a choice seleu ion of 
the Viirious kinds of ornaniental shrubl)ery, etc. Special 
attrntion given to the layinij out of i andsc:ipe Gai dens- 
Orders refeived at the Nursery, or at the office of J. P. 
S WEEN Y .t CO ., Seedsmen , Nos. 409 and 411 Davis St., S. F. 

24v6-3m JOHN CAREY, Proprietor. 



Flax Seed and Castor Beans. 

Pacific Oil ancl IL<ead WorliW 

SAN FRANCISCO, are prepared to 

FURNISH SEED, AND CONTRACT 

For next year's crop of Flax Seed an d Castor Beans, a 
rates that, with proper cultivation on suitable laud, 
will make them among the most profitable crops grown. 
For further particulars address 

PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

3 and 5 Front street, San Fi'ancisco. 
12v6-3m P. O. Box 1443. 

SUPERIOR CHILE ALFALFA SEED, 

EX " ETA" FROM VALPARAISO, 
For Sale by 

CROSS & CO., 

31C California street San Francisco. 

19v6-tf 



FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Small Fruits, 

E ver greens , 

Shrubs, 

Roses, Etc., Etc. 
Dealers and Nurserymen supplied at Low Bates. 
Catalogues furnished on application. 

JOHN ROCK, 
16v6-tf San Jose, Cal. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

PETALUMA, CAL. 

Having increased our facilities for growing Trees and 
Plants, and permanently located our Greenhouses and 
Tree Depot corner Washington and Liberty streets, we 
are prepared to furnish Fruit and Shade Trees, Small 
Fruits, Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, Flowering Shrubs, 
Greenhouse and Bedding Plant-i, etc. Send for De- 
scriptive Catalogue and list of prices. 

Address, W. H. & G. B. PEPPER, 

21v6-ly Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



ALMOND TREES. 



40,000 Brier's Languedoc Almond Trees, 



One year old from the bud— CHEAP FOR CASH. 

Liberal deductions to the trade and to those planting 
large numbers. The tree grows rapidly, bears young 
and constantly, blooms late, is hardy. The almond is 
l.".rge and sweet, with a soft shell. 

Send your orders for these and all kinds of fniit and 
nut trees, to 

"W. W. BRIER, 

24vG-2m Alvarado, Alameda Co., Cal. 

THE OLD MAPLE LEAF NURSERY 

Has constantly on hand all 
varieties of FRUIT AND OK- 
NAMENTAL EVERGREEN 
and BhCIDUOUS 8HRUBS, 
sl^o a larce as-soitui' nt of 
thuiccRobEs too numerous to 
mt-ntion. lireen House Plants, 
Klowers and Bulbs, Garden, 
Gras^ and Klower Seeds of all 
kinds, are tor sale by 

L. M. NEWSOM, Prop'r. 
Washington St., Brooklj n.Cal. 



HOP ROOTS FOR SALE. 

I have a lot of choice HUP ROOTS, and also healthy 
BL.^CKBERRJ SETS, for sale at LOWEST RATES. 
Orders may be addressed through Dewey & Co., of the 
Rural Press, San Francisco; Robt. Williamson, Capital 
Nurseries, Sacramento; or to me, 

CALVERT T. BIRD, 

25vG.3m San Jose, Cal. 



AUSTRALIAN 

GUM TREES. 

250,(100 on hand for this season, at rates to encourage 
forest culture. Also, 50,000 Cypress. 

Nursery on 12th street, one block north of Tubbs' 
Hotel, East Oakland, Cal. Or address. Box 80, Oak- 
land. BAILEY & CO., Proprietors. 

Beautiful fresh Cypress Seed, $3 per pound, sent by 
mail. „ 2SvG.3ni 





THOS. A. GAREY'S 
Semi- Ti'opieal !Nii.rsei*ies, 

San Pedro street, two miles below the Court House, 

LOS ANGELEa, CAL. 

The Largest Stock of Semi-Troplcal and Northern Fruit 

Trees in Southern California, 

Grafted Orange Trees a Specialty. 

Ilv6-6m THOS. A. GAREY, Proprietor 

Priced catalogue Bent free. Address P. O. Box 265. 



£:si'A:BJLisi£[£:r> i s.-so. 



PATRONIZE HOME INDUSTRY, 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO- 

Being the only Seed Growers on the Pacific Coast who 
raise 

Vegetable, Flower and Tree Seeds of 
all kinds. 



Long experience, extensive practice, and the abun- 
dant production of this year's seed crop, enables us to 
offer a selection of Superior Seeds for California and 
Foreign Soils, and also places us in a position to main- 
taiu the lead in the market for Pure Seeds, and much 
cheaper than those sold by other seedsmen. 

A large assortment of Imported DUTCH BULB9 and 
GLASSES just arrived. 

ALFALKA, Clover, Timothy, Kentucky Blue Ghasb, 
Okchakd Gbabs, and all other varieties. 

FiiuiT Tkeks. Shade Trees, Hardy SnuuBS, and a 
general assortment of all kinds of Veuktable Plants. 

Notice.— We will send, free of postage, on receipt of 
order, 25 varieties of garden seeds in small packages 
price, $1.25; or the larger size packages — price, $2.60. 

K7~ Send for Catalogue and Price List. 

8EVIN VINCENT k CO., 
18v6.4m 607 Sansome St., San Francisco. 



Alialift JSieed. 

A large quantity of very choice Alfalfa Seed for 
sale by 

R. JONES, E street, north side, 
ISvC-tf One door below Tenth, Sacramento. 



SEEDS. 



Save Time and Money. Buy direct of the GROWER. 

Vegetable, Field and Flower, fresh and true to name. 

Catalogue for 1874 sent FREE, by 

GEO. S. HASKELL & CO., Seed Growers, 

25v6-2m Rockford, 111. 



HIGHEST HONOItS 

AWARDED TO THE 

Weed Sewing Machine ! 

AT THB 

"Vienna Exposition, 1873. 

Grand Medal of Progress! 
Grand Medal of Merit! 

— AND— 

TO CAP THE CLIMAX, 

Grand Medal of Honor 

Mr. Geo. a. Fairfield, the 
Inventor and Superintendent 
of the Oompanj 'b works, as 
co-operator lor VALUABLE 
IMPROVEMENTS. 

A. MEAD :& CO., 
General Agents for the Pacific Coast. 

Oftick, 152 New Montqomery Street, 




THE BEST 

SEWING MACHINE! 

THE NEW IMPROVED 

FLORENCE. 

BACK FEED AND SIDE FEED. 



The lightest running, most simple, and most easily 
operated Sewing Machine in the market. 

Always in order and ready for work. 

In the past ten years ELt-VEN THOUSAND Florence 
Machines have been sold by me on this Coast, and no 
purchaser has paid me anything for repairs. If there 
is a Florence Machine within one thousand miles of 
San Francisco not working well I will fix it without 
any expense to the owner. 

SAMUEL HILZ., Ag'ent, 

NO. 19 NEW MONTGOMERY STREET, 

2r.vC-4m Grand Hotel Building, 8. F. 




WHITE LEGHORN CHICKENS 

— AND — 
E O G S . 

CHOICE FOWLS AND FRESH EGOS AT 
REASONABLE RATES. 

ALSO A FEW GOOD 

DARK BRAHIVIAS AND BLACK SPANISH. 

• F. 3V. AVOOOS «Sc CO., 

de27-4t 67 California Market- 

CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers In 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

421 Pine street, between Montgomery and { 

Kearny, San Fbanoisoo. 

21v2-ly 



San Francisco Cordage Company. 

Established 1856. 
We have just added a larRe iitnnunt of new machinory of 
the latest and most improved kind, and are again prepared 
to fill orders tor Kopo of nii.v npecial lenitths and bizbb. Cou- 
staiitly on hand a largo ntook of .Manila Rope, all air.ea; 
Tarred Manila Ropo ; Hay Rope ; Whalo Line, etc., etc. 
TUBBS & CO., 
de2U fill and 613 Front street, San Fraooisco. 



16 



;SS. 



[January 3, 1874. 



Patents & inventions. 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

[Fboh OrnciAL Reports fob thk Minino and Scien- 

Tmc Prkhs, DEWET k CO., PoBLiauRKs and 

U. B. AND Foreign Patknt Auenth.) 

By Special Dispatch, Dated WashinsTton, 
D. C, Dec. 30. 1873. 

For Week Esdinq Dec. IGth, 1873." 

CoNDENSRn FOR Steam Pumps. — Ddvid Stod- 

da;t, S. F., Cal. 
Paper Feedino Machike. — Chas. M. Wielings, 

S. F., Cal. 
Means fob Sikkinq Broken Piles. — Elijah C. 

Boobar, S. F., Cal. 
Preventing the Cobbosion of Ibon and Steel. 

— K. A. Fisher, S. F., Cal. 
Flux fob Tbeatino Obes and Metals. — P. N. 

Mackay, S. F., Cal. 
Watch Chain. — Pierre Frontier and Augustus 

Bellemere, S. F.,Cal. 
Bit Brace. — Joseph Buchtel, Portland, Ore- 
gon. 
Brake Beah fob Cabs. — Daniel Wellington, 

Virginia City, Nevada. 
Wire Mattress Frames. — George V. Bunker 

and William J. Bunker, Yankton, Dacotab 

Territory. 
Butter Worker. — Simeon H. Bush, Boistfort, 

Washington Ter. 
Plow. — Cornelius M. Clark, Seward, Ne- 
braska. 
Barbel Tap and Faucet. — George B. Taylor, 

Oakland, Cal. 
ScBEW Plate. — Theodore L. Van Dom, Omaha, 

Nebraska. 

Trade Mabk. 

WHisKT.—David Porter, S. F., Cal. 

*The patents are not ready for delivery by the 

Patent Office until some H days after the date of issue. 
Note.— Copies of O. 8. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dkwet & Co., In the shortest time possible (by tel- 
exraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast Inventors transacted with 
greater security and in much loss time than by any other 
agency. 



S. Reeves sends a notice to this office giving the 
■ name of his P. O. As we cannot afford to look over 
thousands of names to find your address, please write 
again. ja3-tf 



A Good Binder for $1.50. 

Subscribers for this }onmaI can obtain <^r Patent 
Elastic Newspaper File Holder and Binder for $1.60— 
containing gilt title of the paper on the cover. It pre- 
serves the papers completely and in such shape that 
they may be quickly fastened and retained In book form 
at the end of the volume, and the binder (which is very 
durable) used continuously for subsequent volumes. 
Post paid, 25 cts. extra. It can be used for Harper's 
Weekly and other papers of similar size. If not entirely 
pleased, purchasers may return them within 30 days. 
Just the thing for libraries and reading rooms, and all 
who wish to file the Pbxss. lambp 



SEALS MADE TO ORDER 

FOR FRATERNAL SOCIETIES, 

FOR CORPORATIONS, 

FOR LEGAL OFFICERS, 

FOR ASSOCIATIONS, 

FOR EVERYBODY who wants a well executed 
Seal of any design. Executed with ag little delay as 
possible. Presses included. Designs drawn when de- 
aired. 

DEWEY & CO., 
Publishers and Engravers. 

DEWEY & CO., 

American and Foreign 





No. 33S Miontgromery Wt. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

Patents Obtained Promptly. 
Caveats Filed Expeditiously. 
Patent Reissues Taken Out. 
Patents Secured in Foreign Lands. 
Assignments Made and Recorded in Legal Form. 
Copies of Patents and Assignments Procured, 
examinations of Patents made here and at 

Washington, 
^laminations made of Assignments Becorded 

in Washington. 
Examinations Ordered and R«ported by Tblb- 

OBAPH. 

Interferences Prosecuted. 

Opinions Rendered regarding the Validity ot 

Patents and Assignments. 

Rejected Cases taken up and Patents Obtained. 

Every Legitimate Branch of Patent Agency Bus- 
iness promptly and thoroughly conducted. 
Send fob Cibcclab. 



HA.RDM:iVJNr PIA-JNTO- '""'™*" ^ii^ '"''"'"•>• 




Messrs. A. L. Bancroft & Company have secured the Pacific Coast Agency for 
THE IMPROVED HARDMAN PIANO, 

WHICH IS THE MOST SUCCESSFUL MEDIUM-PRICED INSTRUMENT NOW 

MANUFACTURED. IT IS A MAGNIFICENT SQUARE GRAND, 

FULL-SIZED, AND OF ORNAMENTAL FINISH. 



The HAHDMAN PIANOS are made with the Improved French Grand Action, the best in use ; the keys and 
ivory are also of the best quality, and the Pianos are heavily strung with the best imported wire, the cases being 
made strong to bear the strain. 

Tht cases arc Jiral-class. both in solidity and durability of construction and beauty of finish. They are doable 
veneered with the finest rosewood that can be procured, and have solid rosewood mouldings, solid blockings and 
solid bottoms. 

The Pianos of this new scale combine every improvement that has been recognized of practical utility by 
people of cultivatud musical taste, and the tone is equal in power and quality to that of any other piano manu- 
factured. 

Each instrument will be fully warranted for five years. 

Mr Hugh Hardman's Factories In New York are turning out Thikty Pianos a week, and the leading piano 
dealers in the Eastern cities are acting as his agents. 

Our Music Warerooms contains a large assortment of Pianos, square and upright, by popular makers; also, 
a fine stock of the celebrated 

PRINCE CABINET ORGANS, 

Sheet Music, Music Books, and Uosical Herahandise. For circulars and price lists, address 



no29eow2t 



A. li. BANCROFT & CO. 
Music Bepartment— 721 Uarket St., San Francisco. 



HINTS FOR 



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containing 112 IllustraUd Meclmni- IKII/rKITflRQ 
oalMovemenU: a digestof PATENT "' » t." J WIIU. 
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Kerers! Egrgrs! Egers! 

For hatching, from reliable breeding stock: one of the 

oldest and best yards of pure bred poultry in 

the United States. 

M. FALLON 

SEVENTH AND OAK STS., OAKLAND. 

Offers for sale EggsfronithofoUowingvarietieBof fowls: 
Lig-ht and Dark Brahmas, 
Buff. Partridg-e and White Cochins, 
Spang-led. Qolden and Silver Polish, 
Spangled, Golden and Silver Hamburgrs, 
Pure Whitefaced Black Spanish, 
Silkies, Oame, Ijeg-horns, 'White & Brown, 
Silver Gray Corkins and Houdans, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks, 
Bronze Turkeys, the larsrest in California. 

Also. CHESTER COUNTY WHITE PIGS, CHINA PIGS. 
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Nob. 401 and 403 Sansome Street. San FRaNcisco. 

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Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co.'s Pine Printing- 
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PROFITABLE FARMING. 



A. JiA-TlG A.XTS 



FARMERS AND CAPITALISTS. 



AVo have In our hands for sale an Improved farm ad- 
joining the town limits of San Juse, that will shortly 
have to bo cut up for town lots and residence purposes, 
and will meantime produce a sure Income of 

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At the price st which we will sell it. 

Price— $70,000. Terms Easy. Title Perfect. 

Principals— Only those who havu the cash and mean 
business — may address for thru- weeks 

BERRY & CAPP, 

Real Estate Ag-ents, 

418 MOKTQOMKBX SxBKST, S. F. 

del3-lin-16p 



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Catarrh, Throat and Lung Physician. 

The Most Difficult Cases are inrlted to call. 
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Office Hoare— lOJi a. m. to 8 p. m.; 6 to 7H f. m. 
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Fowls, and apent for the Poultky Wo«i.d, a monthly 
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$1.2.5 per year. Address 

GEO. B. BATLET, Box CS9, San Francisco. 
2«%''i6-aw be 




SEEDS! 



SEEDS! 



CROI? OF is-r^. 

I am now receiving a choice collection of 



Vegetable, 



Agricultural, 



and Flower Seeds, 

Ck>DtalDlng all the BEST varieties, and selected with 
great care. 

ALFALFA! 

A choice quality of Csliforata growth. 

Grass and Clover Seeds-. 

Kentuokt Bluf Obass, 
Enolisu Rye Obass, 
Red Top, 

Obchabo Obass, 
Timothy, 

MESQcrr, 

Bid CI.OTEB, 

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FOR SALE AT WHOLESALE OR RETAIL. 

GEO. F. six^vewteh, 

ITo. SI 7 WaahlnBton Street. 
6v2-lyl6p SAN FRANCISCO. 



[ESTABLISHED IN 18S2.] 

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R. J. TRUMBULL, 

427 Sansome street San Francisco, 

Wholesale add Retail Dealeb m 




Dutch Bulbous Roots, Flowering Plants, 

Ornamental Shrubs, Fruit and 

Shade Trees, etc 

Keeps C3nstantty en hand a lar^t- and fresh stock of 
Vegetatile and Field Seed of all valuaale kinds. 

Chile and Calieobnia Alfalfa, of best quality. In 
quantities to suit, at the lowest market rates. 

MssQurr Obass, Kentcckt Blce Obass, Obciiabd 
Orass, Red Top Obass, Rye Obass, Timothy Obass, 
Fine Mixed Seed fob Lawns, WurrE and Red Cloves 
Seed, etc. 

Agent for Oabit's Semi-Tbopicai, Fbutt TBEEs.whlch 
are offered at Nursery prices, free of freight charges to 
San Eranclsco. 

To parties desiring to purchase anything Id the above 
line, I will send any of my catalogues fbke of CHABOS. 

Bulb Oatalooue now ready. Skhi-Tbopical Cata- 
LOOUE ready Nov. 1st. Ili.uttrateu Seed CataLOOOe, 
embracing Bet-ds of all the valuable varit-tieH, Flower- 
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etc., ready Nov. 16th. K. J. TRUMiiULJ., 

lSv6-6m.16p 427 Sansome at., San Francisco. 



l^r^. (Established in 1857 ) 1«'7'4. 
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SACRAMENTO. 

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And raised by the most experienced and reliable grow- 
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low as from tht- best Eastern bout<es; embracing Vegeta- 
ble, Flower and Agricultural, Fruit, Shade, Ornamental 
and Fruit Tree 

BtlLBS, Flower and Bulb CHR0M08 from Tick, 
(Rochester) and Honnice k Co., (France.) 

NOW BEADY FOR THE TRADE, 100,COO P0UND8 
EXTRA QUALITY 

California Alfalfa, Kentucky Blue Qrass, 
Red Clover, White Clover, 

Musquit Qrass, Timothy, 

Redtop Qrass, Orchard Grass, 

Rye Qrass, Vernal Orass, 

And all other Orasses adapted to the climate of the 
Pacific States and the Interior. 

All the better grades forwarded by mail (post-paid), 
at catalogue rates. Money forwarded in postal orders, 
registered letters or (xpress, at my risk. 

My Agricultural Almanac and Price Catalogue is 
ready for distribution— free on application. 

W. R. STRONG, 

8 and 10 J Street, SACRAMENTO. 

Iv7-3m 



New and Rare Plants for Spring of 1874. 

John Saul's catalogue of new and beautiful plants 
will be ready In February, with a colored plate. Mailed 
free to all my customers: to others, price 10 cts. A 
plain copy to all applicants fbbe. JOHN SAUL, 

Ja3-eow-3t Washington City, D. C. 




Volume VII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY, lo, 1874. 



[Number 2. 



Napa Ladies' Seminary. 

In the engraving here presented we continue 
our illustrations of the educational institutions 
of California. For the facts contained in the 
following, we are indebted to the "Sketch Book 
of Napa County," by Menefee. 

This Institution was established by Miss 
Harris in 1860, and conducted by her until 1864. 
After her resignation, and a short interim of a few 
months, the school was resumed by Miss Maria 
S. McDonald, through whose untiring energy 
and indefatigable labors it yearly increased in 
numbers and influence, by accessions from home 
and abroad. 

Miss McDonald assumed the position of Prin- 
cipal in 1864, and conducted the Institution for 
five years, at the expiration of which time death 
cut short her usefulness, and overwhelmed the 
school with sorrow and loss. It is but due to 
her memory here to speak of the executive tal- 
ent which she so eminently possessed, also her 
powers of persuasion, her rare art of discipline, 
her tact and originality, and more than all, her 
scholarship and Christian culture — all of which 
adapted her pre-eminently for the profession 
she had chosen and in which she achieved such 
signal success. 

The event of her death left the school in the 
care of Miss Sarah F. McDonald, (sister of the 
deceased), who has since held the position of 
Principal, with what success the present record 
and condition of the school testify. 

The entire history of this Institution has 
been one of progress, and cherished in the 
hearts of its patrons, it now stands well defined 
in its proportions and triumphant in its results. 

This Seminary is duly authorized by the Leg- 
islature to confer diplomas upon such of its 
students as may have passed through the pre- 
scribed course of study. Since the erection of 
the new Seminary building, an elegant struc- 
ture 40 by 55 feet and 3 stories high, the accom- 
modations for pupils are equal to those afforded 
in any other educational establishment in the 
State. The Seminary is well supported and 
merits the high standing which it has attained 
in the public esteem. 

Cbanbbbry Plants. — A correspondent, Mr. 
Jos. Pnrrington, of Sebastopol, Sonoma Co., 
writes to inquire where he may obtain cran- 
berry plants. He has already set out a large 
quantity of these plants, and desires to add to 
the area which he already has under cultivation, 
in this specialty. We have inquired of E. E. 
Moore, C. Kellogg, S. W. Moore and other prom- 
inent seedsmen of this city, and are told on all 
sides that there is no constant domand for 
cranberry settings here, and that hence they 
are not kept on hand. If a very large quantity 
were applied for, either of the dealers would 
obtain them from Oregon or the East. There 
may be a few to be had here, but they are not 
in the market, that is, not known to the trade. 
We regret that we can furnish no more definite 
information on this subject. We are certain 
that in time the culture of cranberries in this 
State will have acquired sufficient importance 
to render the keeping of plants by seedsmen a 
profitable business. 

On File. — We have a large number of inter- 
esting agricultural communications on hand 
that may be looked for as soon as we can spare 
the room. It would seem as though the cold 
rainy weather, drawing our patrons to evening 
firesides, had been fruitful of thought upon ag- 
ricultural topics, and now those thoughts are 
being rained down upon us. Well, let them 
come — something of a shower of them will be 
found in this week's Bubal. 



Winter Care of Stock. 

There must be a better system of cattle hus- 
bandry in California, before we can take rank 
as thorough breeders of improved stock. We 
purchase the best animals to be found in the At- 
lantic States; bring them here to improve our 
more common stock; but while we may in most 
instances improve the blood, we fail to improve 
the animal, and it all comes from our niggardly 
provision for, and care of, our stock during the 
winter months. 

A fair amount of care is given to most of our 
imported full bloods, because we know they 
would not live without it; but we act as though 
we thought the first cross or half bloods require 
no better care or food than the veriest wild ani- 



of alfalfa can be grown, with a yield of from 6 
to 10 tons to the acre, and if allowed to lie 
upon the ground unharvested, to be fed oflf in 
winter, would save every animal upon the 
farm. 

There is no use in trying to improve our 
breed of stock unless we mean to take some 
kind of care of it. It will degenerate, go back 
back into common, faster than we can infuse 
improved blood, nuless we feed better and 
take better general care than is done by many 
who are really desirous of improving their 
old stock. It always pays to keep cattle well. 

A Flourishing Town. 

Mr. J. H. Gregg, of the town of Orange, Los 
Angeles County, writes us that that town is lo- 




NAPA LADIES' SEMINARY. 



mals of our plains. The result is, that our half 
and three-fourths bloods, which at least should 
have half or three-fourths the full feed and care 
of the full blood, get none at all. 

The result is, the stock with this degree of 
blood, and carrying with it the delicacy of phys- 
ical inheritance, are dying by hundreds this 
winter from cold, exposure and starvation. We 
say starvation, for we mean that, and nothing 
else; for, if animals are given all the food they 
require and that of proper quality, there would 
be no dying of cattle by cold and exposure only, 
in any of the great lower valleys of California. 

But when we make our half-hardy stock sub- 
mit to both cold and scanty feed, we should 
not be surprised that we lose much of it. The 
very object of improving our breed is, that we 
can get along with a less number of animals, 
yielding the same profit, in fact a greater profit 
than double the number of the old common stock. 
We should not expect to do this, unless we can 
provide better pasturage and better winter food 
than the dried up, bleached out grass and 
weeds, which were refuse while yet green and 
succulent by the same animals in summer. 

It is a burning shame to our stock owners 
that they will allow a single animal to starve 
in a country like California, where a few acres 



cated about 40 miles from Los Angeles, 6 from 
Anaheim and 12 from the sea coast. The cli- 
mate is the mildest even in that county so 
justly celebrated for its mildness. There is 
never sufficient frost to kill the tomato, and 
less than in any other part of the county, 
They irrigrate from what is known as the 
Chatmos Canal. Have plenty of water for 
all purposes. Seven inches of rain had fallen 
up to Dec. 14th. [There must have been a 
considerable fall since.] The soil was wet 33^ 
feet deep, and farmers were busy getting in 
their crops. The land is very productive, 
as much so as any in the State. The settle- 
ment is only two years old, yet it already 
numbers one hundred families, who have 
already planted over one million orange trees, 
about the same number of grape vines, besides 
large quantities of other kinds of fruit. There 
is plenty of room yet for new comers — at least 
100 more families could be provided for with 
land at reasonable rates, and all the facilities 
for irrigation, etc. 

Irrigation Enterprise. — It is stated that a 
company of practical faimers from San Jo8(!, 
have formed a corporation for the purpose of 
constructing an irrigation ditch on the north 
side of Kern river. i 



Pruning Trees, Plants and Shrubs. 

With orchard trees there is, as a general 
thing, too much pruning done in California. 
Where the nearly vertical sun pours its heated 
rays upon vegetation, particular care should be 
taken that those rays fall upon the leaves and 
not upon the trunk or boughs of the tree, caus- 
ing sun scald and blight. As a rule, there 
should be no pruning beyond the removal of 
certain superfluous branches, or those which 
over ride each other. 

Trimming back, or cutting in, as it is called, 
is quite another process from pruning, and 
serves always to thicken up ihe top, instead of 
opening it as pruning does. The present is the 
time to do either and may be continued till the 
buds are so far expanded as to endanger their 
injury from the act of removal, when pruning 
should cease. 

There are certain plants, shrubs and 
bushes that are pruned annually for quite 
another purpose than to give symmetry 
to the same. The rose, if upon its own 
root, may often be headed back, quite to the 
ground, for the flowers upon the new shoots 
or new wood, generally, are larger and fairer 
than upon old, bark-bound wood, but as the 
bloom need not be expected upon the first 
year's wood, a judicious selection of one and 
two-year-old wood should be made in order to 
secure an annual bloom. Koses should be 
trimmed and pruned now. The sap of peren- 
nial shrubs is already ascending vigorously, 
and it had better go into the new wood than in 
that which is to be cut away. 

Kaspberries and shrubs, in which the shoots 
having borne their fruit, die with the year, can 
have the useless stalks removed at any time 
after the autumn leaf-fall, because they receive 
no further nutriment from the root, and 
should be r.emoved early, because the buds 
upon the new-beariug canes start early, and 
are liable to injury, if the cutting-away of the 
old stalks is delayed. The same rule should 
apply to gooseberries and currants. 

There are a few fruit-bearing plants, as the 
strawberry, which are greatly improved in 
vigor and productiveness, by being headed 
down of all their leaves and tops to the very 
crown of the root. This should have been 
done before now, but if there has been but 
little winter growth, it can be done now with 
positive advantage in most cases. When it is 
desirable to raise a late crop, or where there 
is danger of late frosts, the cutting back can be 
deferred for a time, though strawberry plants 
— not the flowers — will bear considerable frost 
uninjured. 

As regards the dried haulm, or stalks, of 
most of our flowering plants, the sooner they 
can be cleared away the better; there is no 
good comes of them or coarse manure or lit- 
ter spread over them for their protection, in a 
climate as genial and generally'exempt from 
frost as the climates of our coast and valleys 
below the line of our foothills. 

Eirly autumn pruning is by some deemed 
objectionable, as having a tendency to promote 
a premature growth of the plant which is to 
succeed; but it is safe to adopt the rule, to 
clear all away as soon as the old stalks are 
dead to the ground. 

Squirrel Exterminator. — Our attention has 
been called to a new squirrel exterminator re- 
cently introduced, put up in form of a small 
lozenge. It is said to be very efficacious. 
Further notice may appear in our columns 
hereafter. Jed. T. Hoyt is agent for the Pacifio 
coast. 



18 




[January lO 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Silk Culture In California. 

[By Felix Gillkt, of Nevada City.) 
Editobs Kitral Pbkss:— Like eyery branch 
of agriculture, silk-growing, although getting 
to be with us, too, in Californin, an old subject 
which some might think entirely exhausted, is 
no less a new one upon which a great deal will 
be said yet; for such ia the case with every in- 
dustry. 

As far aa we are concerned in this State, we 
have almost everything to learn in the art of 
raising silkworms and preparing silk for mar- 
ket; and it is not a little job to found in a new 
country a new industry like that one. Some 
have tried it and failed, and discouraged, aban- 
doned the enterprise; others tried with [more 
or less success, but for want of a market for 
either cocoons or eggs, feel rather despondent 
at seeing their efforts so little rewarded and at 
a loss how to make the business pay. Such is 
the real condition of sericnltnre in California 
at the present day. The Rubal Pbess, I have 
noticed, has never been very sanguine 
about the po.<isibility of establishing in our 
State this silk industry, and that for reasons 
which might nt a first glance look very sound, 
such as the high piice and scarcity of labor 
and the lack among our people of certain 
requisites tor raising silk-worms. Some cor-, 
respondents of the Rcbai. have kept in the 
same strain, so much so, that people desirous 
of embarking into the business are slow at do- 
ing it for fear of making a mistake. 

Let us see how much truth there may be in 
guch apprehensions and whether silk culture 
can be made, or not, here a regular paying in- 
dustry; however, before going any farther, per- 
mit me to state that I have given, and am giv- 
ing, to this question of silk-growing all my 
thoughts, labor and money; that 1 have 
studied it under all its bearings, pro and con, 
and that, though my opinion and views must 
be taken only for what they are worth, I will 
in the course of this essay bring forth facts and 
figures to show the correctness of what I ad- 
vance. 

The question may be devided in three, each 
one being absolutely necessary to the final 
establishing of silk culture in California; these 
are: first, the adaptiulntss of our soil to the 
culture of the mulberry tree; second, the rear- 
ing of silkworms; third, a market for our silk. 
These are three distinct que.stion which I will 
discuss at length in the columns of the Bubal 
Pbess and in preference to any other paper, for 
I am satisfied that the said information will 
reach through your channel the very parties it 
is destined to. 

i he adiiptedness of our soil to the 

Culture of the Mulberry Tree, 
I regard it as a question well settled, but with 
this difference that the rich and moist soil of 
valleys must be excluded, while that of our 
mountains must be regarded as the very best 
to produce a substantial and healthy food. 
For instance, silkworms might be 8ucces.sfully 
raised among the hills of the coast range, even 
in the small valleys located there,' but produc- 
ing lighter cocoons and superior in quality to 
those raised at a higher altitude among the 
hills of the Sierra Nevada; however, as the 
quality of the silk is only a seconda'-y question, 
we may take it for granted that three fourths of 
our soil is well adapted to the culture of the 
mulberry tree. But of the different varieties 
so far cultivated in California, it is a no less 
irrefutable fact that some of them are almost 
worthless, while other ones are greatly supe- 
rior for certain reasons and more profitable to 
cultivate. To be more clear I will name the 
varieties: The multicaulis, I would reject as 
worthless; the small leaved monts alba, as un- 
profitable; the moreit}, as producing an inferior 
silk. I have stated it in former letters to the 
Bubal Pbess, the two varieties 1 have fonnd 
on my own experience to be the best of all, as 
much for the size and quality of their leaves 
than for their larger yield by the acre, are the 
morus japonica and grafted rose-leaved. Having 
those two varieties for sale, I will not dwell 
upon their qualities and superiority, although 
I will refer to them when I will speak of the 
experiments I made last summer. 

The next question — this one of the soil set- 
tled—is 

The Rearing of Silkworms. 
It is certainly a very easy work, which can be 
done by women and children as well as by men. 
There are, however, certain important points 
from which we cannot depart or else we may 
meet with disaster. First, the eggs must have 
been well preserved, for this is a condition in- 
dispensable to a successful rearing; secondly, 
the h'itchiDg must be done properly, so that 
the worms will hatch in three successive days; 
thirdly, moulting times have to be watched 
with the utmost care. The best place where 
to preserve the eggs is certainly the mountains; 
the cold weather of the winter being very beni- 
ficial to the eggs. This is the way I treat the 
worms as moulting times, from the first to the 
last one. As soon as I notice that a part of 
the worms spread some silk round on the lit- 



ter so as to procure for themselves a good 
standing when the time will have arrived to 
throw off the old skin, I cease altogether giv- 
ing them food, never minding those that are 
not ready; then when the worms that went to 
sleep first have changed their skins, I wait to 
feed them till they have all undergone the same 
operation. 

In this way the moulting is done almost sim- 
ultaneously, and the worms keep on very 
even in size. Otherwise, if a part of the 
worms only are ready to sleep and food is given 
to those that are not, a great trouble is created, 
for the worms will look for another place where 
to get a good standing preparatory to their 
going to sleep, and in so doing, as that is re- 
peated several times a day, they get weak, the 
moulting lasts longer, and the final consequen- 
ces are, that at the last moulting the worms 
have hardly grown any larger, about half their 
size, and either die or spin a small, thin cocoon. 
I Blrongly suspect this to have been the main 
cause of failures in silk-worm raising in Culi- 
fornia in years past. 

To prove that with proper care silk-worms 
can be raised in California on a large as well as 
a small scale, I will refer your readers to the 
success of F. Gillet and E. MuUer, of Nevada 
county; Isaac Alter, of Lake county; R. Bon- 
homme, of Sonoma; Paul Consonno, of Santa 
Clara, and other parties throughout the State. 
In Loa Angeles where failures have been ex- 
perienced, Mr. Bonhomme raised successfully 
last year n hundred thousand worms. At May- 
field, in Santa Clara county, Mr. Paul Couson- 
no, an Italian gentleman from Milan, and well 
posted on all peitaining to the business, from 
the rearing of the worms to the reeling of the 
cocoons, raised the worms of over eight ounces 
of eggs, that is between three to four hundred 
thousand, and obtained 1,400 pounds of co- 
coons which he turned into eggs and shipped 
them to Italy. Messrs. Gocei & Co., of Santa 
Barbara, I have been told, have been equally 
succ ssful in raising a large quantity of worms, 
also shipping their eggs to Europe. So it is a 
well settled fact that fdlk-worms An be raised 
with suc-ess in this State — this second requisite 
for making silk-culture possible and durable in 
California. Now, let us discuss the best way 
of getting a market for our sijk. And this is a 
no less important question; for what would be 
the use to raise, successfully, silk-worms with 
no market for our cocoons, or a market with 
no remunerative returns, which would be no 
market at all. 

In the first place, whether the market be 
more or less remunerative, we must have one; 
and as I have said it for the last three years, 
we will not have a market unless we introduce 
in the State reeling establishments called in 
Europe filatures. My intention having always 
been to start up one in Nevada, for my own 
benefit and that of the county at large, I wrote 
to several persons in France about it. Several 
propositions were made to me, and among 
them that of Mr. A. Laurent, a man of experi- 
ence in the silk business, and the owner of 
three filatures in the south of France; he pro- 
posed to me to start one in California with the 
co-operation of our most interested silk-grow- 
ers, and then he would fetch with him all the 
fixings of a filature of twenty basins, and a 
woman well versed in the art of reeling cocoons. 
Such a filature, that is all the apparatus and 
machinery to run these twenty basins, not in- 
cluding the building, would cost in France, be- 
tween three to four hundred dollars, so that 
the whole reeling establishment would not be 
so expensive as some people may think; the 
next question to the establishing of a filature 
here, is how to make it work and pay; for it 
would take several years before it could obtain 
enough cocoons to have it run regular and 
steady, and how would it get along in the 
meantime ? Mr. Laurent, to meet this objec- 
tion, proposed to organize a company among 
silk-growers, each one taking about fifty dol- 
lars worth of shares, and then applying to the 
Legislature for some aid. If all the main silk- 
growers of the State were more close together, 
at a reasonable distance from the point where 
the said filature would be started, this co-oper- 
ation proposition might do, but that is not the 
case, the distance between each other being 
too great. Any how let every silk-grower be well 
impressed with this fact, that the only way to 
obtain a market for our cocoons is to establish 
in every silk growing center a filature, where 
cocoons can be bought and there reeled into 
grege; whether we do it through the co-opera- 
tion system, or by our own private means, with 
or without any help from the Legislature, it is 
anyhow, the only way of getting a market for 
our goods. I am satisfied that as soon as a fila- 
ture would be established and meet with sncces, 
that it would not take long to have more of 
them wherever they would be needed. The 
great trouble presently is this, as there are not 
in any county or even several close counties 
put together, enough cocoons raised to keep a 
filature running, the person that would be wil- 
ling to start up one, would have to lose money 
by the operation till enough cocoons could be 
raised; and it is at this juncture that a State 
premium would be of immense help, and more 
likely to give an impetus to silk growing than 
all the premiums given already to mulberry 
plantations and the producing of cocoons. 

As to the doubt of some people about a mar- 
ket for grege or raw silk, there need not be any 
fears about it. First, a bale of silk of a hun- 
dred pounds *ake8 so little room, and its value 
is relatively so great, that it can even be 
shipped by express to the States and Europe 
with a good margin for profit. Second, the silk 
we raise in California, since we are snccessfnl 
iu raising the finest races of silkworms, is of a 



very superior quality; and the demand is so 
great for such an article that a market is always 
sure to be had for it, and at fair prices. The 
next query, supposing we have a market for 
our cocoons, is — will it pay ? 

[To be Coutinned.] 

Hired Men on the Farm. 

Editors Pbkss: — The "Granger's wife," in 
December Cth of the Pkkss, gives the con of 
the question under discussion by the Farmers' 
Club in San Jos^, in regard to the treatment of 
hired help. With all due deference to Mr. 
Beecher's opinion, I will here give my expe- 
rience. Two years since I assumed the grave 
responsibility of a farmer's wife, but paid little 
or no attention to the hired men on the place; 
but after I became a "Granger" I began to feel 
what my duties were. My first step was to 
have the men's room thoroughly cleaned — 
just as good a house as we live in. We had a 
new man come, and I had his bed fixed up — 
sheets, pillow-cases, etc. 

As yet, however, with all my good resolu- 
tions, I have not felt willing to have my little 
family circle intruded upon at the most pleasant 
reunions of the twenty-four hours. I do not 
see why farmers should have their hired men 
at their table any more than other professions. 

I have never heard any complaint of their 
fare. I was absent from home two week, and 
on my return I found oar new man giving or- 
ders for dishes that suited his taste. I had 
some company come in; I asked the girl to bring 
me another fork. She said: "They are in use 
on the other table." "Why is that?" "Joe 
said, if he could not have a plated fork he 
would have to buy one; he could not use a steel 
one." 

I bore these and many other petty annoy- 
ances in silence, as I thought this man was so 
necessary to my husband's business. 

I overheard a conversation once among our 
hired men which influenced me in the course 

that I have pursued. " There's old Mrs. , 

who always sits at the table with her hired 
men to see how much they eat, and pours the 
coffee out for them, she is so afraid they will 
use too much sugar." 

While in San Jos^, in October, I visited a 
friend who had always had hired men at their 
table, but I found a change. " How is this, 
I asked, " you who have always advocated the 
rights of the laborer?" She replied : " One of 
the men (a well-educated man), said — ' Mrs 

, we would much rather have our meals 

separate from the family, if it is as convenient 
for you. We are under restraint about talking, 
and, of course, you are also." There's a man 
of good common sense. He had already been 
two years in the family, wi:h the prospect of 
being there several more. Well, our new man 
has left; my blankets have been carried off, but 
my sheets were not taken ; and this is my con- 
suelo. Thk WiFK OP aGbanoeb. 

St. Helena, Dec. 29th, 1873. 



Weak and Deformed Calves. 

Editors Pbess: — Your valuable journal is the 
source of much information to the agricultural 
classes, its intention being to stimulate a mu- 
tual enquiry, thereby making the knowledge 
of one.Jnseful to all. I therefore ' avail myself 
of your columns to discover a remedy probably 
known to yourself or some of your numerous 
subscribers, for an evil that has afflicted my 
.-attle for several years. 

During the past two years I have lost about 
forty calves born dead or dying, some few days 
or weeks after birth. Those bom dead come at 
three months or the full time, and are some- 
times deformed in various ways, while those 
which live a short time seem to be weak in the 
loins or hinder quarter and cannot walk, al- 
though perfect in form. 

My range is good, mostly burr clover and 
fiUare grass, and all fenced, with plenty of good 
water. TJie cattle are in good condition, not 
too fat and mostly of good American stock, 
with a few half-breeds, and all the circumstances 
surrounding should indicate a good healthy in- 
crease, yet I have been subjected to this misfor- 
tune for the past two years, although I have 
made various changes'to remedy it, but without 
avail, 

I have been unable to discover the reason of 
this, and would request yours and the attention 
of any of your readers versed in such matters 
who may have a theory or remedy in this case, 
which would much relieve an 

Old Subscbibee. 

Santa Barbara Co. 

We hope some one of our readers will be 
able to show our correspondent the cause of 
the fatality and malformation alluded to and 
suggest a remedy. Without waiting lor this, 
however, we would remark, that we have known 
the same to result to the offspring'of almost an 
entire dairy herd of GO^cows, and all from the 
cows being worried daily by a large and savage 
dog, used in driving up the animals at milking 
time, and allowed to seize refractory ones by 
the nose or attempt to do so. No other cause 
than this, will often produce abortion in cows 
otherwise perfectly healthy. 



Hop Growing. 



EDrroEs Press:— At this time the business of 
hop culture attracts the attention of many 
farmers and but little understood by many who 
wish to engage in that line of farming, and 
finding nothing in our agricultural papers 
calculated to give the new beginner a knowl- 
edge of their cultivation and care, and having 
a considerable experience of hop growing in 
this State, perhaps a few items might be of use 
to some who are engaging in that line. The 
first consideration is the selection of soil and 
climate suited to their growth, without which 
the enterprise will surely be a failure. 

My experience and observations have led me 
to the conclusions that hops will only do well 
on loose allnvial deposits, such as is found on 
most of our streams where they enter the val- 
leys and land that retains moisture till late in 
the season, or upon chalk lands that keep 
moist, but will not produce as much per acre; 
but the hops raised on chalk land is nsnally of 
a superior quality, containing a greater amount 
of lupuline or active matter and will bring a 
better price than those raised on richer soils. 
Ttie climate must be free from coast or prevail- 
ing fogs and heavy blighting winds; the ground 
must be well prepared before the roots are put 
out, it should be plowed deep both ways, well 
harrowed and plowed eight feet each way; the 
roots should be cut so that each one has three 
buds or eyes ard should be placed in the square 
three inches apart with eyes pointing up, then 
covered three to four inches deep. 

The planting should be from the middle of 
February to the middle of March, this done 
the polling may be commenced; the poles 
should be from twelve to fifteen feet long, 
sharpened before hauling on the field. Use for 
setting, an iron bar with round point four feet 
long, and set your poles so they will stand firm; 
this done the cultivator should be put at work 
and the ground well stirred. As soon as the 
vines attain a length snflBcient for training, 
which may be about one yard, take a gunny 
sack, cut it in squares of six inches, draw 
threads from it, wrap your vine round the pole 
always with the sun and tie a single knot 
that will slip and not damage the vine 
This should be kept up till you have two vines 
on each pole, always selecting the most thrifty 
shoots; the hills should then be succored and 
none left to grow but those on the poles. The 
next in order is the picking and drying. If 
your crop is good yon may calculate on it 
taking fifty days work to the acre. In order to 
have your hops of a uniform color, which ia 
very important they should be, the picki*>g 
should l)e done in as short a time as possible. 
Drying must be commenced with the first half 
day's picking and so continued. The kiln must 
be kept going night as well as day, drying 
each half day's picking twelve hours, and great 
care must be taken that the hops are not 
scorched or over dried, as in either case the 
hops are almost worthless, and a like care 
should be taken that there is not too much 
moisture left, for in that case they will heat 
and turn black and be unsaleable. 

They should be nicely baled, in weight about 
two hundred pounds. The yield depends much 
upon the soil and cultivation. I have twenty 
acres all in the same field and all received 
about the same labor, part of which will aver- 
age one year with another twenty hundred to 
the acre, while another portion will not turn 
out more than five or six hundred pounds. I 
only instance this to show how important is 
the selection of the kind of soil. 

Hop Gboweb. 

Ukiah, Jan. 27th, 1873. 

Cherries in January. 

Editobs Bubal Pbkss:— I send yon to-day a 
small box containing a few cherries, which I 
picked from the orchard of Dr. J. Dobbins in 
this valley. It may be an item of interest to 
you and your readers, as it is also to me, as I 
am at this time planting a large cherry orchard 
near where I picked these. It will also show 
what can be done in this valley in the produc- 
tion of fruit. W. W. Smith. 

Vacaville, Solano county, Dec. 31, 1873. 

The cherries were received in very good con- 
dition, ripe, but fresh as though just picked 
from the tree. We have a curiosity to know 
whether they are an exceedingly late variety of 
cherry, or whether they are a second growth of 
the season from the same tree. We would like 
to hear further about these cherries. 



Whitewash— Wild Morning Glory. 

A Benicia correspondent wants a recipe for 
making a wash for outbuildings, barns, carriage 
houses, woodsheds and fences, that will be 
cheaper than paint and stand the rains and 
weather better than common whitewa.sh, and 
further would like to be informed how to kill 
and destroy a vine which he calls the wild 
morning glory. He says: The dryer and hot- 
ter the weather is, the better it appears to grow. 
And the more I plow and hoe or dig it up, the 
better it grows and spreads. 

Who will oblige us and our correspondent by 
answering the foregoing queries? 



January lo. 187.] 



19 



Peanuts— Semi-Tropical Fruits. 

Editors Rcbal Pbess:— Can you give me 
any information concerning the planting and 
cultivation of the pea-nut ? What kind of soil 
is best; what time to plant; method of cultiva- 
tion and probable yield per acre — is much irri- 
gation required ? 

Any information on the above points will be 
most thankfully received. 

We have had abundant rains in this county 
and the farmers are in good spirits. Every 
plow and almost every team of horses are at 
work preparing the soil for planting. Some in 
this neighborhood are going extensively into 
the cultivation of semi-tropical fruits, Mr 
Burlingame in particular, intends setting out 
several hundred orange, lemon and lime trees. 
Mr. G. D. Compton has proved the adaptability 
of our soil and climate to the growing of orange 
and lemon trees, as he has some very flourish- 
ing specimens of each, growing in his garden. 

Richland, near Anaheim, appears to be tak- 
ing the lead of all the growing towns and set- 
tlements in this county. Its delightful situa- 
tion, exemption from frost, abundance of water 
and fertile soil make it one of the most desira- 
ble places in California for the ciiltivation of 
semi-tropical fruits, and that appear.^ to be the 
principal occupation of the inhabitants, judg- 
ing by the number of orange, lemon and lime 
trees already set out there. 

Damon A. Nomad. 

Compton, Dec. 29th, 1873. 

In volume three of the Rueal, Press, pages 
184, 233 and 248, the subject of peanut culture 
was quite fully discussed; but as our subcrip- 
tion list has been much enlarged since that 
time, we condense from the several articles 
then given, for the benefit of our new patrons 
and present them a few words on peanut cul- 
ture. 

A sandy loam that never suffers from drouth 
is beat; the borders of rivers which receive a 
winter or spring overflow are excellent. Lands 
that will give a good crop of melons will gen- 
erally produce a good crop of peanuts. Plant 
in April or March even in localities free from 
frost. Plow five or six inches deep; this is 
enough, because the nuts will not begin to set 
freely, till the roots meet with the harder sub- 
soil; harrow fine and smooth. 

Break the pod, take out the kernels without 
breaking the skins and plant in rows four feet 
apart and twenty inches apart in the rows, put- 
ting three or four kernels in a hill; cover two 
inches deep, or deep enough to secure moisture 
for their certain germination. When the vines 
are G or 8 inches long they begin to blos=?om. 
Now cover all the crown of the root for 4 or 5 
inches around the center, with an inch of soil, 
but leaving the ends of all the vines uncovered. 
The object of this is to press down and keep 
moist the stocks of the vines from which the 
bearing roots shoot downward from under every 
blossom . 

The after cultivation consists in keeping the 
ground entirely free from weeds. Gather in 
October. Fifty bushels is considered a good 
yield per acre, but as many as eighty bushels 
have been grown under favorable circum- 
stances. 



Scenes in the High Sierras. 

[Written for the Hdbal Pbess by J. G. Lemmop(.] 

No. VI. — COMSTOCK SILVER MINES. 

Leaving Yosemile. 

Down from cloud-land, out from Paradise 
and on the dusty road again. So transcendant 
has been the scenery of the last two weeks 
that we are quite unwilling, though compelled, 
to turn our footsteps homeward, there to digest 
the mental pabulum garnered. The reflec- 
tion that, according to all accounts, we never 
shall look upon a fairer scene, caused us to 
gaze to the last opportunity over the rim 
of the receding Yosemite — one of the last 
objects resting upon the retina of the eye, and 
thence preserved indelibly on memory's tablet, 
being the ever-lovely, shining, leaping fall of 
Po-ho'-no, tearfully waving us a last adieu, but 
as sweetly inviting us back to view the Great 
Gallery again, at any future day. 

After Yosemite, what can arrest attention or 
command description ? We have no first-class 
volcano, like Kilauea, within easy reach, no 
Mammoth Cave; but we have one of the most 
extensive and stupendous works of man. Let 
us make a slight detour and add the mines of 
the Comstock lode to our other unrivalled 
"scenes." 

Hastily glancing, on our return by the upper 
road, at Sonera, — the queen of California cities, 
enthroned among fruit-orchards and vineyards, 
— ourionsly examining the singular lime-stone 



natural bridges over Coyote creek, we approach 
again the Calaveras grove of big trees. 

These great sequoias— moasteis among the 
monsters — ever have power to arrest atten- 
tion. Here we rest for a night, glad of the 
chance, ere evening shadows fall, of again 
roaming through the grove, mounting the stile 
to the upper side of the "Father of the 
Giants," gazo, wonder and adore. Great 
preachers are these big tree.^, preaching great 
truths. Thej' tell of power, of wisdom, of 
far-reaching plans, but, best of all, they argue 
immortality for man. When we reflect that 
they have lived three thousand years, and 
that as there is no natural limit to the life of 
the exorjenous, or outside growing plant, it is 
not unreasonable that man, with powers of in 
finite imagination, of limitless conception, of 
boundless aspiration, of universal belief and 
hope ; it is not unphilosophical that the spirit 
of man is fitted for and will exist throughout 
eternity.! 

Gathering cones, sprays of foliage and sev- 
eral rare flowers, and adding to our already 
plethoric bales, we pursue our journey up to 
Hermit Valley, where the road to Lake Tahoe 
northward comes in, which we do not return 
upon but continue up the excellent turnpike 
eastward toward Silver Mountain. 

The first part of the road is a long, tortuous 
climb up a crooked caiion to a pass at the great 
elevation of 9,000 feet. Except the sublime 
scenery of terraced mountains of lava on all 
sides, with dim stretches of valley between, 
and glistening peaks of snow in the far south, 
there was little to enliven the journey. Slowly 
the weary miles were added to the 500 already 
passed. So crooked was the road that often 
our camping place at night was in sight of that 
of the previous night, and the camp-fire of our 
noon halt still sent its curling smoke through 
the pines on the last spur below. 

Silver Mountain. 

At the dilapidated county seat of Alpine 
Countj' — well named — my comrade suflfering a 
violent attack of toothache, was deprived of a 
much coveted chance to scale the rough and 
difficult side of Silver Peak, 11,060 feet high, 
one of the highest in central California. AIour, 
in the still ether, I i-tood upon the splintered 
summit, above the clouds that rifted through 
the passes below. Chief of the splendid 
views from this lofty perch was the group of 
peaks around Yosemite, fifty miles away to the 
south. 

Among them shone Cloud's Rest, and, ever 
conspicuous if in any country, the mysterious 
South Half-Dome, a monument at the head of 
an empty colossal grave, or better, a shining 
land mark telling where is given to man a sec- 
ond Eden. 

Northward John Brown's monument, and 
beyond, lying around the hidden Tahoe. were 
plainly seen Job's Crystal and Tinker's Peaks; 
while 20 miles, farther across the railroad, 
uprose the dim triple turrets of Castle Peak. 
Nearer at hand northeastward across Carson 
Valley reposed the lower but most important 
peak in a fiuancial view, in the known world — 
the silver boweled Mt. Davidson. In the deep 
caiion leading to it and scattered over its east 
side glinted the cities of Silver, Gold Hill and 
Virginia. This view filled up an important in- 
terval in the observed topography of the high 
Sierras. 

A year before I stood upon the lofty Lassen's 
peak in the far north; a year before that upon 
the gold-hearted Downieville Buttes; six months 
ago upon Castle peak, ne.ar the railroad; a 
month ago upon John Brown's monument, 
near Hope valley; last week upon Cloud's 
Rest, above Yosemite; and to-day, this lofty 
Silver peak between the two last, commands a 
fine view of many of the rest. On this sum- 
mit among the splendid rocks of lava a "poor 
Picciola" was found. It belongs to the Crass- 
ulacea order, and is so sensitive that it rose up 
from my accidental tread, expanded its leaves 
all dripping with expressed juice and trem- 
blingly warned me not to wound it again. 

Carson Va!ley. 

Carson valley is one of the largest and most 
fertile of mountain valleys, apparently, on this 
coast, but its thrift is retarded by a monopoly 
of its irrigating waters held at so high a figure 
that only the wealthiest f.irmers can buy — a 
matter for the Granges to look after. 

Carson City is making substantial progress, 
owing to the establishment of the State build- 
ings; the branch U. S. mint, and lately, by the 
locations of car shops there. We were kindly 
conducted through the mint — space forbids its 
description.. 

Passing up a deeply rutted road eastward, 
telling of heavy freight wagons, we heard first, 
the measured thump of a quartz battery, then 
came into view of Empire, a new town built 
up near two very large quartz mills on the Car- 
son river, reducing ore brought from the dis- 
tant Comstock lode by railroad, and also by 
the old-time big quartz wagon with its 10 mons- 
ter mules and one or two "back actions." 
A Noisy Canon. 

Passing over a low divide, wo were saluted 
by a tumultous roar from pounding batteries, 
grinding machinery, and busy workmen, all 
swelling up from a narrow deep canon below — 
probably the noisest in the world. Twenty- 
five or thirty quartz mills — some with 40 to 60 
stamps — are pounding away there nearly every 
day in the year, reducing by the nicest and 
costilest machinery the silver raised from the 
deep mines beneath Mt. Davidson. Around 
these mill are placed the boarding houses, 



shops, saloons, etc., resting one side against 
the mountain, the others upheld by posts and 
walls. One street threads the bottom of this 
canon, and the buildings on each side form 
nearly a continuous wall. Though by their 
proximity forming one community, this densely 
peopled caiion has two names. Silver City and 
Gold Hill. Beyond, over another divide, lay 
terraced along the slope of Davidson the prod- 
igy of mining towns, Virginia City — 5,820 feet 
above the sea level; and, until the founding of 
Hamiitou, another mining town in the same 
State — the highest of its size in the world. 

We were assured that, large as were these 
towns, aggregating over 10,000 souls, the mines 
on the Comstock lode beneath, contained more 
than twice as much building material, and this 
information but increased our anxiety to de- 
scend to the shafts of the most extensive, most 
expensively worked and best paying mines ever 
known. By the kindness of Alfred Doten. 
editor of the Gold Hill News, letters of intro- 
duction were given to us to mine siiperinten- 
dents, and we prepared to make the descent the 
next day. 

In the morning, reflecting that the officials 
would not been duty until late, we climbed the 
bushy side of Davidson, 7,825 feet high, and 
enjoyed for an hour a view of the cities below, 
the valleys around, the peaks bevond and the 
great alkali desert stretching away to the east, 
recalling the many stories of sxiflfering in the 
days of caravans. Descending the south side 
into the noisy caiion again, we seek the mining 
officers, readily obtain permission and a guide, 
and are preprredifor our further descent by 
changing our clothes to a suit of heavy woolen. 
We were then led into the lofty building where 
the monster hoisting works stand near the 
deep shafts from which the hot and smoky air 
rises in a swift column. 

[Concluded next week.] 



Progress in Giass-Mai<ing. 

Siemen's regenerative process for melting of 
glass has proved very successful, and has been 
introduced in some of the most extensive 
manufactories in Europe. By means of its use 
the amount of smoke is greatly diminished, 
the color of the glass is improved, a greater 
control is obtained over the furnace, and a sav- 
ing of fuel is efi'ected wherever, by this pro- 
cess, slack can be substituted for large coal or 
lumps, such as is at present so largely in use. 
Should the expectations in regard to the use 
of this furnace for the melting of glass be 
fully realized, the gain in that manufacture will 
be very great, and the process will fully sup- 
plement those other improved methods which 
have brought glass-making to its present state 
of advancement. The substitution, some years 
ago, of carbonate of soda as the alkaline in- 
gredient in glass, in place of kelp, and, subse- 
quently, for crown and sheet-glass of sulphate 
of soda, in place of carbonate, was but the be- 
ginning, though a most important one, of im- 
provement in this direction. This was followed 
by an increased size and better workmanship 
in the plates, sheets and tables, and by an im- 
provement in the color of glass by use of purer 
materials and by modifications in the manner 
of melting. Numerous changes soon took place 
in the operation of flattening glass, resulting in 
the removal or diminution of many imperfec- 
tions in glass; and to these succeeded the use 
of the diamond in the splitting of cylinders in 
the place of a red-hot iron, also an increase in 
the size of melting-pots and furnaces, with the 
view of economizing coal and labor, and the 
adoption, in the casting of plate-glass, of va- 
rious mechanical contrivances. Finally, the 
use of the same pots for the two processes of 
melting and casting plate-glass superseded the 
old method of transferring the contents of the 
melting-pot into the vessel used for casting; 
and then small coal or slack was substituted, 
in the melting process, for large coal or lumps. 
— Paint and Uil Trade. 



Amebican Leather Cloth. — The mode of 
manufacturing this cloth is said to be the fol- 
lowing: A piece of cotton texture is passed be- 
tween two cylinders, the upper one of which 
permits a mixture, consisting of oil, resin, 
lampblack, and other matters to flow upon the 
slowly-moving canvass. From the cylinders 
the fabric is wound upon a drum made of 
wooden sticks so arranged that the successive 
layers are kept apart from one another. When 
the whole piece has been wound upon the 
drum, the latter is placed, with the oiled cloth 
on it, in a drying chamber. After drying, the 
cloth is smoothed by means of pumice stone, 
and passed a second time through the cylinders, 
receiving another coating of varnish. It is 
then dried, and these alternate operations re- 
peated at least five times, in order to make the 
coating sufficiently thick. The final process 
is pressing the cloth so as to give it the ap- 
pearance of natural leather. 



Meteoroloot of San Francisco. — From ob- 
servations taken at the United States Signal 
Office in this city it appears that during 1873 
the mean barometer for the year was 30.04; 
mean temperature, 55.07; highest temperature, 
79; lowest temperature,41: total rainfall, 18.55 
inches; prevailing wind, southwest; highest 
velocity of wind attained, 48 miles per hour; 
number of days in which rain fell, 64. For 
December the highest baroiueter was 30.33, and 
the lowest, 29.55; the highest thermometer, 59: 
the lowest, 44; the total rainfall, 9.72 inches; 
the prevailing wind, southeast, and the number 
of rainy days, 17. 



Bridge Building. 

Mr. J. M. Goodwin, of Cleveland, Ohio, has 
lately patented certain improvements in bridge 
construction, which are described as follows 
in the specifications: "The object of my said 
invention is to relieve the principal girders, 
chords, side or middle trusses or beams of 
bridges, and girders, beams of trusses used in 
structures other than bridges, of the action and 
effect of loads moving along or over them, tech- 
nically known as 'rolling loads;' and to cause 
the stress of any load passing along or over, or 
distributed unequally upon, any bridge or 
structure in which said invention or device is 
used, to act always in a direction nearly abso- 
lutely vertical, and practically vertical, upon 
one certain surface, and at the same time to 
cause the stress of such rolling loads to be 
brought upon such surface or surfaces by a 
gradual accumulation, the stress upon such 
surface or surfaces of the principal girder or 
girders, acting at all times in a direction prac- 
tically vertical, as aforesaid, and with a force 
always in proportion to the distance from the 
ends of the bridge at which any load upon the 
supplementary girders aforesaid may be (the 
said load being in this connection considered 
as passing from end toward center, the force 
only, and not the character, of such stress be- 
ing changed by the changing of the position of 
the load), thereby removing from the principal 
girder or girders those undulatory and other- 
wise disintegrating disturbances of fiber which 
are produced by the direct action of rolling 
loads; and also to cause the stress of any un- 
equally distributed load to be transmitted to 
the principal girder or girders aforesaid, 
through the surface or surfaces, and in the di- 
rection, nearly and practically vertical, herein- 
before specified." 

Constructing a Piano. 

A writer has taken the trouble to give the ac- 
tual material used in constructing a piano- 
orte. In every instrument there are fifteen 
kinds of wood, namely: pine, maple, spruce, 
cherry, walnut, whitewood, apple, ba?s-wood, 
and birch, all of which are indigenous; and 
mahogany, ebony, holly, cedar, beech and rose- 
wood, from Honduras, Ceylon, England, South 
America and Germany. In this combination 
elasticity, strength, pliability, toughness, reso- 
nance, lightness, durability and beauty are in- 
dividual qualities, and the general result is 
voice. There are also used of the metals, iron, 
steel, brass, white-metal, gun-metal and lead. 
There are in the same instrument of seven and 
a half octaves, when completed, two hundred 
and fourteen strings, making a total length of 
seven hundred and eighty-seven feet of steel 
wire, and five hundred feet of white (covered) 
wire. The total number of strings, when prop- 
erly stretched to produce the right tone, exert 
a pull of over ten tons; this represents the 
force with which the piano is drawn towards 
the other end, and it explains the rea.son why 
good pianos are built so strong and so heavy. 
Such a piano will weigh from nine hundred to 
one thousand pounds, and will last, with con- 
stant use, (not abuse,) twenty to twenty-five 
years. 

Chinese Method of Printing. — Among the 
Chinese, having some 8,000 different letters, 
type-foundries are out of the question, and 
consequently there are no type-setters among 
them; but they follow the primitive way of 
printing from engraved wooden blocks. The 
matter to be printed is first written by means 
of transfer ink upon thin paper, and this is 
pasted face downward upon a block of a pear 
or plum tree. When dry, the paper is rubbed 
with care and leaves behind an inverted im- 
pression of the characters. Another workman 
now cuts away all the blank spaces by means 
of a sharp graver, and the block, with the 
characters in high relief passes to the printer, 
who performs his work by hand. The two 
points that he has to be most careful about are, 
to ink the characters equally and to avoid tear- 
ing the impression, by means of a brush similar 
to our proof-brush. Printing-presses are not 
used. Proclamations, visiting-cards, etc., are 
printed in the same manner. An economical 
way of printing small hand-bills and adver- 
tisements for walls is to cut the characters in 
wax instead of wood ; but they soon get blurred, 
and the printing from them is almost illegible. 
From a good wooden block some 1,500 sheets 
can be printed, and when the characters have 
been sharpened up a little, it is possible to ob- 
tain 8,000 or 10,000 more impressions. 

They claim to have practiced this method 
more than four thousand years ago, while we 
commenced to print from wooden blocks only 
in the fourteenth century. — Arllsan. 

Flammabion, in his work on "The Atmos- 
phere," gives the extremes of temperature at 
different places on the earth, as follows: in no 
place, at an elevation of two or three yards 
above the surface of the ground, and in a shel- 
tered position, has the temperature ever been 
known to exceed 135°, or go lower than— 73°, 
giving a difference of 208 ^, a greater difference 
than between the freezing point and boiling 
point of water. The greatest recorded differ- 
ence at any one place being at Yakontsk, their 
warmest being 86°, and the coldest 72° below 
zero. The most equable climate being at the 
island of Pulo Penang, where the thermometer 
only varies 140— from 76° to 90°, 



20 



TS^QtmQ rnXfUSM. PHtSBS. 



[January lo, 1874. 




List of New Granges. 

r Reportad to the PACirir RcB.M. Press since our pnbli- 
catiuD of ttio full list of t'alil'oriiitt GrHnf!<i»i on the first 
Saturday of thu month.] 

FKESNO COUNTV. 
ADAMS (iRANclE. Big Dry Creek, Fresno Co.: T. P. 

Nllson. Matiter: Thos. 11. Wy.\tt. Sec'y. 
BORDKN CJKANdK. Borden, Fresno V.>.: J. W. A. 

Wkkiut, Master: J. S. i'lCKENs, Sec'y. 
KERN COUNTV. 
BAKERSFIELD (;R*\OE. Baker-field, Kern Co.: S. 

jF.WfH'T. Master; jKiiOME Trot. Secretary 
NEW RIVER (IRaNUE. P. O. B-Hkenitteld, Kern Co.: 

J.iUN <;. D.KWLs. .M isler; Ja5. DliriN, secretary. 
PANAMA liRxNfa:, P. (J. Bakersficl.l, Kern Co.: P. D. 

Ross, Master; J. F. liOBDON, Secretary. 

SAN JOAQins COUNTY. 
LOOKEFORD <;RaN(JE. Locktfonl, San Joaquin Co.: 
(1. C. HOLMAM. Master, Sol S. Stf.wabt, Xcc'y. 

TULARE COU.NTY. 
HRISTMAS ORANtiE. Visalia, Tulare Co.: WiLEv 
Watson, .Matter; H. O. Higbie, Secretary. 



Election of OfTicers. 



Sawda Gbanok.— J. D. Keybnrn, local agent, 
inform us thaton Nov. 26th, Salida Grange No. 
8, Modesto, held an election of officers for the 
year 1874. The result was as follows:— B. F. 
Parkes, M.; A. P. Elmore, O.; J. P. Vincent, 
L.; Wm. Parke-!, S.; G. W. Lestar, A. S.; C. H. 
Heining, C; William Wilkinson, T.; A. H. El- 
more, Sec'y.; B, T. Elmore, G.K.; Mrs Louisa 
Parkes, Ceres; Mrs. E. J. Vincent, Pomona; 
Mrs. Mollie Chance, Flora; Bell Wilkinson, L. 
A. S. 

Elmiba Gkanoe. — M. D. Cooper, Secretary, 
sends ns the following list of officers of this 
Grange, installed on the 3d inst by the Wor- 
thy Master of Dixon Grange: 
A. A. Clark, (re-elected) M.; M. L. Williams, 
O.; G. W. Fruzer, L (re-elected); K. McPher- 
son, S. (re-elected); W. G. Fiuley, C; Jos. 
McCrary, T.; M. D. Cooper, S. (re-elected); 
T. J. Frost, A. S.; W. C. Strait, G. K.; J. A. 
Clark, Ceres (re-elected); A. E. Frazer, Po- 
mona; Kitty McCrary, Flora; L. E. Rippey, L. 
A. S. (re-elected). 

Princeton Gbanoe. — Officers elect:— A. D. 
Logan, M.; A. S. Hemstreet, 0.; Jno. Boggs, 
L.; Chas. High, 8.; A. Calden. A. S.; L. H. 
Helphinstine, Chap.; H.Jameson, Sec'y.; F. 
M. Mayfield, G. K.; Mrs. A. Calden, Ceres; 
Mrs. L. H. Helphinstine, Pomona; Mrs. R. R. 
Rush, Flora; Miss Alice Cartmel, L. A. S. 
Trustees — Jno. Boggs, G. Ralston, Chas. High. 
Guenoc Grange. — Officers elect: — H. A. Oli- 
ver, M.; W. R. Coburn, 0.; J. B. GreeufieUl, 
L,; W. G. Cannon, C. ; D. M. Copsey, T.; W. 
C. Greenfield, S.; J. N. Hamilton, A S.; Mrs. 
J. C. Mnrphy, L. A. S.; Mrs. A. H. Cheney, 
Flora; Mrs. \V. R. Cobourn, Ceres; Mrs. W. 
G. Cannon, Pomona; Mrs. A. A. Ritchie, 
Sec'y. 

Pekndale Qranoe. — Officers elect: F. L. 
Boynton, M.; John C. Dungan, 0.; Chas. J. 
Barber, L.; W. Stover, S.; J. Criss, A. S.; R. 
S. Tyrrell, C; G. G. Dudley, T.; O. W. Grif- 
fith, Sec; James Smith, G. K.; Mrs. James 
Smith, Ceres.; Mrs. J. S. Freeman, Pomona; 
Miss A. Winiield, Flora; Mrs. W. Stover, L. 
A. S. Executive CommUtee: — G. G. Dudley, 
John C. Dungan and James Smith. 

Bbnnett Valley Grange. — Officers elect : 
J. De Turk, M.; A. Burnham, O.; S. Story, L.; 
A. Lncque, S.; D. E. Miller, A. S.; C. Lyman, 
C; N. Carr, T.; Jos. Burnham, G. K.; J. H. 
Plank, Sec'v. ; Mrs. F. A. Robinson, Ceres; 
Miss S. R. Plank, Flora; Mrs. H. Carr, Po- 
mona; Mrs. C. Lyman, L. A. S. Executive 
Committee: N. Carr, G. N. Whitaker and J. De 
Turk. 

Walnut Cbeee Grange — Officers elect: — 
Nathaniel Jones, M.: W. L. Huston, O.; Wal- 
ter Benrick, L.; B. F. McClellan, S.; John 
Livingstone, A. S.; Orris Faler, C; John 
Larkey, T.; W. K. Daley, Sec'y.; L. Langen- 
kamp, G. K.; Mrs. M. E. Larkey, Ceres; Mrs. 
E. S. Falor, Pomona; Miss Eliza J. Jones, 
Flora; Mrs. M. L. Huston, L. A. S. 

CAitBuiA Grange. — Officers elect : Charles H. 
Ivins, M.; Jas. M.Woods, O., Wm. Leffiug- 
well, L.; Jos. L. Leffingwell, S.; E. O.Everett, 
A. S.; Wm. Skinner, C; J. D. Campbell, T.; 
Herbert Olmstead, Sec'y.; J. Mullen, G. K.; 
Mrs. M. E. Ivins, Ceres; Mrs. E. M. Utley, 
Pomona; Mrs. G. M. Blunt, Flora; Mrs. Anna 
Everett, L. A. S. 

Windsor Grange, Sonoma Co. — Officers 
elect for ensuing year : A. B. Nally, M; G. 
Kennedy, O; E. Lindsav. L; B. Clark, S; E.H. 
Barnes, A. S; S. V. R."Klink, C; C. Clark, T; 
J.H . McClelland, Sec'y; Wm. Brooks, G. K; 
Mrs. E. Lindsay, O; Mrs. S. B. Kliuk, P; Mrs. 
S. M. Calhoun, F; Mrs. N. A. Kennedy, L. 
A. S. 

OiJ) Cbeee Grange. — Officers elect: Isaac 
Flood, M; R. C. Swain, O; L. H Draper, L; 
Alex. Eraser, S; Jas. A. Flood, A. S; Mrs.R. M. 
Preston, C; J. L. Kester, T; R. M. Preston, 
Sec'y; Sam'l Kingery, G. K; Mrs. Bettie, C; 
Miss M. V. Nickolls, P; Mrs. R. A. Kester, F; 
Miss Mary Greening, L. A. S. 

J. E. Edwards, Secretary of St. Helena 
Grange, was elected local Business Agent of 
the Grange on the 20th nit. 



From tlie Granges. 

Editors Press:— Our Grange at Nord, held 
its first annual election, on Saturday last, the 
installation to take place in two weeks from 
that time. The officers elected are: G. W. 
Colby, M.; Samuel Bragg, O.; John Mclntyre, 
L.; James MeCarger, S.; William Vettle, A. S ; 
Lemuel Sweeney, C; Joseph R. Hanghton, 
T.; Albert Carmen, S.; A. Thrower, G. K.; 
Mary Carlisle, Ceres; Mrs. Ann Warren, Po- 
mona; Miss Adilie Turner, Flora; Mrs. George 
Van West, L. A. S. Stirm, flood and mud 
have prevented regularity in meeting, but with 
the coming of settled weather a goodly number 
of initiates are expected, also additions from 
members of the Chico Grange, who are better 
accommodated at Nord, when we hope the 
Grange will become a synonym for social greet- 
ing and business of the highest interest to the 
farming community. People interested, es- 
pecially in schemes for irrigation, find their 
ardor somewhat dampened by the present wet 
weather, but two or three months hence will 
better determine whether they can be alto- 
gether dispensed with. But the "gude mon" 
is nodding over a waning fire. So a "Happy 
New Year" and abundant success for many 

Hannah. 



years to come. 
Nord, Butte Co., Jan. 1, 1874. 



Sebastopol Gbanoe.— M. C. Hicks, Master, 
writes under date of Dec. 27th, as follows: 

Permit me to speak a word of encourrgement 
for our Grange and the Order in general. In 
reporting our progress, though it be small, we 
must remember that small items make up large 
volumes. We had our Harvest Feast to-day, 
and had a good time, (and lots of it) and a 
good attendance, and the best of all is that we 
received during the day nineteen applications 
for membership. Does not that gonn:l en- 
couragingly, especially when there is lots more 
of good matt-rial yet to come, and ready to 
come too ? Yes, we expect to graduate these 
19 during January, and when done with them 
to have another class as large or larger. We 
shall have our next Harvest Feast on the last 
Saturday of January, and shall be happy to 
have our Brothers and Sisters of other Granges 
meet us and help us to enjoy the Feast; oau't 
the Rural send up a representative 7 

Watsonville Grange. -Secretary A. F. Rich- 
ardson writes as follows:— "Our Grange is do- 
ing as well as one could wish, and will con- 
tinue, if nothing especial occurs, to prevent. It 
numbers among its pre.sent members some of 
our most prosperous farmers. Farmers here 
are all ready for putting in grain, and many on 
the tablelands are pushing the plow to the ut- 
most; while those on the rich bottom lands, 
tor fear of the grain being drowned out or grow- 
ing too rank, are holding on for a few days. 
But the land in all p:irt3 of this valley is in the 
very best condition, and should the season 
continue mild, this valley will produce well. 
Wheat here frequently yields 4,000 pounds 
(66 bushels) to the acre, by actual weight. A 
very bad case of small-pox has been reported 
at the Western Hotel, in Watsonvillo. I shtill 
soon be able to send you a club of a goodly 
number of names for the Rural Press." 

Kelsetville Grange. — I take pleasure in for- 
warding a few lines to yon in reference to what 
we are doing here: The Grange was organized 
on the 3d of October, by the worthy Master, J. 
M. Hamilton, with 19 charter members. We 
have at present 36 members, with assurance of 
a large increase as soon as tax paying is over. 
There is much enthusiasm among the farmers 
here on the subject, and we have material for a 
strong Grange. The farmers in this county 
need much improvement in their mode of farm- 
ing, as we are isolated from the older and 
more improved agricultural counties of the 
State. I hope to send you a goodly list of 
subscribers as soon as tax paying is over. 
Yours Fraternally, T. Obmiston, Sec'y. 

Hkaldsbubo Grange. — The installaliou of 
ofticers for the ensuing year took place at noon, 
Saturday, Jan. 3d, at the Presbyterian Church, 
which was crowded with members of the Order 
and their friends. Large delegations were 
present from Cloverdale, Geyserville and Wind- 
sor Granges. Bro. A. B. Nally, Master of 
Windsor Grange officiated as installing officer 
in a very able manner. After the ceremonies 
at the church were over, the patrons and their 
families adjourned to the Grange U ill, where a 
bountiful feast was spread, and all seemed to 
vie with each other in doing justice to it, and 
determine to have a good time. 

[The address of Past Master T. H. Merry, at 
the Installation has been furnished to the 
Rural at the request of the members of the 
Grange. We regret lack of space for it now in 
this issue. It may be expected in our next. — 
Editors Press.] 

Petaluma Grange- Is in a very flourishing 
condition. We now number 75 members and 
still they come. The installation of officers for 
the ensuing year takes place on the 3d of Jan- 
uary, after which I will send you a list of sub- 
scribers. The ladies of our Order propose to 
receive New Year's calls at our hall at 11 o'clock, 
January 1st. D. G. Heald, Sec'y. 

Petaluma, Dec. 27th, 1873. 

[Much obliged to Bro. Heald for the 'sub- 
scribers already sent. — Eds. Press.] 



Bennett Valley Gbanoe. — J. H. Plank, 
Secretary, writes: We now number thirty 
members, a small membership compared with 
some of our sister Granges surrounding us. 
The peculiar situation of our valley among the 
hills, and the close proximity of other Granges, 
will always prevent ns from being numerically 
strong. We claim the credit, and I believe the 
same has been granted us, of being the first 
Grange in California to erecta "Grange Hall;" 
dimensions of hall 30 by 60 feet, 12 feet oft' main 
hall ft r ante-rooms, leaving main hall 30 by 48 
feet. Bi-fore spring we expect to have the 
plastering and painting entirely completed, 
giving ui then a good, substantial and well-fin- 
ished hall in which we will always be pleased 
to receive our fellow Patroua from any part of 
the State. 

Ferndale Grange.— A letter from Secretary 
Chas. J. Barber of this, one of the first Granges 
organized in Humboldt County, says: "The 
Ferndale Grange is progressing surely. We 
have doubled our numbers since October 3d, 
when we organized with 30 Charter members, 
and I think before January, 1875, we will num- 
ber 150 or more. Our regular monthly meet- 
ing came off Dec. 27th, at which we initiated 
12 in the third degree. At our last meeting 
we elected officers for the year 1874. Their 
installation will take place next Thursday, Jan. 
1st, when a large class will receive the 4th 
degree, after which we propose to have a feast 
and a general good time. I send you 13 new 
subscribers to your valuable paper, all mem- 
bers of the Grange." 

Cloverdale Grange. — Chas. H. Cooley, 
Secretary, writes, under date of the 4th, as 
follows: At the first meeting after their recep- 
tion, Cloverdale Grange adopted the constitu- 
tion and by-laws recommended by the State 
Griingo, with two slight amendments. At their 
regular niouthly meeting second Saturday in 
December, they elected the following officerc: 
ChflS. H. Cooley, M.; H. Keir, O.; Wm. Cald- 
well, L.; J. G. Heald, S.; W. D. Sink, A. S.; 
R. Lewis, C. ; Wm M. Howell. T, ; J. B. Cooley, 
Sec'y; Mrs. Heald, Ceres; Mrs. Cooley, Pomo- 
na; Miss Waite, Flora; Mrs. Waite, L. A. S. 
All re-electedgexcept Treasurer and Secretary, 
who asked the Grange before balloting to elect 
others in their places. At the next regular 
meeting, 10th instant, Bro. Merry of Healds- 
burgh, will install. 

Old Cekek Grange. 



New Granges. 

Adams Grange, Fresno Coctnty. — A letter 
from Thomas H. Wyatt, of Big Dry Creek, 
Fresno County, informs us that a Grange was 
organized at that locality on the 27th ult., by 
State Lecturer, J. W. A. Wright, with a full 
list of rh.irter members. The following were 
elected officers for the ensuing year:— Maj. T. 
son, M.; Thos. Hall, O.; Thos. Jeans, 



N.' 



-R. M. Preston, Secre- 
tary, writes: "Matters in this Grange are pro- 
gressing smoothly. A number of additions 
have been made during the quarter just clos- 
ing, with more in prospect. We have had 
magnificent rains, with peculiarly fine growing 
weather. Fallowing soil on the hills is soaked 
to a depth of two feet and over; grasses are grow- 
ing as fast as is possible for them to do. In 
all probability this section will have a very 
good season, both for grain and dairy farming, 
and in consequence Grangers are in excellent 
spirits." 

Sebastopol Grange. — Jos. Purrington, Sec- 
retary, writes iis that he finds most of the 
Granges of his vicinity subscribers to the Rural. 
Concerning the Grange, he says: — We held our 
Harvest Feast Dec. 27; had a glorious day for 
it. We received 18 applications for member- 
ship, at that single meeting. Our Grange is 
all enthusiasm, and will be heard from, some 
day, to the detriment of land sharks ami mo- 
nopolists. 

Los Banyos Grange. — Brother Viney, 
writes that this Grange is prospering — that 
they had a "grand time" at their Harvest 
Feast on the 27th ultimo, — 10 members took 
the Fourth Degree. Bro. V. says the farmers 
throughout the San Joaq^iia valley are in good 
spirits in anticipation of good crops the com- 
ing season. 

Walnut Cbeek Grange. — This Grange, 
writes Secretary W. K. Daly, which was organ- 
ized a few weeks ago with 28 charter members, 
is growing slowly but surely. Expects that 
after the busy months of January and February 
have passed, they will be able to make a better 
report of progress than they have heretofore 
done. 

Santa Claba Grange. — The Secretary of this 
Grange writes as follows: Nothing new. Offi- 
cers were installed on 2d inst., and those at 
San Jose on 3d. Farmers are very busy now 
putting in the seed, jubilant over the prospects 
of good crops and good prices. 

GnKNoc Grange.— Bro. Ritchie, in sending 
the list of officer.=i elect, says: "Guenoc Grange 
now numbers 47 members. Every one in that 
vicinity is hopeful with regard to the coming 
crops, and all are in favor of "No Fence." 

Napa Grange. — The officers of this Grange 
will be installed on Saturday, January 17th, by 
Bro. Baxter, the retiring Master, and Secretarj' 
of the State Grange. 

State Grange in New Jersey.— This State, 
which reported only four Granges in Septem- 
ber last, effected a State organization on the 
26th of November with 24 subordinate Granges. 
Edward Howlaud was elected Master, and 
R. W. Pratt, Sec'y. They expect to number 
fully 100 Granges in that State by next spring. 



P 

L.; J. W. Potter, C; Thos. H.' Wyatt, Sec'y.'; 
W. W. Sbipp, T.; Logan Potter, S.; J. A. 
Jack, A. S ; E. H. Patterson, G. K.; Mrs. 
Mary Hall, Ceres; Mrs. M. B. Ross, Pomona; 
Miss Lanra Jeans, Flora; Mrs. S. F. Doak, L. 
A. S. 

LocKEyoRD Gbanoe, San Joaquin Co.— Bro. 
E. B. Stiles, Deputy, reports the organization 
of a Grange by him, on the 29th ult., at LooUa- 
ford, San Joaqnin county, with full number of 
charter members, and the following list of offi- 
cers:— G. C. Holman, M.; G. B. Ralph, O.; 
Sol. 8. Stewart, Sec'y.; Benj. Thomas, T.; A. 
J. Williams, S.; F. J. Megerle, A. 8.; Geo. 
Frethaway, G. K.; John Frethaway, C; E. P. 
Megerle, L.; Elizabeth Ralph, L. A. S.; Mrs. 
G. O. Holman, Ceres; Mrs. A. J. Williams, 
Pomona. The name of the Lady holding the 
office of Flora, has not been furnished ns. 

Bro. J. W. A. Wright has furnished us with 
the following record of his work since his last 
report: 

Cbbistma > Grange, organized on Christmas 
day — hence its name — Visalia, Tulare county; 
Wiley Watson, M.; H. G. Higbie, Sec'y. 

Adams Gbanob, Dry Creek, P. O., Fresno 
county; T. P. Nelson, M.; Thomas Wyatt, 

Seo'y. 

Bobden Grange, Border, Fresno county; J. 
W. A. Wright, M.; J. H. Pickens, Sec'y. This 
Grange, as will be seen, has been organized at 
Bro. Wright's new place of residence, Borden, 
and his friends there have insisted on his again 
occupying the chair. 

Bakeesfield Grange, Bakersfield, Kern 
county; 8. Jewett, M.; Jerome Troy, Sec'y. 

New Riveb Gbanoe, P. O. B:ikersfleld, Kern 
county; John G. Dawes, M.; Jas. Dixon, 
Sec'y. 

Panama Grange, P. O., Bakersfield, Kern 
county; P. H. Ross, M.; J. F. Gordon, Sec'y. 

Bro. Wright makes no sinecure of his office 
of State Lecturer. In addition to his work 
recorded above, he lectured and installed the 
officers elect at Tnrlock, on the 2d inst., and 
eiijoyotl a Harvest Feast. 

The next da\ he visited Stockton Grange, 
lectnred in the afternoon; in the evening in- 
stalled and lectured at Rustic Grange, near 
Lathrop. 

Yesterday he was to have organized a Grange 
at Marysville, and possible another near that 
city. To-day (Saturday) he lectures before 
the Yuba, Butte and Sutter Granges, at Yuba 
City. On Monday he lectures before the Co- 
lusa Grange, and on Wednesday he speaks be- 
fore the Yolo Grange at Woodland. 

On the 17th he meets the Granges of Napa 
county, at Napa City, and will probably or 
ganize a Grange at Beryessa. 



The Raileoads utd thk Wheat Makket. — 
A short time since the wheat syndicate which 
was buying wheat in the neighborhood of St. 
Croix, Wis., in the interest of the railroad men, 
refused to give but 78 cents per bashei; where- 
upon the Granges appointed men to buy where 
necessity compelled f.irmers to sell, and other- 
wise store wheat until better prices were offered 
by buyers for transportation. They instructed 
their agents to pay 90 cents instead of 78, as 
offered by the syndicate. The speculators im- 
mediately, thereupon offered 95 cents. 

Now, were the speculators swindling the 
farmers when they refused to pay more than 78 
cents, or did they determine to lose money 
when they decided to pay 95 cents— an advance 
of nearly 20 per cent? If it had not been for 
the Grange organization, the farmers about St. 
Croix would have been compelled to sacrifice 
their grain at 20 per cent, less than its value. 
A similar class of facts, will be found to exist 
in every farming locality throughout the Union. 
Nothing but a close orgauiZ'ttion like the 
Grange has been found sufficiently powerful to 
break down such oppression. 



From Texas. — Bro. James M. Thompson, 
sends remembrance to his Grange at Napa, 
through State Secretary, Bixter. He expects 
to return to California by the 20th of the pres- 
ent month. He alludes, in his letter to the 
barren and flowerless appearance of nearly all 
the rural homes where he is sojourning, pre- 
senting a most marked contrast with the tree 
and flower-embosomed homesteads about tbe 
villages of his own Napa valley. 



January lo, 1874] 



21 



Interesting Letter from Bro. Wright. 

Dear Kubal:— A Happy New Year! And why 
should it not be a happy one to you who have 
so long, so ably and fearlessly advocated the 
interests of the producers of our coast? You 
who have so truly represented the noble princi- 
ples of reform which the Patrons of Husban- 
dry in America are "now successfully inaugu- 
rating? And why should not all Patrons be 
happy on the advent of a New Year which sees 
recorded among the good w^rks of the past 
twelve months, the establishment of over 8,000 
new Granges in the United States ? This 
makes more than 9,500 now in successful opera- 
tion with but one purpose in view, uniting not 
far from a million earnest men and women, 
determined to labor untiringly with the aid of 
many outside friends, in this glorious cause of 
reform. A few weeks more will swell the num- 
ber of our subordinate Granges to 10,000. A 
year ago, but fen State Granges were organized. 
To-day there are twenty-nine, and our Order 
exists in every State in the Union except Dela- 
ware, Rhode Island and Connecticut. 

During the last five months in our own Slate 
the number has increased from 35 to 150, or 
more than fourfold. 

In Dec. alone, 21 were organized in California. 

From Dec. 10th to the Slst inclusive I had 
the pleasure of organizing thirteen Granges in 
Fresno, Tulare and Kern counties — as follows: 

Dec. 10th, 10 a. m., Garretson Grange, Fresno 
Co.. P. O. King's river; Dec. 10th, 7 p. m., 
Fresno Grange, Fresno Co., P. O. Fresno city; 
Dec. 11th, 7 p. M., Lake Grange, Tulare Co., 
P. 0. Kingston; Dec. 12th, 7 p. m., Franklin 
Grange, Tulare Co., P. O. Kingston; Dec. 13th, 
7 p. M., Deep Creek Grange, Tulare Co., P. O. 
Farmersville; Dec. 16th, 7 p. m., Tule Eiver 
Grange, Tulare Co., P. O. Porterville; Dec. 
20th, Panama Grange, Kern Co., P. O. Bakers- 
fleld; Dec. 22d, Bakersfield Grange, Kern Co., 
P. O. Bakersfield; Dec. 23d, New Eiver Grange, 
Kern Co., P. O. Bakersfield; Dec. 25th, Christ- 
mas Grange, Tulare Co., P. O. Visalia; Dec. 
26th, Visalia Grange, Tulare Co., P. 0. Visalia; 
Dec. 27th, Adams Grange, Fresno Co., P. O. 
Fresno city; Dec. 31fit, Borden Grange, Fresno 
Co., P. O. Borden. 

So scattered are these farming centers, that 
it required a trip of nearly 500 miles by railroad, 
stage and private conveyance to do this work. 
But I had the satisfaction to leave nearly 400 
new Grange members in the three counties as 
seed for the future growth of our Order, in that 
remote portion of our State. They promise to 
be earnest workers too, and are fully alive to 
the importance of our work. It was a pleasing 
sign of awakening interest to find larger num- 
bers attending the meetings appointed for my 
return, than there when I first passed up the 
valley. It will be but a .short time before these 
Granges will double their membership. 

Theyneed the benefits following from our 
Order, and they know it. It may be a matter 
of interest for your general readers to know the 
number of Granges organized in the United 
States, for each month in 1873. 

Following is the OlScial Report: January 
158;Februarv 347; March 666; April 571; May 
696; June 625; July 612; August 829; Septem- 
ber 919; October 1,050; November 974; Decem- 
ber (to the 13th) 517. Total to Dec. 13th, 
7,964. 

Few of these exist in the Territories; but 
trie work is beginning there. Even from dis- 
tant Montana, the cry comes, "We must have 
Granges," as will be seen from an accompany- 
ing communication. 

With reference to our present season in this 
portion of the State, farmers are very hopeful. 
We have had already about six inches of rain, 
and rain having commenced early, our crops 
are a month ahead of their condition this time 
last year. May our prosperity for '74 surpass 
that of '73. Yours, 

J. W. A. Wbight. 

Borden, Fresno Co., Jan. 1st, 1874. 



Catholics as Patrons of Husbandry. 

Our subscriber, Mr. Gallagher (a Patron), 
of Sebastapol, has inquired of Archbishop 
Alemany, of this city, as to whether it is against 
the rules of the Catholic Church for its mem- 
bers to join the Order of Patrons of Husbandry. 
The Archbishop answers that, so far as he has 
examined into the matter, he is of opinion there 
are no objections ; in fact that he rather thinks 
favorably of the matter, and that it is advisable 
for Catholics who are eligible to join the Or- 
der. The Archbishop is wise, and truly Catho- 
lic in his decision. 

It is well known that the Catholic Church 
prohibits its members from joining any secret 
society ; but we presume the Archbishop 
judges— and, if so, rightly — that, iu the gen- 
eral acceptation of the term, the Order of P. 
of H. is not a secret society. Its members 
simply meet and talk business, and that busi- 
ness is kept a secret, just as such things are 
among all business associations. The Catholic 
Church certainly does not require its adherents 
to reveal honest business secrets. 

That Church, as we understand it, simply 
sets itself against such secret societies as may 
be supposed to set up a peculiar standard of 
morality or religion, or which practice mys- 



terious ceremonies and rites, the object and 
purport of which are not announced. The 
P. of H. have no objects or purposes which 
are not fully and openly avowed. Their so 
called secrets, relate simply to business mat- 
ters and certain simple, harmless signs of 
recognition, which may enable its members to 
recognize each other, when strangers, and thus 
prevent fraud or imposition. Against such 
things we presume no Church can have any 
objection. In this sense of the term every suc- 
cessful business man belongs to a secret 
society, or is one himself. 

There are great numbers of Catholic farmers 
in this and the Eastern States, whose interests 
are identified with our Order, and whose aid 
and support would greatly strengthen it. This 
decision will remove the doubt which many 
have entertained with regard to joining, and 
give full assurance to the few who have already 
taken our view of the case, and identified 
themselves with the Order. 

So important is a membership in the Order 
considered in some parts of the Western States, 
that great numbers of Catholics have broken 
over the prohibition, and united with the 
same. In Oimstead county, Minnesota, the 
Catholic farmeis held a large meeting in Roch- 
ester township, passed resolutions favoring the 
movement, and regretting that the obligation 
of secrecy prevented their co-operation as 
actual members of the Order. They further- 
more resolved to form an open organization, 
with similar objects in view as those enter- 
tained by the Granges. One of the resolutions 
passed, reads as follows: 

Raolved—" That, though not Patrons, we aim at the 
same purpose, and, in a broad eeuse, co-operate with 
and fight by the side of the Order, on the same field 
agaicBt tyrannies which, unhappily, are possible even 
In a free republic." 

The Catholics of the adjacent counties, at 
latest reports, were moving in the same direc- 
tion. If the decision of Archbishop Alemany 
is generally concurred in by others of his faith, 
the door will be fully open for a large and 
important influx to the Order of such as are 
in full sympathy with us, and who might there- 
by add by their numbers and strength to the 
power and influence of the Patrons of Hus- 
bandry. 

Co-operation in the Grange. 

The following essay was read by D. K. Rule, 
Lecturer, St. Helena Grange, No. 30., Dec. 
27th, and by unanimous vote ordered to be 
sent to the Rural Press, for publication : 

What is our object as Patrons of Husbandry? 
Co-operation. To protect the cultivator of the 
soil — he who lives by the sweat of his 
brow, "the hardy son of toil" — from the op- 
pression of moneyed monopolists, who fully 
comprehend and practice "co-operatiou"Hgaiast 
us, and for their own aggrandizement. We 
must meet these men on their own ground, 
fight them with their own weapons, less their 
dishonesty and oppression. 

But this is not our sole object, or should not 
be. I shall leave the more direct considera- 
tion of the pecuniary advantages of our asso- 
ciation to others more competent, and confine 
myself to that of a few things for our own gen- 
eral improvement. 

The Granges have taken the place of 
"Farmers' Clubs," in which was discussed all 
things pertaining to the soil, the products 
thereof, aud their conversion into money — 
money — money, the sign of property and pros- 
perity. 

The combination, elimination and dissem- 
ination of our experience and observations, as 
agriculturists, should certainly occupy much of 
the time of our Granges. Let every one bring 
his mite; let every Brother or Sister tell his or 
her successes or failures; much is to be learned 
from the latter — a chart of shoals and sands 
which we should avoid. 

My present essay shall be chiefly devoted to 
some of the means by which we may aid each 
other. All which beautifies and renders home 
pleasant and endearing; all which refines the 
taste and gives pure pleasure is useful. The 
utilitarian who confines his idea of the useful 
to pounds, shillings aud pence, makes a God 
of mammon, and knows not true enjoyment of 
the good things, which our one, true and benefi- 
cent God has placed within the reach of all 
who will obey His laws. 

The beautiful of rural life is ever useful; let 
us cultivate it around our homes, and make 
home the dearest spot on earth; make our 
wives, our husbands, our children, prefer 
home to all other places. 

How may we, the Patrons of Husbandry, 
contribute to this end? — by co-operation! 
Has a Sister a rare plant — let her propogute it 
and divide with her Sisters; has a Brother 
a rare or superior fruit or grain — let him do 
likewise. By co-operation of the Sisters of 
our Order, throughout this State, each and all 
may, in a short time, with little expense, pos- 
sess every beautiful plant of our prolific soil 
and balmy clime. So with the Brothers; let 
them exchange vines and trees, grain and grass; 
let us be one family ! 

But those material things should not be all 
that we should exchange. Let ns exchange 
our experiences — our thoughts. Has a Sister 
found a superior method of making bread or 
butter, or of preserving fruits, lee her, through 
our organization, share her knowledge with 



her Sisters, for it has been said that, "the 
nearest road to a husband's heart leads through 
the stomach." I, as a man and a husband, must 
deny this; yet every husband should be taught 
by his wife, to prefer her table to that of any 
other. Sisters, make home a charm; not only 
by beauty, smiles, kind words and kisses, but 
by material things which man's grosser nature 
demands. Let the Brothers also share their ex- 
periences, and render due aid to Sisters in 
beautifying their homes; let us study the 
chemistry, the anatomy, the physiology of our 
trees, vines, and plants — and communicate 
the results of our observations. 

The modes and extent of beneficial co-opera- 
tion are without limit; but I shall here call at- 
tention to the interchange of books aud peri- 
odicals. We will say that A takes the Rural 
Press, B the Granger, C the Agriculturist, D 
the Scientific American, etc. ; let us have a hall, 
a room of our own, and after the primary read- 
ing of our journals, instead of sending them to 
the waste paper basket, bring them to our read- 
ing room; thus, for the cost of one, we may 
have the reading of a dozen publications on 
useful subjects. By co-opei-ation we can soon 
have a library; one as useful in all respects as 
if personally owned, yet having cost in the ag- 
gregate, more than many of us could individ- 
allyafi'ord. This last idea I take from the 
communication of "Kennett," in a late num- 
ber of the Granger. Having just borrowed one 
idea, I will borrow another from a Sister. It 
is drawn from her plants— cuttings of plants, 
placed in water and a warm atmosphere; some 
send forth delicate leaflets and fragile, but 
form no roots; they soon perish. Others 
send out leaves and roots, and are soon fit to 
plant in Mother Etirth, quickly thereafter re- 
warding her labor and care with a rich display 
of verdure and bloom. 

I wish that time would permit me to copy her 
language, but her application was, that the 
Grange must not be all leaves and perfume; 
that it must take root; then seud forth things of 
beauty to charm the senses and purify the 
heart; else, like the tender leaflets and unde- 
veloped flower buds of her rootless plants, it 
shall likt. them soon perish. 

We have all read, or should have read, the 
fable of the old man — his contentious sons — 
and the bundle of rods. It is, in substance, that 
he bade each son bring him a rod; then ordered 
the oldest to bind them together firmly; each 
son, in his turn, was commanded to break the 
bundle; none could succeed. The rods were 
then separated by the father and one given to 
each to break; the task was easy! Brothers 
and Sisters; let us remain bound together with 
fraternal bonds. 

I read when a boy — how long ago I will not 
say — a little story in rhyme — a rural one — of a 
young farmer who, on the morning after taking 
his bride home, threw a rope over the roof of 
his cottage, and called to Hannah Jane to pull! 
She dutifully and strongly pulled, but in vain. 
Then Richard called her to his side and said, 
"come puU with me — you pull and I will pull;" 
the rope was easily drawn over. The story 
ended with, "we will both pull at one end and 
both pull together." Granges! Brothers! Sisters! 
Let us all pull at one end and all pull together. 

Organizing a Grange. 

Wm. Collet furnishes the Indiana Farmer an 
interesting account of his experience m organ- 
izing a Grange. He says:— "Organizing a 
Grange is not, by any means, a desirable task, 
when one has to talk the matter over, stating 
the aims, designs and intents of the Order two 
or three times, and answer the questions the 
entire company may ask. Then, when you 
think you are ready to work, some one who 
has never given the subject a moment's thought, 
has never read an article in relation to it, nor 
in all probability h-.s ever taken a paper in 
his life, says, with a grunt, "It's all a humbug.' 
or perhaps, 'Well, we must have time to think 
on the subject, and you can't organize to-night, 
anyway.' I have met with such people, and 
again, I have been called upon to organize 
Granges where the people were as intellectual 
in mind, as polished in manners and as courte- 
ous and polite in word and action, as pure 
minded, as well educated and honorable as men 
and women should be. Such au assemblige 
of people I once found awaiting my coming. 
When I arrived, the would-be Grangers had 
alre.idy assembled, with a venerable gentleman 
filling the chair as president of the meeting, 
while another was making an address on the 
subject of the Grange, but gracefully yielded 
the floor to the Deputy Lecturer. It was a 
great pleasure to me to address so intelligent 
and appreciative an audience, to communicate 
the necessary information, and to reply to the 
questions propounded. Leading Republicans, 
Liberals and Democrats were there congregat- 
ed — men prominent in their respective parties, 
who, ignoring for the once all political dis- 
agreements, clasped hands in the common 
cause, unanimously agreeing to baud them- 
selves together as brother laborers and farmers 
for the uprooting of the evil they deplore, and 
intent on securing a different class of legisla- 
tion, such as will not be for the sole benefit of 
a few moneyed corporations to the exclusion of 
the rights of the great mass of the people." 

Of course the "leading Republicans, Liberals 
and Democrats" who had banded "themselves 
together as brother laborers and farmers," got 
each a flea in his ear, which rendered the sit- 
uation so uncomfortable as to make it neces- 
sary they should retire to remove it. 



A Call for Granges from Montana, 

Editors Press:— Allow me to send you an 
extract from an interesting letter I have just 
received from Nevada City, Montana, inquir- 
ing "What can we do to have; Granges?" 
Among other things the writer says: 

"I presume you to be a suitable per.son to 
address on the subject of organizing a Grange 
in Montana. There are hundreds here waiting 
an opportunity and desiring to become mem- 
bers of the Order of Grangers. It is true we 
have no railroads, but we have that which 
needs restraint, such as political rings, mercan- 
tile rings, and officers who desire to steal the 
honest earnings of the laboring man. I am 
frequently asked by my neighbors why we 
cannot have a Grange started, but my answer 
is we are too far from every one but ourselves. 
Bat this vnll not do, we must become Grangers. 
Our Legislature will soon, no doubt, bring be- 
fore the public the subject of subsidizing a 
railroad. Now, what I desire to know is where 
a petition for an organization of this kind will 
have to go, etc." 

In this way, brothers and sisters, are the 
producers even of our wildest regions looking 
to our noble Order as the only sure relief from 
imposition and oppression. Hope of America, 
as it now is, may it advance to a decisive vic- 
tory, to be followed by such lasting good re- 
sults as a bloody revolution can never bring. 
May we who are already united in the work, 
be firm and as a unit, in working out for all the 
oppressed of our land, those peaceful measures 
of reform which are the very ground-work of 
our Brotherhood. 

To our Montana friends, I shall send one of 
our forms of application, and shall submit the 
case to the consideration of Dudley W. Adams, 
Worthy Master, of our National Grange. 
There are wild Indians out that way, and it 
may be well to advise him to send as his Dep- 
uty for that distant work some one who, in 
common parlance, "has a skating rink on the 
top of his head." For, as their various tribes 
of Indians (those Blackfeet aud other Indians) 
have not yet learned enough about our Order 
to know how dangerous it is to scalp a Gran- 
ger, they might perhaps relish taking off a 
scalp for one of us as much as for any other 
white man. 

Then, who knows, but that some dis- 
appointed speculator or monopolist might 
use a part of that gold which they can't get 
our noble legislators of California to accept at 
this session, in order to induce some of those 
vagabond Indians to scalp a Granger or two, 
when engaged in the work of organizing, just 
to make the thing unpopular, you know? 

You have rather a rough country out your 
way, my friend, but, rest assured, the Grange 
movement will do what it can for you just as 
soon as possible. I should like to be able to 
pay your region a visit myself, but am likely 
to be kept too busy at home for the present. 

You may be sure of one thing. When 
Granges are organized among you, they will 
place under your control the desired means for 
reform. Yours fraternally, J. W. A. Wbioht. 

Borden, Fresno Co., Jan. 1st, 1874. 

A Territorial Grange, for Dakota Territory, 
was organized at Vermillion on the 5th of De- 
cember, by Master A. B. Smedley, who was es- 
pecially delegated for that purpose. Twenty- 
five subordinate Granges were represented. 
E. B. Crew, of Lodi county, was elected Mas- 
ter, and O. T. Stevens, of Jefferson, Union 
county, was chosen Secretary. This Grange 
opens under most flattering auspices. 

Nearly every article of farm produce that 
was grown on the delta of Kern river last year 
is now exhausted. It has all pa8.sed from 
the producer, at high prices, and is now mostly 
consumed. Almost the only article, of which 
any is left, is hay, but there is not sufficient 
until the next crop comes in. This scarcity is 
not owing to bad crops, better never grew, but 
to the large immigration and an unexpected 
demand from the mountains, where crops were 
not eood. All the barley used for feed and 
seed^'is imported. To pay for what has been 
required thus far, has already taken large sums 
out of the county. Mr. Cross informs us he 
hos sent away $600 this week to pay for a short 
supply for his stable, and this is only one out 
of the mauy instances occnring and to occur. 
It is to be regretted all this money could not be 
retained at homo. Had there been about four 
times the area of cultivation the past season it 
would have boon enough. We hope, with the 
most productive soil in the State, we may not 
be placed in this anomalous, if not discreditable 
position a gain. 

A GRE.\T many seemingly extravagant tales 
about the productiveness and profits of the 
alfalfa crop are going the rounds of the press, 
but here is one we know to be well within the 
bonds of probability and strictly true. A gen- 
tleman living in the Lower Kings River countfy 
informs us that from five acres of alfalfa be last 
year cut twenty tons of hay, that netted him 
$10 per ton, and raised one crop of seed weigh- 
ing 2,200 lbs., that netted 20 cents per 8)., so 
that he made a clear profit off his five acres of 
alfalfa of $640. Of course this story sounds 
small in comparison with many we hear every 
day, but it has this advantage, that no one will 
doubt its truth and will seem quite good enough 
to any reasonable man. 




wdMasMO nwm^x. pb^ess. 



[January lo, 1874. 



Fishing. 



"Harry, where have you been all morulDR?" 

'•Down «t tUr pool in the meadow-brook." 

■FishinK '! " " Yt-H, but the trout wcio wary— 

Couldn't luduii- them ti> taku a hook." 
'Why, look at your coat ! You must have fallen. 

Y'our back's all covered with leaves and moss." 
How he laughs, giiod-uaturcd fellow! 

Bad luck fishing makes most men cross. 

"Nelly, the Wrights have called: where were yon?" 
"Under the trees by the meadow-brook, 
KeadlnK. you know, and it was too lovely; 

I never saw such a charminj^ book." 
The charmins book has pleased her greatly; 

There's a happy liflht in her sweet blue eyes. 
And she huRS the cat in most fervid fashion, 

To staid old Tabby's intense surprise. 

Reading ? well, yes. but not from a novel. 

Fishing? truly, but not with a rod. 
The line is idle, the book neglected: 

The water grasses whisper and nod. 
The sportsman bold and the earnest student 

Talk softly of— what ? Perhaps the weather; 
Perhaps— no matter; whatever the subject. 

It certainly brings them close together. 

It causes their words to be softly spoken, 

With many a lingering pause between. 
The while the sh-idows chase the sunbeams 

Over the mosses gray and green. 
Blushes are needful to its discussion. 

And soft, shy glances from downcast eyes, 
In whose blue depths are lying bidden 

Loving gladness and sweet surprise. 

Trinity Chapel is gay this evening. 

Bright with beauty, and flowers, and light; 
A full-dressed fisherman stands at the chancel. 

With Nelly beside him all in white. 
The ring is on, the vows are spoken. 

And smiling friends, good fortune wishing. 
Tell him his is the fairest prize 

Ever brought from a morning's ashing. 

—Galary. 



Worlds Festivals— Christmas and 
Year. 



New 



The very circumstances of the case prevented 
the tirst coloni-sLs of New England from being a 
holiday-keeping people. Followers of a stern 
religious faith, and landing in a sterr and forbid- 
ding country, where nature seemed continually 
to frown, and which was rendered fit to support the 
fathers of the infant commonwealth only by the 
most exacting toil, the earlier settlers frowned on 
holidays and holidiiy keeping, and the influence 
of their ideas and customs is felt more or less 
strongly even to this day. Far different were the 
Knickerbockers, the Virginians, and the French 
and Spanish colonists of Louisiana and Florida. 
With them religion and temperament alike favored 
holidays and enjoyment, and the smiling earth 
producing abundantly through the labor of the 
sun-darkened sons of Congo and of Guinea, still 
more disposed them to feasting and recreation. 
So that while the South looked to enjoyment the 
North looked to labor, and of all the days in the 
year, Thanksgiving was the only one which they 
could call their own. Hence arises the division 
of the Union into three great social as well as 
political .sections, with varying ideas and clashing 
customs. The New Englamler had for his great 
holiday, Thank-sgiving; the Knickerbocker and 
the Pennsylvanian held high carnival on the New 
Year, while with the .South Christmastide was 
the great festal season of the year. Here, 

On the Pacific Coast, 
However, these three great elements have merged 
into one, and they have been leavened by the 
presence of a fourth, made up of the sons of every 
nation under heaven. Hence we equally revere 
Thanksgiving, Christmas, and the New Year, 
besides a number of national festivals, celebrated 
by those born beyond the seas, and whose cele- 
bration shall be continued, even when all our 
many and varying cosmopolitan elements shall 
have blended into one great people. The geniality 
of our climate makes the festal season more en- 
joyable than elsewhere west of the Empire City ; 
but the weeping of the heavens often makes the 
holiday devotee sigh for the cold, clear air, the 
snows, and the jingling sleigh bells of the East. 
Christmas and New Year have long been the 
festal season of the Christian world, and with us 
they are becoming more so year by year. The 
season of renewal of friendships, of feasting and 
merry making and present making, the season of 
Santa Claus. and of visits, the season of peace 
and good will amongst men. It would seem that 
at the time when nature frowns, humanity feels 
disposed to rejoice, and that revel is necessary to 
of&et the depression produced by the bleakness 
and inclemency of the season. 

In Olden Times 

The celebration was not confined to the two great 
festal days of Christmas and New Year. From 
Christmas day to the sixth of January, the twelve 
days of Christmas were one season of high revel, 
when young and old, wise and foolish alike gave 
themselves up to merriment and rejoicing. .Some- 
times even by high and wealthy noblemen, the 
season of rejoicing was kept up from October to 
the New Year. The festival of Christmas is essen- 
tially Christian. That of New Year, however, 
is cosmopolitan, and while the one can claim 
proudly an observance of nearly two thousand 
years, the other can point back to one reaching 
to the beginning, through a vista of untold 



centuries. It was born with man, and only with 
him will die. Christmas Day, the birthd.iy of 
the Savior, seems to have been a holiday in 
earliest Christian times, for Clement, the successor 
in the See of Rome, of the apostle, Peter, in one of 
his epistles, refers to its observance. It was not, 
however, till the time of Pope Telesphorus that 
it was made obligatory, but he, in the second cen- 
tury of the Christian Era, ordered that it be hon- 
ored in the same way as the Sabbath. Neverthe- 
less, there was a great diversity of opinion as to 
the day on which it should be observed, for some 
parts of the Christian world kept up Christmas in 
^farch, some in December, and others in mid- 
summer. A tragic incident connected with it 
occurred in the reign of the Roman tyrant Diocle- 
tian, who being in the city ot Nicomcdia, in Asia 
Minor, and hearing that the Christians were cele- 
brating the birthday of the Savior, caused the 
church to be set on fire, when all within it were 
burned alive. The time for the celebration was 
settled in the fourth century by Pope Julian, at 
the request of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, when a 
convocation of the Christian Bishops of the East 
and \Vest decided that it was on the 25th of 
December, at midnight, that Christ was born. 
Hence the midnight mass with which the occasion 
is celebrated in the Catholic, Greek, and Coptic 
churches. In many countries, Christmas is cel- 
ebrated only as a religious festival, though with 
m.agnificent ceremonies ; in others it is a social 
holiday as well, devoted to revel, feasting and 
making of presents. With us it is both, and 
though we have not the midnight mass with the 

Gorgeous Celebration 

0( France and Italy, yet nearly all our churches, 
the Catholic and Episcopal particularly here, are 
profusely ornamented with flowers and greenery, 
and special religious services are held therein. 
Santa Claus, too, makes his annual visit to young 
and old, particularly the young, and in nearly 
every household, rich and poor, the Christmas 
tree flourishes in all its glory, hung with gifts ; 
and the Christmas candle is lighted. Santa Claus 
hails from Holland; the Christmas tree is a Ger- 
man institution, while the custom of giving pres- 
ents takes its origin in Ireland and Britain. The 
greenery used to decorate houses is a relic of the 
Uruidical customs prevalent in Pagan times 
among the Celtic nations. lA Ireland and great 
Britain, Christmas is the high festival of the 
year, and the annual re union of families whose 
members during the preceding twelve months 
have been separated by time and distance. 
Every one expects gifts, and it is the custom for 
apprentices and shop boys to go about requesting 
Christmas gifts from the customers of their masters. 
Some commercial houses spend as mnch as five 
thousand dollars in making Christmas presents to 
their customers and employes. These are made 
onthe day following — St .Stephen's or Boxing Day. 
In Ireland, it is the custom for young men and 
boys, on St. Stephen's Day, to catch a wren, carry 
it about in a cage decked with ribbons from house 
to house, all the while singing an ancient lay, and 
asking Christmas donations. These are known as 
the wren boys. In former days, in England, a 
boar's head was the favorite Christmas dish; now 
roast beef and plum pudding .'brms the orthodox 
Christmas dinner. Formerly, in the houses of 
the great, a potentate, called the Ixjrdof Misrule, 
held sway from .\11 Hallow Eve to Christmas 
Day. In (iermany, IFti/iiitic/iten is principally a 
children's festival, and the Knecht Rtiprecht, the 
grandfather of .Santa Claus wanders about in bodily 
form, from house to house, leaving presents lor 
the good children. 

New Year's Day 
Has been observed by all nations as a holiday 
from the beginning ; and its origin is no doubt 
coeval with that of man himself upon the earth. 
But the day on which we welcome the annual 
return of the year though o[ old observance as 
such, at least two thousand three hundred years, 
has, until quite recent times, been observed by but 
very few nations. And in nothing has there been 
greater variety than in the day selected as the 
first of the year. With the most ancient Eastern 
nations the first day of the year commenced on or 
about the twenty-second of September, at the 
autumnal equinox, with the Chinese year it com- 
menced at the same time, and with the Hebrews, 
who called it the birthday of Adam, it was the 
beginning of their civil year. The sacred year 
began at the time of the vernal equinox, on the 
twenty-second of March. The ancient Greeks, as 
also the Celtic and Teutonic peoples of northern 
Europe commenced the year on the twenty- 
second of December, the winter solstice, but the 
mote modern Greeks commenced it at midsummer. 
The Romans, in most ancient times, with a year 
only ten months long, commenced it in March ; 
but six centuries before the Christian Era, they 
changed the first day of the year to the first day 
of January, the day of the festival of the deity 
Janus Bifrons, which was celebrated with feast- 
ings, present makings, etc., from which 

Our Present Customs R'se. 

But though in Italy so long the first day of the 
year, it is of only quite modern adoption by other 
European nations. France first adopted it in 
1564, then Scotland, which was closely connected 
with that nation, followed suit; and last, England 
and her then American colonies adopted it in 
1752, little more than a century ago. But Russia 
and Greece still begin the new year on the first 
of September, and the Portugese on the first ol 
December. Thirteen hundred years ago, the 
French New Year was celebrated on the first of 
March, subsequently on the twenty-fifth of March, 
and then on Easter .Sunday, for several hundred 
years. The New Year of the French Revolution- 
ists was fixed on the twenty-second of .September, 
but this system had only a short existence. The 
nations that follow the faith of Mahomet have 
no regular day on which lo begin the year; it is 



variable, one year differing from another. In the 
Southern hemisphere, in the Empire of Brazil, in 
Peru, Chili, etc., .South Africa and Australia, 
New Year's Day occurs very near midsummer, on 
account of the change of seasons in the hemis- 
pheres. So that while we have rain and cold on 
New Year's or Christmas Day, in San Francisco, 
in Sydney or .Melbourne the weather is suited to 
the climate of tropic India. In some countries, 
New Year's Day has only a kind of secondary 
celebration, but in France, Scotland, and the 
Middle .States, it is the great holiday of the year. 
It is usually celebrated by making mutual gifts, 
or by calling on friends and acquaintances. The 
former is the custom in Ireland and Great Britain, 
the latter in France, Germany, and the United 
States. Many old and strange customs still linger 
in connection with New Year's observances, such 
as drinking spiced ale in England, baking cakes 
for the occasion, to be divided amongst the mem- 
bers of the family, and of which all are expected 
to partake, in Ireland and Germany, the cakes in 
the latter country lieing called Iliitzel brod. 

Such is in brief an outline of the origin and 
customs of the two great festal days of the festive 
season. The celebrations of the latter on the 
Pacific Coast are particularly appropriate at the 
end of this year of plenty, and form a fitting 
pendant to a season of unusual prosperity. 

The Strategic Cat. 

All marvelous stories do not come from the 
West, as the following New Hampshire yarn 
shows: 

"Talking about cats," said Uncle Tim, a 
regular Yankee, "pwts me iu mind of a cat I 
once owned. Let me tell yon abont her. She 
was a Miiltce, and what that cat didn't know 
wasn't worth knowin'. Here's one thing she 
did: In the spring of '46 I moved into the little 
old house on the Crooked river. We put our 
provisions down in the cellar, and the first 
night we made up our beds on the floor. But 
we didn't sleep. No sooner had it come dark 
than we heard a teariu' and a squeakiu' in the 
cellar that was awful. I lit the candle and 
went down. Jerusalem! Talk about rats! I 
never see such a sight in my born days. 
Every inch of the cellar bottom was covered 
with them. They run np onto me, and all 
over me. I jumped back into the room, and 
called the cat. She came down rnd looked! 
I guess she sot there about ten minutes, look- 
ing at them rat;), and I was wnitin' to see what 
she would do. By-in-by she shook her head, and 
turned and went up stairs. She didn't care to 
tackle 'em. That night, I tell ye, there wasn't 
much sleep. In the mornin' I called for the 
cat, and could not find her. She'd gone. I 
guess the rats had frightened her, and to tell 
the plain truth, I didn't wonder mnch. Night 
come again, and the old cat hadn't come. 
Says Betsy Ann (that's my wife), tome, says 
she, 'Tim, if that old cat don't come back, 
we'll have to leave this place; the rats'U cat us 
up.' Says I: 'Just you let the old cat be.' I 
didn't bt^Iieve she left us for good and all. 
Just as Bett-ey Ann w.is putlli/ the children to 
bed we heard a scratchiu' and wanlin' at the 
ou»iledoor. I went and opened it; and there 
stood our old Maltee on the door step, and be- 
hind her a whole army of cats all paraded as 
regular as ye ever soldiers! I let our old cat 
in and the others followed her. She went 
right to the collar door, and scratched there. 
I began to understand. Old Maltee had been 
out for help. I opened the way to the cellar; 
she marched down, and the other cats tramped 
after her in regular order— -and as they went 
past I counted fifty six of 'em! Oh, my! if 
there wasn't a row and rumpus in that 'ere 
cellar that night, then i'm mistaken! The 
next morning the old cat came up and caught 
hold of my trousers leg, and pulled me to- 
wards the door. I went down to see the sight. 
Talk about yer Bunker Hill and yer Boston 
massacres! Mercy! I never see such a sif-'ht 
before 1 or since. Betsey Ann and me, with 
my boy Sammy, was all day as hard at work as 
we could be, clearin' the dead rats out of that 
'ere cellar! It's a fact — every word of it!" 

Thk Amkbican Gibl — The American girl is, 
like the rest of the creations to which we have 
been referring, an ideal existence. The real 
girl, who has just returned from the country, 
and is occupying herself with preparations for 
the approaching winter, is not at all difficult to 
describe. She is a girl of immense energy and 
but little physical strength. She has, if she 
can be judged by what she accomplishes, a 
noble digestion; or perhaps, to be more accn- 
r.ite, she has nobly triumphed over her diges- 
tion, and reduced it to complete submission. 
She is not highly educated, nor does she speak 
all foreign languages with smoothness and cor- 
rect idiom; indeed, she has been known to 
play sirange tricks with her own tongue. She 
is lively, but not witty; she is fond of laugliing, 
without caring very much at what she laughs; 
she is noisy and 'oud when she dares to be. As 
a general rule she knows little or nothing of 
those matters which used to bo considered 
essential parts of a woman's education, and 
intends, if she is rich, to have housekeeping, 
when once she is married, done for her by some 
oue else; and if she is poor she does not think 
about it any more than she can help. Her no- 
tions about marriage itself are a curious mix. 
ture of ideas derived from novels, poems, and 
such acquaintance with the world as girls get 
from the conversation of young men who 
dance the German with them through the win- 
ter, and walk on the cliffs ut Newport with 
them in the summer. Her life, if she is rich, 
\ is in general one of thoughtless pleasure. 



Yoilflq poLKs' CoLilpifl. 



Strange and Curious Birds. 

The birds of the tropics are no less remark 
able for their never ending variety of color and 
plumage than for their peculiar forms, in which 




The TJmbreUa Bird. 

the grotesque, the grand, and the beautiful are 
equally mingled. In our former numliers we 
have given illustrations of some of the most 
remarkable, and we follow with the Umbrella 
Bird and the Humming Bird. 

The Umbrella Bird, or Umbrella Chatterer, 

Has its liabilat iu South America, and is one of 
those included in the genus Bucco. This bird 
is remarkable for the crested umbrella shaped 
tuft of feathers which shade the eyes and the 
bill, and for the pendant plumage banging down 




The Humming Bird. 

its breast. What may be the object of this ap- 
pendage it is impo!- Bible to say — that sometimes 
suggested, that it is intended as a shade from the 
sun is not worthy of serious consideration. 

The Humming Bird 
Is noted amongst birds for its smallness of size 
and for its unrivaled beauty. The Hummer of 
Central America is of various kinds, the largest 
having a bill three and a quarter inches long, 
and the smallest, one three eighths of an inch 
in length. The principal varieties are the 
Fork Tailed, Long Billed, and Short Billed, 
Central .\merica, the Chimborazo Hummer. 
Cotton Foot and Long Crested, lie Emerild, 
Baby, and Topaz Hummers. The Humming 
birds are termed jewels of ornithology on ac- 
count of the extraordinary beauty of their 
plumage. They are peculiar to America and 
the West India IsUuds, and amouksi them are 
the smallest birds known, the bmaflest species 
when plucked being hardly larger than a 
honey bee. They are of a lively disposition, 
almost coubtantly on the wing, and performing 
all their motions with great rapidity. Their 
flight is in darts, and in a biilliant sun the 
variations of their plumage are displayed to the 
greatest advantage, fully justifying the words 
of the poet: 
" Each rapid movement gives a different dye: 
Like scales of burutshed gold, they dazzling show; 
Now aink to shade, now like a furnace glow." 

Fully preserved specimens of these strange 
and beautiful, as well as of many other curious, 
birds, may be seen at Woodward's Museum. 

It is to the courtesy of the Manager of 
Woodward's Gardens, Mr. Harry Andrews, 
that we are indebted for the illustrations that 
accompany our word descriptions. 

"Heads"— Bv a Small Bot.— Heads are of 
different shapes and sizes. They are full of 
notions. Large heads do not hold the most. 
Some persons can tell what a man is by the 
shape of his head. High heads are the best 
kind. Very knowing people are called long- 
headed. A fellow that won't stop for anything 
or anybody is called hot-headed. If he is not 
quite so bright he is called soft-headed. If he 
won't be coaxed or turned he is called pig- 
headed. Animals have very Bmall heads. 
The heads of fools slant back. When your 
head is cut off you are beheaded. Our heads 
are covered with hair, except bald heads. 
There are barrel-heads, heads of sermons— and 
some ministers used to have fifteen heads to 
one sermon — pin heads, heads of cattle, as the 
farmer calls his cows and oxen; head- winds, 
drum-heads, cabbage heads, logger-heads, come 
to a head, heads of chapters, head him off, 
head of the family and go ahead — but be sure 
you are right ; but the worst of all heads are 
the dead-heads who hang around for free 
tickets to shows and try to sponge gratis no- 
tices in papers. 

"Oh, Tommy, that was abominable in you to 
eat your little sister's cake." 

"Why," Siiid Tommy, "didn't you tell me, 
ma, that I was always to take her part ?" 



January lo, 1874] 



UsEfjL IflfOF^fii^TI^N' 



Impure Water. 

' The Journal of Chemistry says: Public atten- 
tion cannot be too often called to the danger of 
nsiog impure water in households. The origin 
of typhoid fever, which so frequently runs 
through families in city and country, is oftener 
in wells and springs than is supposed. In 
cities it is easy to understand, when aqueduct 
water is not supplied, how wells may become 
contaminated, but for many it is not so easy to 
see how wells in the country, among the hills, 
or in the green valleys, can become so impure 
as to be sources of disease. 

Since the general introduction of aqueduct 
water into large cities, typhoid fever has be- 
come more common in the country than in the 
city, and this disease is certainly zymotic, or 
one which results from a poison introduced in- 
to the blood. Wells in the country are very 
liable to become contaminated with house sew- 
age, as they are generally placed, for conveni- 
ence, very near the dwelling, and the waste 
liquids thrown out upon the ground find easy 
access by percolation through the soil to the 
water. The instances of such contavination 
which have come to our notice, and which gave 
rise to fevers, are numerous. The gelatinous 
matter which is often found covering the stones 
in wells affected by sewage, is a true fungoid 
growth, and highly poisonous when introduced 
into the system. It is undoubtedly concerned 
in the production of typhoid fever. How it 
acts it is difficult to determine, but it is at least 
conceivable that the spores of the fungus may 
get into the blood and bring about changes 
after the manner of yeast in beer. These 
spores, as is well known, develop rapidly by 
a kind of budding process, and but a little 
time passes before the whole circulation be- 
comes filled with them, giving rise to abnormal 
heat, and general derangement, called fever. 
These fungoid or confervoid growths are al- 
ways present in waters rendered impure by 
house drainage, and great caution should be 
used in maintaining well waters free from all 
sources of pollution. 

As a solution of the difficulty the Artisan 
says: The use of quicklime in the purifica- 
tion of water has long been practiced by dyers, 
the philosophy of its action being that, by 
neutralizing the carbonic acid dissolved in water, 
the carbonate of lime held in the solution is pre- 
cipitated, the latter being insoluble in water 
which does not contain carbonic acid. It is 
customary to reduce the quid; lime to a creamy 
consistence by the addition of water, and then 
to mix it with the water to be purified. After 
thorough incorporation, the water being left to 
settle for some time, not only the lime added 
but the carbonate of lime previously dissolved 
in water, would be found precipitated to the 
bottom. D uring the time the water is standing, 
it may, however, absorb more or less additional 
carbonic acid, and, therefore, be rendered capa- 
ble of redlssolving a portion of the lime. This 
defect in the process is much lessened, if not 
entirely remedied, while the purification of the 
water is entirely facilitated by immediate filter- 
ing after the addition of the quicklime. 
The carbonate of lime, being rendered solid by 
the addition of the quicklime, is dis- 
tributed in very minute particles throughout 
the liquid. If the liquid be filtered immedi- 
ately ou the addition of the filtering agent, the 
separation may be effected much more rapidly 
than by allowing the water to stand and settle. 

The patent upon a peculiar kind of filter for 
this purpose has been obtained by Mr. Gustave 
De Mailly, a civil enginear of Brussels. He 
used a filter consisting of a cylindrical vertical 
case of sheet or cast-iron, furnished with a lid, 
which case contains another cylinder, which is 
the filter proper. This last is also formed of 
sheets of cast or sheet-iron, one at the top and 
the other at the bottom, and united by three 
concentric cylinders of perforated sheet-iron. 
In the two annular spaces thus formed he 
places felt or wool, which is claimed to be ren- 
dered imputrescible by a peculiar process. It 
is claimed that when water passes through this 
material, which it does quite rapidly, all traces 
of suspended carbonate of lime are removed. 
The cleansing of the filter is accomplished by 
causing water to flow through it in an opposite 
direction from that it pursues during the pro- 
cess of filtering. 



To Bronze Gas Fittings. — Boil the work in 
strong ley and scour free from all grease or old 
lacquer, next pickle in dilute nitric acid till 
quite clean (not bright), dip in strong acid and 
rinse through four or five waters; repeat the 
dip if necessary till it is bright, next bind it 
very loose with thin iron wire, and lay it in the 
strongest of the water used for rinsing. This 
will deposit a coat of copper all over it, if the 
water or pickle be not too strong. When too 
strong the copper will only be deposited just 
around where the wire touches. When the 
copper is of sufficient thickness, wash it again 
through the waters, and dry with abrush in some 
hot sawdust (box dust is best), but oak, ash, 
or beech will do. It is now ready for bronzing. 
The bronze is a mixture of blacklead and red 
bronze, varied according to shade required, 
mixed with boiling water. Paint the work over 
with this and dry, and then brush till it pol- 
ishes. If there are any black spots or rings 
on the work, another coat of the bronze will 
remove them. Lacquer the work with pale 
lacquer, or but very slightly colored, for if it 
is too deep it will soon chip oflF. 



Test for Arsenical Colors on Wall-papers 
and in Paper generally. 

Professor Hager recommends the following 
method for detecting this dangerous class of 
arsenical colors, which, we may remark, are 
not confined to green alone, for red sometimes 
contains arsenic: A piece of the paper is soaked 
in a concentrated solution of sodium nitrate 
(Chili saltpeter) in equal parts of alcohol and 
water, and allowed to dry. The dried paper is 
burned in a shallow porcelain dish. Usually 
in only smoulders, producing no flame. Water 
is poured over the ashes, and caustic potash 
added to a strongly alkaline reaction, then 
boiled and filtered. The filtrate is acidified 
with dilute sulphuric acid, and permanganate 
of potash is added slowly as long as the red 
color disappears or changes to a yellow brown 
upon warming, and finally a slight excess of 
chamelion solution is present. If the liquid 
becomes turbid, it is to be filtered. After 
cooling, more dilute sulphuric acid is added, 
and also a piece of pure clean zinc, and the 
flask closed with a cork split in two places. 
In one split of the cork a piece of paper mois- 
tened in silver nitrate is fastened, in the other 
a strip of parchment paper dipped in sugar of 
lead. If arsenic is present, the silver soon 
backens. The lead paper is merely a check on 
the presence of sulphhydric acid. According 
to Hager, the use of permanganate of potash 
is essential, otherwise the silver paper may 
be blackened when no arsenic is present. 

Dyeing Venbebs. — Veneers are readily dyed 
upon the surface, but in this condition are 
much more liable to disfigurement than when 
the color is made to permeate the mass. Those 
colored throughout are therefore the most 
sought after, and before the late war were 
chiefly furnished from Paris. During the war, 
the supply being cut ofi', some German cabinet 
makers took up the subject, and after numer- 
ous experiments perfected a process which se- 
cures the desired result. The veneers are first 
soaked for twenty-four hours in a solution of 
caustic soda, and then boiled therein for half 
an hour. They are then washed with water 
until all the alkali is removed when they are 
ready to receive the dye. This treatment with 
soda efi'ects a general disintegration of the 
wood, whereby it becomes in the moist state 
elastic and leather-like and prepared to absorb 
the color. Veneers thus treated, if left for 
twenty-four hours in a hot decoction of log- 
wood, and after superficial dyeing immersed 
for twenty four hours more in a hot solution of 
copperas, become of a beautiful and permanent 
black throughout. A solution of picric acid in 
water, with the addition of ammonia, gives a 
yellow color not in the least affected by subse- 
quent varnishing. Coralline dissolved in hot 
water, to which a little caustic soda and one- 
fifth its volume of soluble glass have been ad- 
ded, produces rose color of different shades, 
dependent on the amount of coral'ine taken. 
After dyeing they are dried between sheets of 
paper, and subjected to pressure to retain 
their shape. — Paint and OU Trade. 

Uses op Waste Papee. — Few housekeepers 
are aware of the many uses to which waste 
paper may be put. After a stove has been 
blackened, it can be kept looking very well for 
a long time by rubbing it with paper every 
morning. Rubbing with paper is a much 
nicer way of keeping the outside of a teakettle, 
coffeepot or teapot bright and clean than the 
old way of washing it in suds. Rubbing them 
with paper is also the best way of polishing 
knives and tinware after scouring them. If a 
little soap be held on the paper in rubbing tin- 
ware and spoons, they shine like new silver. 
For polishing mirrors, windows, lamp chim- 
neys, etc., paper is better than dry cloth. 
Preserves and pickles keep much better if 
brown paper instead of cloth is tied over the 
jar. Canned fruit is not apt to mould if a 
piece of writing paper, cut to fit each can, is 
laid directly on the fruit. Paper is much bet- 
ter to put under carpet than straw. It is 
thinner, warmer, and makes less noise when 
one walks over it. Two thicknesses of paper 
placed between the other coverings on a bed 
are as warm as a quilt. If it is necessary to 
step upon a chair, always lay a paper upon it, 
and thus save the paint and woodwork from 
damage. 

Tobacco Leaves. — The State Chemist of Con- 
necticut, in his report, presents some interest- 
ing information in reference to the tobacco 
crop, with the results of tests upon the tobacco 
leaves. The general summary of the reports 
is as follows: The most highly valued to- 
bacco in New England is the thin, tough, elas- 
tic leaf, which burns readily to ashes. Those 
leaves containing the most carbonate of potash 
in their ashes, burn the most freely and suita- 
bly. In some combinations potash does not 
favor the burning, and some tobacco manu- 
facturers improve the flavor and buming qual- 
ity by artificially impregnating the leaf with 
acetate, citrate, or tartrate of potash, applying 
the latter in solutioii and then drying. Chlor- 
ine injures the tobacco, as also does nitric acid. 
Sulphuric acid, united with potash, soda, or 
lime, favors the burning of tobacco. The best 
tobacco is produced on well-drained, warm, 
sandy lands. It is believed heavy manuring 
increases the quantity of the crop generally at 
the expense of quality as regards texture. 




Cooking Meats. 

The most economical way of using meat is 
to cook it in hot water, and serve it up in its 
own gravy. If it is boiled for preparing soup, 
the water should not be too quickly raised to 
the boiling point, since this tends to coagulate 
the albuminous portions and to prevent the 
juices from passing into the water. The meat 
should be chopped or cut as fine as possible, 
and steeped for some time in cold water, which 
should then be gradually heated up to a tem- 
perature not exceeding 150O Fahrenheit, or 630 
below its boiling point. At the last moment 
the soup may be allowed to reach the boiling 
point. The bones should be crushed or broken 
up into small pieces, and boiled, or rather 
simmered, for eight or ten hours, in order to 
thoroughly extract their nutritive mattter. 

If we wish to cook meat in such a way as to 
preserve the maximum of nutriment in the 
most digestible form, we should place it in 
large pieces in boiling water and keep it there 
for five minutes. The high temperature coag- 
ulates the albumen at the surface of the meat, 
stops up its pores, and thus prevents the juices 
from escaping. After this boiling for about 
five minutes, add cold water to reduce the heat 
to about 150O F. , and keep it that at temperature 
till the meat is sufficiently cooked. It will then 
be found to bo tender, juicy, savory and nutri- 
tious. Salted meat intended to be eaten cold 
should be allowed to cool in the water in which 
it has been boiled. 

In roasting meat, as in boiling it, the first 
object should be to coagulate the albumen at 
the surface, in order to prevent the escape of 
the juices. The meat should be at first placed 
close to the fire, kept there for ten or fifteen 
minutes, and then withdrawn to a greater dis- 
tance from the heat. If cooked in the oven of 
a stove or range, the oven should be very hot 
when the meat is first put into it, kept at the 
same heat for a short time, then cooled down 
partially (by opening the door or checking the 
fire), and the roasting should then be allowed 
to go on very slowly so that the inner parts 
may be thoroughly done. The loss of weight 
(mostly water and fat) is nea'ly one-third more 
in roasting than in boiling. 

Roast meat has the richer flavor, because 
certain aromatic principles are developed by 
this mode of cooking. The occasional "dredg- 
ing' ' of flour over the surface of the meat helps to 
stop up the pores and prevents the escape of 
the fat. Boasted meat is not so well suited for 
invalids and dyspeptics as boiled meat, since it 
is apt to contain acrid substances formed out 
of the highly heated fat. Broiling is a species 
of roasting, but it ordinarily produces a more 
digestible food for the dyspeptic. Prying is 
the worst possible mode of cooking meat, es- 
pecially for persons whose digestive powers are 
not vigorous, as it almost invariably developes 
a very acrid substance known as acrolein and 
sundry fatty acids that are nearly as unwhole- 
some.— iJosto)i Journal of Chemistry. 

Intebesting to Miners. — We learn that a 
patent has been granted to Henry M. Boies, 
Scranton, Pa., for Improved Packages of Pow- 
der Charges for Blasting. This invention con- 
sists in packing the powder, in convenient 
quantities, in long tubes of paper or any fabric 
or material of sufficient strength, rendered 
waterproof if necessary, of a proper shape and 
size to be used as a cartridge, and of such a 
length in excess of the powder inside as shall 
allow of its being folded into a compact form, 
and divided for use into cartridges of any de- 
sired length or weight. Each cartridge tube or 
package may be easily marked with the size, 
and quantity, and brand of its contents; and 
when it comes to the consumer, he can measure 
off from either end the quantity desired for a 
blast, slide the powder away from this point, 
divide the tube, fold back the ends, and the 
cartridge is ready for use, proceeding in the 
same way until the whole package has been 
used. Thus the danger of preparing the cart- 
ridge over the open keg and the liability to da- 
mage of the exposed powder are avoided, and 
tne time and labor of making the cartridge, as 
well as the materials of which it is composed, 
are saved. — Coal Trade Circular. 



Pudding Sauce. — One quart of boiling water, 
four large tablespoonfuls of white or brown 
sugar, two of flour, one of butter, one tea- 
spoonful of salt; nutmeg or cinnamon to taste. 
Two tablespoonfuls of currant or blackberry 
wine or cider are a great improvement. Let 
the whole be boiled together for about ten min- 
utes. It is necessary to mix the flour with a 
portion of cold water before adding it to the 
boiling water. 

Abtificial Oystbes. — Take green corn, grate 
it in a dish; to one pint of this add one egg 
well beaten, a small teacup of flour, half a cup 
of butter, some salt and pepper, and mix them 
well together. A table spoonful of the batter 
will make the size of an oyster. Fry them a 
light brown, and when done, butter them. 
Cream, if it can be procured, is better than 
butter. 



Waemino Cold Boiled Potatoes. — Slice and 
put them in a basin with a little milk or water, 
some cream if you hn'.e it, and a little salt. 
Let it remain on the stove until it is thoroughly 
heated through, stirring often to prevent its 
sticking; a bit of fish left from a former meal 
or some beaten egg is a nice addition to it. 



Drinks During Meals. 

The resultsfobtained by Dr. Beaumont in his 
series of experiments on the person of Alexis 
St. Martin, who had a permanent gastric 
fistula, caused by a gunshot wound, demon- 
strates that the gastric juice, in order to exert 
its B.olvent action upon the food, must be at 
the temperature of 100°. 

The common, excessive and alternate use of 
hot and cold drinks therefore, during meals, is 
clearly prolific to a host of ailments in manifold 
ways. It impairs digestion by alternately in- 
creasing and diminishing the temperature of 
the gastric juice — thus retarding the solvent 
action of that fluid. It lays the foundation for 
chronic gastritis; in consequence of the exces- 
sive and reciprocal contact of the two agents, 
heat and cold, with the mucus membrane of 
the stomach, and consequently causes dys- 
pepsia. 

It also causes cracking of the enamel of the 
teeth and an increased susceptibility of the 
nerves in their immediate vicinity. Many 
cases of protracted odontalgia, or — in common 
phrase, toothache, are no doubt due to this bad 
practice ; as also the premature destruction of 
the enamel of the teeth in persons of healthy 
constitutions. 

This bad habit is the generator of many cases 
of disordered organs and preverted functions 
generally in the animal economy. 

While I depreciate the use of hot and cold 
drinks during meals, I nevertheless advocate the 
moderate use of fluids of milk-warm tempera- 
ture, for the reason that they act as adjuvants 
to mastication, insalivation and deglutition of 
food, and that they assist the gastric fluids in 
the disintegration of aliments. For instance : 
it is well known, that, without the assistance 
of some fluids, it is extremely difficult to com- 
minute a dry and brittle cracker or other 
similar substance. 

Still it is well we think to dispense with 
fluids to a good degree during mastication, as 
their tendency is constantly to render the pro- 
cess less thorough and effective. — Laws of Life. 

Physiological Pkopekties of Cafitein. — 
The physiological action of coffee, according 
to MM. Aubert and Haase, should not be at- 
tributed to oaflfein, but to other principles. An 
injection of 0.6 cubic inch of coffee containing 
0.6 grains of caffein killed a rabbit in a very 
short time, producing acceleration of the pulse 
and respiratory organs, uneasiness, and finally 
convulsions. An injection of 0.75 grains of 
caffein, however, did not produce death or any 
symptoms of sickness. An infusion of 770 
grains of very hot coffee, corresponding to 6.3 
grain of caffein, acts upon a man far more in- 
tensely than a stronger dose of pure caffein. 
Headache, vertigo, trembling, and similar 
symptoms are produced, which last upward of 
four hours. Coffee extract, deprived of caffein 
by chloroform and injected into the jugular vein 
of a rabbit, causes strong convulsions, but 
never tetanus, such as is produced by an over- 
dose of cafiein singly. 

Position in Sleeping. — Sleeping rooms 
should always be so arranged, if possible, as to 
allow the head of the sleeper to be toward the 
north. Frequently in cases of sickness, a per- 
son will find it impossible to obtain rest if the 
head is in any other direction, and often a cure 
is retarded for a long time. A Vienna physi- 
cian had a patient who was suffering from 
acute rhumatism, with painful cramps running 
from the shoulders to the fingers; and while 
his head was to the south he could do nothing 
toward his relief. On turning the bed, how- 
ever, so that the head was toward the north, 
the patient uttered expressions of pleasure, and 
in a few hours a great improvement had taken 
place, and in a few days he was almost entirely 
cured. Many other cases are given by scien- 
tific persons; and people in building houses, 
should always have this in view. 

Asphyxia by Illuminating Gas. — The sym- 
toms are discomfort, inclination to vomit, con- 
vulsive movements of the muscles, especially 
those of the breast, the skin is cold, the breath- 
ing and pulse irregular. The remedies recom- 
mended are exposure to free air, even if cold, 
irritation of the skin by vinegar, and the palms 
of the hands, soles of the feet, and the spine 
with a stiff hair brush, blowing air into the 
lungs. When consciousness returns, place the 
patient in a heated bed in a room with the 
windows open, administer a few spoonfuls of 
Malaga, Madeira, or sherry wine. A mixture 
of tartar emetic and Hoffman's liquor, flavored 
with honey-water and orange-flower syrup, is 
spoken of as efficacious after the return of con- 
sciousness. — Le Oaz. 

ScAELET Fbveb PROM A Dbad Hobse. — Scarlet 
fever having attacked a whole family at tho 
port of Amble, one of whom has died, Dr. 
Easton, the medical officer of health, has re- 
ported to the local authority his belief that the 
fever was produced from the family residing 
near a pond in an old quarry, in which was 
a dead horse. The family lived over a boat- 
house on the links, and being quite isolated, 
the fever has been confined to the inmates. 
Orders have been given to prevent dead ani- 
mals being thrown into the pond. 

Chappeb Hands.— Instead of washing the 
hands with soap, employ oatmeal, and after 
each washing take a little dry oatmeal and rub 
over the hands, so as to absorb any moisture. 



24 



Jt> yCOk> Vi' jAi I 



W89^^ <PEES8. 



[January lo, 1874. 




PUBUaHXD BT 
T. DBWXX. W. B. EWEB. Q. H. BTBONO. J. L. BOONE. 



KIMCnPAI. EOITOB 



.W. B. EWER, A.M. 



Office, No. 338 MontBomery street, 8. E. comer ol 
OalKornia street, where friends and patrons are invited 
to our Scientific Pbess, I'atont Agency, Engraving and 
Printing oxtablisUment. 

SUBSCRIPTION AND ADVERTISING RATES. 

SUESCEIPTIONB payable In advance— For one year $4; 
six months, *2.a5; three months, »1.26. Clubs of ten 
names or more la each per annum. $5, in advance, will 
pay for 1 H year. BemittancoB by registered letters or 
P. O. orders at our risk 
ADVKBTisiMa Hates.— 1 week. 1 month. S moniht. 1 year. 

fir line i.'S .«0 $2.00 $5.00 

One-halflnch $1.00 $3.00 7.50 M.OO 

One inch 2.00 5.00 U.OO 40.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
Jn extraordinary type or in particular parts oJ the paper, 
Inserted at special rates. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, Jan. lo, 1874. 
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GENERAL EDITORIALS.— Napa Ladies' Semi- 
nary; Winter Care of Stork; Pruning Trees, Plants and 
Shrubs; A Flourishing Town, 17. Old Strawberry 
Beds; An Omission: Times at the East; A Tidal Wave, 
24. J. C. Merryfield, 25. Patents and Inventions, 
28 

ILLUSTRATIONS. - Napa College, 17. J. C. 
Mcrryficld. 25. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Silk Culture in California; 
Hired Men on the Farm; Weak and Deformed Calves; 
Hop Growing: CherrieK in January: Whitewash— Wild 
Morning Glory, 18. Peanuts— Semi-Troplcal Fruits, 
19. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— Progress of the 
Patrons in California; New Granges; Meetings; Etc., 
20-21. 

HOME CIRCLE.— Fishing (Poetry); World's Fes- 
tivals-Christmas and New Year; The Strategic Cat; 
The Aiueriean Girl. 22. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. -Strange and Curi- 
ont Birils; "U^ads"— By a Small Boy, 22. 

USEFUL INFORMATION. — Impure Water: 
To Bronze Gas Fittings; Test (or Arscnieal Colors on 
Wall-papers and in Pnpir Generally: Dyeing Veneers; 
TI.xeK of Waste Paper: Tobacco Leaves, 23. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Cooking Meats; Inter- 
esting to Miners: Pudiliug Sauee; Artificial Oysters; 
Warming Col.l Boiled I'otatoes, 23. 

GOOD HEALTH -Drinks During Meals; Physi- 
ological Properties of Caffein: Position in Sleeping; 
Asphyxia by Illuminating Gas: Scarlet Fiver from a 
Dead Horse; Chapped Hands, 23. 

THE FLOWER GARDEN. — Watering House 
Plants; Double Fertiliziition of Flowers; Guano Wattr 
for Plants: Cutting Blossoms; The Saucer System of 
Starting Cuttings: Saving Fuchsia Seed; A Pretty 
Window P ant; The Flower Garden; Save the Cocks- 
comb Bloonie,26. 

THE HORSE. — The Common Colt-Breaker and 
th" Trainer; Disease ol Joints; Good Roadsters, 
26. 

Tn-t:: APIARY.— Bees; Toads Eating Bees; Species 
of Bee». 26. 

FERTILIZERS.— Preparing Bcmcs for Fertilizers; 
Cnre of Manure; Method of Managing Manure, 27- 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various coun- 
ties in Culifornja. 28. 

MISCELLANEOUS-Scencs in the High Sierras; 
Progress in Glass-Making: American I>«ather Cloth; 
Meteorology of San Francisco; Bridge Building; Con. 
stracting a Piano; Chinese Method of Printing, 19. 
Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society, 24. Squir- 
rel Nuisance Abatement Law, 25. 



Slate Boofino Paint. — A. W. Jeukins comes 
to California as tho sole agent for tbo Fiicific 
Coast, for Gline's celebrated slate roofing 
paint. He offers to paint new roofs or old, 
making them perfectly water tight or no pay. 
It ia claimed for this paiut, that it has no 
equal, is perfectly water and fire proof, easily 
and quickly applied and cheap. For further 
notice of its merits see advertisement or call on 
the agent at Brooklyn Hotel, Bush Street, San 
Francisco. 



Rain Table. — We are under obligation to 
Dr. T. M. Logan, for table showing the amount 
of rain fall at Sacramento from 1849 to 1874. 
It will be found in this number of the Rubal. 
Also for the Second Biennial Report of the State 
Board of Health of California, for the years 
1871, 187'2 and 1873. 



CoEEECTioN.— In our remarks last week on 
the culture of cotton on King's river, Fresno 
county, the credit of inventing the new style 
of cotton press should have been given to Mr. 
Odom, of the Georgeville settlement. 

A New Product.— In drying fruit it has been 
discovered that the cores and paiings of the 
apples have a value. These are dried and sent 
to the factory for the making of apple jelly, or 
they are placed in a vat and allowed to decay 
and the juice made into vinegar. 'Thus the 
whole of the fruit is utilized. This is done on 
tho old Shaker plan of making cider vinegar, 
but is more expensive than grinding and press- 
ing in the usual manner. By the Alden pro- 
cess the cores are made into jelly. 



Old Strawberry Beds. 

I have two strawberry beds, each 40 feet long 
by four feet wide, which have furnished my 
family with all the berries needed for the table 
dessert at the proper season, for the last four 
years; but I noticed a decided falling oflf in the 
yield the last seuson. Should I dig them up 
and set my ground with new plants this Spring, 
or try to render them productive by some 
means, another year ? The heads or crowns of 
the stools are four or five inches above the 
level of the surface of the soil; what can I best 
do with them ? 

These inquiries are presented by "A Farmer," 
and we answer in this wise: Trim off all the 
old vines and leaves quite down to the green 
and vital part of the crown of the plants. 
Spread over the whole ground a light dressing 
of fine, short manure and fork it in four inches 
deep; then fill up the spaces between the rows 
or hills with good garden soil, even with the 
crown of the plants. The spring rains will 
difi'use the fertilizing qualities of the manure, 
and you will doubtless grow a good crop. 

On one of the beds allow the runners to 
grow and cover the spaces between the rows. 
After the crop is gathered, as soon as the soil 
will admit of working, spade up, turn and 
deeply cover all the old stools, leaving the new 
runners as much as possible undisturbed. Let 
the other bed remain intact, for one more 
season and then renew as with bod number 
one, and you will hardly miss your accustomed 
yield. 

An Omission. 

In the Rdbal of Dec. 27th, was a letter of in- 
quiry, asking for a good work on agriculture; 
also for a standard work on sheep husbandry; 
and lastly how to utilize the large piles of sur- 
plus straw that accumulate on the grain farms, 
and where there are no cattle to eat it. The 
following — which was omitted by mistake — 
should have followed the inquiry. 

One of the best works of the day is undoubt- 
edly the "New American Farm Book," origin- 
ally by R. L. Allen; revised and enlarged by 
Lewis F. Allen. A standard work on sheep 
husbandry is the "Practical Shepherd," by 
Randall. 

To convert straw or other coarse vegetable fiber 
in large quantities, into a goodunctous manure, 
there probably is no other known metho'' 
equal to. that given in "Bommer's method of 
making manure." 

The first and the last named of these works 
can be had at the "Or.inge Judd Company," 
'245 Broadway, New York. The former for 
$2 50 and the latter for 25 cents post paid. 

The Practical Shepherdjcan Ije obtained of 
S W. Moore, 420 Sausome street, S. F., for 
$2.50. 



Times at the East. 



In a letter from J. B. Jones, of Jones & Pal- 
mer, nurserymen at Lake View, near Roches- 
ter, N. Y., under date Dec. 22d, we find the 
following note of the times and condition of 
crops in that vicinity: 

The holidays are again upon us with snow, 
sleighing and merry times for all. Notwith- 
standing our panic we are having busy times, 
very few kinds of business but are running 
along nearly full time. Farmers hereabouts 
have received full prices for their fruits, and 
with average crops cannot complain. Apples 
are an average, and pears a very large crop, 
while grapes were never better and brought 
paying rates. Near the line of the Erie Canal 
potatoes have become of late years one of our 
standard crops, and although only a medium 
crop this year and only brought medium 
prices (50 cts. per bushel), they pay better 
than grain crops. We have no bugs yet, but 
expect them next year. We have no Granges 
here, but hear of them on all sides of us. 

Col. Pbteb Saie has just returned from a 
trip to Oregon, where he has been with a fine 
lot of Durham cattle, comprising seven con- 
signments for the Oregonians. The people of 
the Pacific Coast are largely indebted to the 
Colonel for much of their fine blooded stock, 
and having a mania for that business, we may 
occasionally expect to hear of valuable breeds 
of homed and other stock being brought here 
by him to add to our valuable animals. 

Monopolies and the People. — Mr. Cloud's 
book, with the above title, which we have al- 
ready noticed at length, will soon be placed 
for sale on this coast. Bancroft & Co. of this 
city have the agency; but we understand that it 
will be sold only by agents. 



A Tidal Wave. 

Politicians and speculators seem to be dumb- 
founded by the sudden and unexpected tidal 
wave of Grangers which is sweeping with such 
resistless force in every dirf etion ever the coun- 
try. Two years ago these disturbers of conven- 
tions, cancusses, and breakers of "political 
slates " had scarcely been heard of outside of 
a limited circle in one or two of the northwest- 
ern States. Now they and their friends in the 
other producing classes are quietly taking pos- 
session of State after State; upsettiuj; the best 
laid schemes and calculations of our shrewdest 
politicians; exposing tho hot-beds of political 
corruption everywhere; pushing the railroad 
speculators and other monopolists to the wall, 
and stirring up thingi generally. The tone of 
their conver.sation, their publications, their 
speeches and their public demonstrations, as- 
sure the world that they mean business, and 
their policy and work, so far as developed, 
seems to meet the almost universal approval of 
the great mass of the people. 

The politicians, speculators, middlemen and 
political corruptionists seem to be the only peo- 
ple who are at all disturbed by the apparition. 
The ptople receive them with open arms, cham- 
pion their cause, and bring out men who, if 
they are not in every way worthy, are so far in 
advance of the average politician that the 
Grangers receive];and endorse them willingly. 

Witness what they are doing throughout the 
great North-West; see the revolution which has 
beenefi'ectediu this State, in less than five short 
months; listen to the shouts that are coming 
up from the cotton growers of Mississippi, Ala- 
bama and Georgia; read what has been accom- 
plished in the great State of Pennsylvania, ab- 
solutely without organization, almost without 
effort, and actually by the spontaneous uprising 
of the people moved in a common direction by 
a common grievance. The people of that State 
have endorsed a reform Constitution by the al- 
most incredible majority of 150,000 votes, 
which the politicians had determined to defeat 
— a work which they supposed could be easily 
accomplished. By this supreme effort the peo- 
ple of Pennsylvania have ordained that rail- 
roads shall be deemed public highways — toll 
roads— to be regulated in the minutest detail by 
the power which created them; that there shall 
be no discrimination in fares or freights; that 
there shall be in that State no more consolida- 
tion or leasing of railroad lines; that railroads 
shall acquire no more real estate than is needed 
for the legitimate working of the roads; that 
railroad operators shall not engage in any other 
business than that of common carriers, etc. 

The people, throughout the Union, are speak- 
ing with no uncertain tone as to their inten- 
tions and purposes. They have assumed that 
the record of the old political parties is such as 
to forfeit the confidence and respect of the peo- 
ple, who are therefore absolved from any fur- 
ther allegiance to them. The warrant for this 
assumption is found in the open and unblush- 
ing oorrnption which exists everywhere, in high 
places, demoralizing and debauching almost 
the entire business morale of the country. 

The teachings of the Grange which hold in 
utter detestation everything of that character, 
naturally lead most of the Patrons of Husband- 
ry into sympathy with the People 's Movement, 
as the best exponent of the principles they in- 
culcate and the measures they propose. The 
re-action is mutual, and the result overwhelm- 
ing. The Patrons will deserve well of their 
country in aiding, by their silent but effectnal 
work, the accomplishment of the great reform 
in which every producer, of whatever class, has 
a common interest. That work is of no less im- 
portance to the tiller of the soil than ia the 
other peculiar work of the Patron — the diversion 
into the channel of productive industry of the 
surplusage of that great army of midlemen and 
the entire of that other army of professed poli- 
ticians. Producers, everywhere, the work be- 
fore you is a worthy and a noble one; then let 
all the forces interested in the common object 
unite for the long pull, the strong pull, and 
the pull altogether. 

Haib cloth is made from the hair of horses' 
tails, which is brought, some of it from South 
America, but more from Russia. In the latter 
country it is collected at the fairs of Nizni, 
Novgorod and Ishbilt. It is of all shades of 
color, and for use is dyed black. In the fab- 
rication of hair cloth the hair ia wetted with 
water and when well soaked is put into the 
loom to be woven with a cotton warp. 



Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society. 

The annual meeting of the Santa Clara 
Valley Agricultural Society was held Thursday 
afternoon, at City Market Hall, and notwith- 
standing the inclemency of tho weather there 
was a large attendance of tho members. The 
principal business of the meeting was to re- 
ceive the reports of the officers, elect new ones 
and to finish up the business of the year. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were 
read by the Secretary and approved. 

The reports of the Secretary and Treasurer 
were then submitted, and on motion were re- 
ceived and recorded. 

The following statement from the reports of 
the olBcers shows the condition of the Society's 
finances: 
Keceipts of the S. C. V. A. Society, from til 

Bouroes, Including balance 1873 tl6,T00 91 

Expenditures. 

Paid premiums, 1873 $5,616 00 

Improvement on grounds 3.15t 92 

Incidental expense of F»lr 3,229 22 

Total expenditure fl2,000 14 

Balance in Treasury Jan. Ist, 1874 3,700 77 

Membership. 

The report of the Secretary shows the follow- 
ing statement of the membership of the So- 
ciety: Total number of life members received 
from date of organization, 207; number de- 
ceased members, 7. Total membership to date, 
198. 

Following are the names of the deceased 
members: John G. Bray, Louis Prevost, F. A. 
Shepherd, Wm. Daniels, Mark Hardy, H. C. 
Meloue and Thomas O. Shaw. 

Amendment to ilte Constitution. 

On motion, the first olnuse of Article 9 of the 
Constitution was amended so as to read as fol- 
lows: "Any white person, on paying to the 
Society the sum of $50, for the purpose of be- 
coming a member, shall be a member thereof 
for life." The life-membership fee at present 
is f 25. The original motion was made by Mr. 
Ryland, who wished to substitute 8100, but 
after some discussion the amendment for f 50 
prevailed. 

Presentation. 

At this junction of the proceedings, Hon. C. 
T. Ryland stepped forward, and in a neat and 
eloquent speech, in which he reviewed at length 
the past services of the retiring President, Wm. 
C. Wilson, presented that gentleman, on be- 
half of the members of the Society, a handsome 
and elegantly mounted gold cane, which bore 
the inscription: "Prtsented to Wm. C. Wilson 
by the members of the Santa Clara Valley 
Agricultural Society, January 1st, 1874. Mr. 
Wilson gracefully acknowledged the handsome 
gift, and took his seat amid a perfect storm of 
applause. 

Election of Officers. 
The Society next proceeded with the election 
of officers for the ensuing year. Wm. C. Wil- 
son was placed in nomination for President, 
and there being no further nominations he wan 
elected by accltmation— a just and deserved 
tribute to a most popular, faithful, and efficient 
officer. Several gentlemen were nominated for 
first Vice-President. A vote was then had, and 
C. X. Hobiis receiving the highest number cast, 
was declared duly elected. Cary Peebles, one 
of the oldest members of the society, and who 
has served as an officer almost from the time of 
its organization, was nominated for second 
Vice-President, and there being no opposition 
the secretary was instructed to cast the vote for 
Mr. Peebles. Daniel J Porter and C. T. Ry- 
1 .rjl were unanimously re-eletted Secretary and 
Treasurer, respectively. J. Q. A. Ballon, of 
this city, and James P. Sargent, of Gilroy, were 
elected Directors of the Society for the ensuing 
year. The election of Mr. Ballon was in ac- 
cordance with the "'eternal fitness of things," 
horticulture, the branch of agriculture which 
he represents, having never before been repre- 
sented in the Board of the Society. 

Resolutions. 

The following resolutions were offered by 
Dr. Saxe, of Santa Clara; first:— 

Retnlvrd, By the President and members of the Sint* 
Clara Valley Agricnltural Boetety. that the public 8ale 
of intoxicating liquors on tho public ground! of the 
aforesaid Society, during the public Fairs of aaid So- 
ciety, be hereafter prohibited if within the juriadicMoD 
of said Society; second: — 

Ketoletd, Dy the President uid members of the Santa 
Clara Valley .Agricultural Society, that the public aaln 
Of pouls and other demonstrations of ^>rdinary public 
gambling on the grounds of the Society are a reproach 
and a disgrace to the moral sentiments of the popula- 
tion of tile Santa Clara Valley, and that hereafter it bo 
prohibited on any premises within the jarladictlon of 
this Society." 

The sentiment of the meeting was favorable 
to the first resolution, but it conilicted with the 
terms of the lease of the grounds to Mr. Beatty 
and could not be passed. The second reaola- 
tion, however, was passed by a large vote. 

Amendment to the By-Laws. 
On motion of Cyrus Jones, the last clause of 
section 5 of the By-Laws was changed so as to 
read as follows: "No article or animal shall be 
allowed to compete for a premium iu more than 
one class at the same Fair, except for sweep* 
stakes and in herds." 

State Agricultural Society. 

Col. Younger informed the meeting that it 
was entitled to representation in the Agricultu- 
ral Society at its lurthcoming annual meeting 
for the election of officers, and on motion the 
President was authorized to name three dele-. 
gates who should attend said meocting. 

On motion, the society adjourned. 



January ro, 1874.] 



25 



J. C. Merryfjeld. 

The subject of the sketch herewith given, 
J. C. Merryfield, a member of the Executive 
Committee of the State Grange of California, 
and Master of Dixon Grange, Solano county, 
was born in the town of Orangeville, Wyoming 
county, N. Y., Feb. 7th, 1818. His father was 
a native of Berkshire county, Mass., removed 
to Orangeville in 1806; was a farmer and took 
much pride ia his farm. As soou as young 
Merryfield was old enough, he commenced work 
npon the farm — then in Middlebury, same 
county— as a regular hand, and at 16 years of 
age was able to "hoe his row" with any hired 
man, and generally took the lead in the field. 
His opportunities for education were quite 
limited, having to work on the farm in the 
summer and attend school in the winter. He 
was, however, fond of books, and spent most 
of his leisure in reading. 

In 1836 his father removed to Byron, Ogle 
County, III., a section of country which was 
then very sparsely settled, with not a foot of 
worked road, and not a bridge or culvert be- 
tween Byron and Chicago— 85 miles. 

At 21 years years of age, Mr. Merryfield com- 
menced work for himself, and by industry and 
frugality, at 24 years of age found himself in 
possession of a 400-acrefarm, with considerable 
improvements upon it. As a good man should, 
under such circumstances, he now com- 
menced to,look around for a life partner, and on 
the 22d day of December, 1842, was mariied to 
Miss Emeliue Jarvis. They remained together 
upon the farm until 1850, when he thought to 
better their condition by coming to California, 
where he arrived — at Johnson's Bauch, three 
miles above Placerville — on the last day of 
July, 1850, having made the trip across the 
plains in four months and a half. 

He followed mining with varied success 
about one year, when he went to work on 
a "'ranch" on the Cosumnes river. A resi- 
dence of two years in the State determined him 
to make it his future home, and he sent 
for his wife and child, with whom' he remained 
on the ranch aforesaid until January, 1857, 
when he removed to Solano County, where 
his only child died in 1863, and was soon fol- 
lowed by hin wife. 

Still believing it not good to be alone, after 
a suitable time he again married, taking for his 
second wife >Mrs. Susannah Longmire, the 
widow of Charles Longmire; she at the time 
having ten children. Mr. Merryfield refers 
with pleasure and pride to the fact that all 
the ten remained at home with him and their 
mother until they were either married or became 
of age, and still think "there is no place like 
home." The four youngest are still " at 
home." 

Mr. Merryfield at one time farmed 3,000 
acres in Solano County. Since 1872 he has 
sold and rented until he now works but 300 
acres. 

In the spring of 1872 the farmers of Dixon 
formed a Farmers' Club, of which he was 
chosen Chairman, and was one of the repre- 
sentatives to the Farmers' Union which met in 
this city last summer. He was also one of the 
committee to take into consideration the pro- 
priety of forming Granges in this State. See- 
ing that through the working of the Clubs the 
farmers only published to their enemies what 
they iuteuded to do, thereby giving them a 
chance to checkmate and counteract their ef- 
forts to help them.selves, Mr. Merryfield, 
urged in strong terms the absolute necessity 
of having some more secret and eflfective way 
for carrying out their plans for benefiting the 
agricultural interest. 

When the Dixon Grange was organized Mr. 
M. was elected its Master, and also re-elected 
at the election for the current year. He was 
elected to the Executive Committee of the State 
Grange at the organization of that body at 
Napa, and re-elected to the same position at the 
annual meeting in San Jose. Mr. M. is prompt 
and always on hand at his post of duty, what- 
ever that may be. He has never failed to meet 
with his own Grange except when he was out 
of town, and has been present at every meet- 
ing of the Executive Committee. He has oflS- 
ciated as Justice of the Peace for the last 13 
years, and was last fall again re-elected for an- 
other two years. He has been school trustee 
since 1358, and takes a pride in claiming that 
they have as good a school property in his dis- 
trict as is to be found in the northern portion 
of Solano county. He is also one of the 
Board of Trustees of the California College, 
and chairman of the Masonic Hall Association 
at Dixon. He is also a member of the Order 
of Odd Fellows. 



Squirrel Nuisance Abatement Law. 

The following is a bill to be presented to the Legis- 
lature for the abatement of the squirrel nuisance in 
certain countiesof the State of California, adopted by 
a general conference held to consider the subject in 
San Francisco, Octjber lith, 1873, as reTised, with 
advice of the Code Revision Commission, by a com- 
mittee of the said conyention appointed for the pur- 
pose. 

An Act to abate the Squirrel nuisance in certain 
counties in the State of California. 

The People of the State of California, represented in 
the Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows: 

Sec. 1. Squirrels infesting lands in the Counties- 
of Contra Costa ate hereby declared to be a pub 

lie nuisance. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of every person owning, 
claiming or occupying land situated In the said coun- 
ties, to keep the land so owned, claimed or occupied, 
clear of squirrels, and any failure in said duty shall 
be deemed a sufficient cause for the public through its 
authorized agents to enter upon such land and abate 
the nuisance by destroying the squirrels thereon; and 
such owner, or claimant, together with the lands 
owned, claimed or occupied, are hereby declared to be 
liable for all costs and expense incurred for destroying 
the squirrels thereon, as in this Act provided; and all 
costs and expense incurred as in this Act provided, are 
hereby declared a lien upon and against all the lands 
so owned, claimed or occupied, upon which said ex- 
penses are incurred ; and such lien shall not be re- 
moved until payment or sale has been made to satisfy 
such costs and expense. 

Sec. 3. Each School District in said counties shall 
comprise a Squirrel Inspection District, and the Board 
of Supervisors shall appoint one suitable person in 
each of the said Districts to the office of Squirrel Dis- 
trict Inspector. Said Board shall be governed as far 



.ejiiiol la di: 



land, and file the same with the county Recorder on 
or before the next succeeding first day of April. 

Sec. 9. During the months of January, February and 
March of each year the Inspector shall, when he has 
reason to believe there are squirrels in any part of his 
District, inspect any tracts he has reason to believe to 
be infested, and if the squirrels are found upon private 
lands owned, claimed, or occupied, and no sufficient or 
adequate means in his judgment are being used to 
destroy the same, he shall employ all necessary help 
and means and proceed at once to destroy all the squir- 
rels thereon in like manner as provided for destroying 
squirrels upon neglected lands in Section 7 of this Act; 
and he shall keep and file exact accounts and descrip- 
tions of the land as provided for in said section. If 
the squirrels are upon public lands unoccupied, he 
shall proceed in like manner, and file his acijount as 
provided for in Section 8 of this Act. 

Sec. 10. Each and every person owning, claiming or 
occupying lands in any Squirrel Inspection District, 
who refuses or neglects to comply with the require- 
ments of this Act, is hereby held liable for and de- 
clared to be indebted to the county in which such land 
is situated, to the amount of the actual expenses in- 
curred by the Inspector in destroying the squirrels 
upon such land, as shown by the account of such In- 
spector filed with the County Recorder, where payment 
may be made to said Recorder any time within ninety 
days after the filing of such account together with ac- 
crued fees. When payment is made to the Recorder 
aforesaid, he shall give his receipt for the same and 
enter note in the margin of the record of the satisfaction 
of the lien which shall release and discharge the lien 
upon such land. The said Recorder shall be entitled 
to one-half of the aforesaid twenty per cent, on all col- 
lections so made; and the Supervisors shall make a 
reasonable allowance to the Recorder for recording the 
accounts chargeable against public lands. 

8kc. 11. When the account of any Inspector has 
been on file with the Cjunty Recorder ninety days, un- 
paid, the said Recorder shall pass the account over to 
the District Attorney; and the District Attorney shall 
add fifteen per cent, to the account, for Attorney's fees, 
and then he shall bring suit in the name of the People 
of the State of California in the proper court, to re- 




MERRYT-IELD. 



as practicable in their judgment for the best interest 
of the District in making such appointments, by the 
recommendation of the land owners, claimants and 
occ<ipants of land in such Districts. The appointee 
shall qualify with the usual oath of office and such 
bond as the Board of Supervisors may require, and 
hold office during the pleasure of the said Board of 
Supervisors. The Board of Supervisors shall promptly 
fill any vacancy that may occur from any cause in the 
said office, and the said inspectors shall be held respon- 
sible to the owners or occupants for any unreasonable 
or unnecessary damage that may occur in entry upon 
lauds for the purpose of destroying squirrels. 

Sec. i. Each of the said Inspectors shall be entitled 
to compensation at a rate not exceeding four dollars 
per day for actual service, to be paid as hereinafter pro- 
vided. 

Sec. 5. Each Squin-el District Inspector provided 
for by this Act shall, upon request,and without charge, 
give needful information in the use of poison or imple- 
ments for the destruction of squirrels to land owners, 
claimants, and'iccux^ants of land in his District. 

Sec. 6. On the first Monday of October in each year 
the land owners, claimants, and occupants of land in 
each Squirrel Inspection District provided for by this 
Act shall commence destroying the squirrels on all 
their lands infested by squirrels, and shall faithfully 
and continuously prosecute such work until the squir- 
rels are all destroyed. 

Sec. 7. When there has been refusal or neglect for 
one week by any land owner, claimant, or occupant of 
land in any Squirrel Inspection District provided for 
by this Act, to comply with the provisions of the last 
preceding Section of this Act, the Inspector of such 
District shall employ men and means sufficient, and 
proceed at once to destroy all the squirrels upon such 
neglected lands, and shall file or cause to be filed a 
notice of such intention in the Recorder's office of the 
county designating the name of the delinquent owner 
if known, and the land by name, or other description, 
sufficient for its identification, and shall keep an exact 
account of all expenses, including his own per diem in- 
curred upon such neglected lands as owned, claimed 
or occupied, separately, and together with the descrip- 
tion of the land as above provided, file the same with 
the county Recorder on or before the next succeeding 
first day of April; provided that the owner, claimant, 
or occupant, may present himself to the said Inspector 
at anytime before the filing of such account, and settle 
the same by paying all actual expenses. The said In- 
spector in such case will omit the filing, and pay him- 
self and employes for the work done on the land so 
settled for. Immediately after the filing of the afore- 
said accounts and description of land, the county Re- 
corder shall add twenty per cent, to such accounts and 
shall proceed immediately to record the same in a book 
to be by him kept for that purpose. The said record 
shall be deemed to impart constructive notice of the 
aforesaid lien to all persons, and shall be deemed to 
relate to the time of Sling the notice of Intention, as 
herein provided. 

8ec. 8. On the first Monday of October in each year, 
the Inspectors shall each employ all needful help and 
means, and proceed to destroy all the squirrels upon 
unoccupied public lands in his District, and shall keep 
an exact account of the expense incurred npon such 



cover the amount of the account and percentage. He 
may bring as many actions either to forclose the lien, 
or against the persons liable in the premises, as may be 
necessary to enforce the claim. Service of summons 
in all suits of foreclosure under the provisions of this 
Act, shall be made by publication, for the period of two 
months, in such newspaper of the Judicial District as 
may be ordered by the Judge of the court in which suit 
is to be brought; the said order for publication to be 
endorsed by the Judge upon the complaint prior to the 
filing of the same; and the service shall in all cases be 
deemed complete at the expiration of ten days after the 
before designated term of publication has been com- 
pleted. 

Sec. 12. The defendant in answer to siiit, may 
plead: Ist— That he did not own, claim or occupy the 
land on which the squirrels were destroyed. 2d — That 
the squirrels were not destroyed. 

Sec. 13. It is hereby required of any land owner, 
claimant or occupant of land upon which the Inspector 
has commenced destroying squirrels to assist such In- 
spector when it is convenient, and when such owner, 
claimant or occupant is destroying squirrels or render- 
ing assistance he shall be deemed to be in the employ 
of the said Inspector, and it is further required of such 
landowner, claimant or occupant, when he knows of 
live sq. irrels upon his lands so owned, claimed or occu- 
pied, prior to the aforcs.iid first day of April, to notify 
the said Inspector of such fact. 

Sec. 14. The proceedings in sale and redemption of 
property sold to satisfy liens under the provisions of 
this Act shall be as prescrib.>d in sections 3776, 3777, 
3178, 3779, 3780, 3781, 3782, 37c3, 3784, 3785, and 3786 ol 
the Political Code, for the collection of delinquent 
taxes, so far as the provisions of said sections are ap- 
plical>le and do not conflict with the provisions and ob. 
ject of this Act. 

Sec. 15. The Board of Supervisors of * 

* at the time of levying other county taxes 

shall levy a tax sufficient for the requirements of this 
Act, not exceeding fifty cents on each one htindred tlol- 
lars' worth of taxable property in the coumy, which tax 
shall be assessed and collected as other county taxes, 
and paid into the Gjuuty Treasury to the credit of the 
Squirrel Nuisance Abatement Ftmd which is herein 
provided. 

Sec. 16. The County Recorder and the District 
Attorney, shall each pay over all the money received by 
either of them in accordance with the provisions of this 
Act to the County Treasurer, to the credit of the Sijuir- 
rel Nu'sanoi Abatement Fund, except such as is pro- 
vided for their fees. 

Sec. 17. All employes of the Inspe tor provided for 
by this Act shall be entitled to compensation which 
shall not exceed two dollars per day for actual service, 
and when not paid by the Inspector, to be paid as here- 
inafter provided. 

Sec. 18. All cxjienses incurred in carrying out the 
provisions of this Act when not settled for by land 
owners, claimants or occupants, shall be paid from the 
Squirrel Nuisance Abatement Fund provided by this 
Alt. Warrants drawing ten >er cent, per annum, inter- 
est shall be issued by order of the Board o( Supervisors 
on all approved claims thereon, payable by the Treas- 
urer from the said Fund. 

Sec. 19. Each Squirrel District Inspector shall ren- 



der an account under oath to the B >ard of Sapervisors 
for all the money he receives of land owner.s, claimants 
and occupants, by and on acconut of thB provisions of 
this Act, and he shall present all claims for himself 
and employes, verified, to the said Board of Super- 
visors. 

Sec. 20. The owner of any land or any party claim- 
ing an interest in or lieu thereon, in the aforesaid couQ- 
ties, shall have the right to enter upon the same for the 
purpose of destroying squirrels In case the lessee or 
other occupant shall neglect to destroy them. And 
parties so entering shall be responsible for any unrea- 
sonable or unnecessary damages to the premises or 
crops from such entry. And no entry on lands for the 
real or nominal purpose of de8tr03riag squirrels there- 
on, shall be deemed or held to establish or give color 
of claim to the property— except as is herein provided — 
nor is any authority herein given of entry for other 
purpose than inspection and the destruction of squir- 
rels as in this act provided. — Contra. Coita GazdU, Mar- 
tinez. 

We look upon the foregoing, as an exceed- 
ingly important bill in its provisions, and if it 
should become a law, would doubtless go far to- 
wards the abatement of a most intolerable nui- 
sance. We hope the farmers will generally ap- 
prove of, and through their Representatives 
aid in its passage. Some law is unquestionably 
needed and ought to be tried at once. If after 
two years it shonld be found onerous and 
oppressive and not answering the end desired, 
it can be repealed without working any very 
great hardship to any one. We hope our 
farmers will discuss the merits, and the de- 
merits of the Bill — if it has any of the latter — 
and give us their opinions, in brief, pointed 
communications . 

Rainfall— Comparison of Years. 

We find from the table below, a rain- 
fall of 11.520 inches during the last 
four months. In 1871, for the same 
four months, we had a rainfall of 12.021 inches; 
followed in Jan., Feb., Mar. and April with a 
fall of 11.326 inches. In 1867 the autumn 
rains were 16.662 inches, followed by 15.837 
inches. In 1866 autumn rains were 11.938 inches, 
followed by 13.359 inches. Now, if the amount 
of rain in the autumn months to 1st of Janu- 
ary, in previous years, is any criterion for the 
next four following, we may expect an abun- 
dant rainfall for agricultural purposes and a 
prosperous year. 



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26 



3r^'d^©®* 



[January lo, 1874. 



THe pLOWEF\ Q/^I\DEN. 



Watering House Plants. 

In most instances house plants and 
growing flower stalks do not receive one- 
half the necessary supply of water, while 
in some cases too much is supplied. Ev- 
ery flower pot and flower box should be 
provided with some means of escape for 
the surplus water. If the earth is pressed 
firmly about the roots the plant will re- 
ceive all the moisture it requires before 
this escape is made. A space of about a 
quarter or half an inch should be left be- 
tween the surface of the soil and the rim 
of the pot or box, that the water may not 
wash the earth over the edges to the floor 
or into the saucers, but be allowed to 
stand and work gradually down. Mod- 
erately warm water seems most agreeable 
to these adopted ohidren of ours, and 
surely they thrive best when indulged in 
this respect. Much that is erroneous has 
been said of the danger of watering house 
plants too freely; but they suffer more 
frequently from the opposite mistake. 
The earthern pots in general use are very 
porous, and evaporation through them 
takes place speedily in our warm, dry 
rooms. The earth should never be al- 
lowed to become dust dry; neither should 
the water stand all dai- in pools about the 
roots and lower stems, and, thus stand- 
ing, become sour and disagreeable. Ev- 
ery flower pot should stand on a saucer 
or plate, and there should be a hole in the 
bottom of the pot, so that the dry soil 
may absorb water when it is poured on 
the plate. When the soil will absorb no 
more, the water on the saucer should be 
turned out. — Ex. 

DoTJBi-E FebtiijIzation op Flowebs. — 
Mr. Arnold, of Paris, Canada, has shown 
that if the female flowers of an Indian corn 
plant are submitted to the action of pollen 
from male flowers of different kinds of 
corn plants, each grain of the ear pro- 
duced shows the effect of both kinds of 
pollen. In an experiment related, a given 
female flower was subjected first to the 
action of pollen from a yellow variety of 
corn, and then to that taken from a white 
variety of corn; the result was an ear of 
corn, each grain of which was yellow be- 
low and white above. The conclusion 
presented is, not only that there is an im- 
mediate influence on the seed and the 
whole fruit structure by the application 
of strange pollen, but the more important 
fact that one ovule can be affected by the 
pollen of two distinct parents, and this, 
too after some time has elapsed between 
the first and the second impregnation. 

Guano Water fok Plants. — The Farm- 
er and Gardener, in reply to a correspond- 
ent, says: "AH guanos are not alike in 
soluble proportions; hence a pound of 
phospho-guano will go as far as two 
pounds of many other brands. We use 
about one gallon of the former to a barrel 
of water. Let it remain three or four 
days, stirring the mixture daily. When 
using, we add an equal quantity of water, 
thus taking one gallon of phospho-guano 
to two barrels of water. Your solution is 
doubtless too strong, especially if applied 
when plants are In a partially stagnant 
stage of vegetation. Quano water must 
only be applied to plants when in full , 
growth, and not when they are at rest, as 
is the case during our warmest portion of 
the summer." 

CoTTiNO Blossoms. — All lovers of flow- 
ers must remember that one blossom al- 
lowed to mature or "go to seed" injures 
the plant more than a dozen new buds. 
Cut your flowers then, all of them, before 
they begin to fade. Adorn your rooms 
with them; put them on your tables; send 
bouquets to friends who have no flowers 
or exchange with those who have. You 
will surely find that the more you cut off 
the more you will have. All roses after 
they have ceased to bloom should be cut 
back, that the strength of the root may go 
to forming new roots for next year. On 
bushes not a seed should be allowed to 
mature. 

The Saucer System op Starting Cut- 
tings. — The Floral Cabinet says: The 
"saucer system" is simply filling a 
deep pan with sand to the depth of two 
inches; water until it is the consistency 
of soft mud ; put in cuttings of soft wooded 
plants, or the young wood of roses; place 
wherever convenient, in or out of doors, 
and a satisfactory proportion of the cut- 
tings will be rooted within two weeks, 
when they should be potted off. Until 

ae cuttings are rooted, the sand mus^ be 

kept wet. 



Saving Fuchsia Seed. — Mr. Cannell, 
the great Fuchsia grower, says: "When 
the seed pods are thoroughly ripened, 
partly dry them in the sun, after which 
cut them in halves and quarters with a 
moderately sharp knife, and minutely ex- 
amine each part; the old self-colored va- 
rieties produce ?eed very freely, but the 
choice kinds very sparingly, particularly 
the light varieties. An abundance of hol- 
low seed will be found, but good plump 
seed is about half the size of that of the 
Pansy, and easily distinguished and 
picked out." 

A Pretty Window Plant. — The Oecrden- 
er's Chronicle says: One of the best win- 
dow plants, capable, as it appears, of re- 
sisting almost any hardships to which 
plants in such circumstances are subjected, 
is the Aspidistra lurida. This plant, and 
its variegated varieties, is grown largely 
in France and Belgium, in windows, cor- 
ridors, etc., and might with advantage be 
employed here for like purposes. 

The Flower Garden. — The glory of the 
flower garden in September, is the aster. 
From the dwarf Bouquet varieties, that 
look as if they had been made up into 
bouquets by the hand of man; the 
Truffaut's Poeony-flowered, to the brilliant 
New Rose, hundreds of hues and forms 
fairly illuminate the parterre. 

Save the Cockscomb Blooms. — Those 
having fine blooms of cockscombs in their 
parterre, should carefully observe the 
weather, and before the appearance of 
frost, cut them off, and preserve them in 
dry vases in the house. 



The lioi\SE. 



The Common Colt-Breaker and the 
Trainer. 

The difference of the system of the com- 
mon colt-breaker and the trainer is this: 
The first by punishment and brute force, 
Jreais his colt of doing wrong; the latter 
teaches his to do right; he takes care to 
avoid his being placed in situations and 
under circumstances that might induce 
him to rebel. Let the common breaker 
get a colt that is nervous, timid, and apt 
to be frightened at anything he meets or 
sees, what would he do ? He would take 
the horse purposely where he would be 
sure to meet constant objects to alarm 
him; and every time he starts, the whip 
goes to work. Now, if this fellow had a 
head that was of any use to him, he would 
reflect a little, and this would show him 
the folly and brutish ignorance of his 
conduct. So because the colt is alarmed 
already by what he sees, he frightens him 
ten times more by voice and whip. Hence 
we BO often find that after a horse has 
shied, say at a carriage, when the object 
has passed it takes a considerable time be- 
fore he becomes pacified. All this arises 
from the dread of punishment which he 
has been accustomed to. Horses have 
good memories, and do not easily forget 
ill-usage. 

We frequently see a man on his horse 
refusing to face an object, determine that 
he shall do it, and immediately force him 
up to it. The very exertion used to make 
him do this, increases his terror of it, and 
a fight ensues, when, should the man gain 
his point and get him up to the object, the 
moment his head is turned to leave it he 
bolts off as quickly as possible; he has not 
been reconciled to it, and will shy at it 
just as much (perhaps more) the next time 
he sees it; for now he recognizes it as an 
enemy, and has been taught to know by 
experience what ho only feared before: 
namely, that it was a something that would 
(and as he found, did) cause him annoy- 
ance and injury. Had the man, as soon as 
he found his horse alarmed on seeing this 
object, stopped him, let him stand still, 
caressed and encouraged him, the horse 
would have looked at it, and, finding no 
attempt made to injure him, would have 
gradually approached it; then smelt of it 
(if a stationary object), and finally have 
walked away very coolly, collectedly, and 
satisfied; and the next time he saw it, or a 
similar object, would care very little about 
it. 

A little reflection would tell us that 
these would be the different results of the 
two different treatments; but, unfortunate- 
ly for horses, reflection and consideration 
are not the predominant qualities of the 
generality of horse-breakers. 

Now we will suppose a trainer had a colt 



which was easily alarmed by passing ob- 
jects, other horses galloping near him, or 
persons coming up to him; how would he 
be treated? He would be sent away by 
himself, where it was certain no objects 
would approach close enough to alarm 
him; here he would be exercised, whether 
for three days or three weeks, till ho had 
gained composure and confidence; he 
would then be brought a |little nearer to 
the subjects of his alarm, where thej 
might attract his observation, but could in 
no way annoy or frighten him. Day by 
day he would be brought still nearer to 
them, till they became so familiar to him 
that he would cease to notice them at all, 
or merely as indifferent objects. Assured- 
ly this is a more reasonable mode of treat- 
ment then the one generally resorted to; 
and what is more, it never fails — the fault 
or infirmity is got over, and for ever. 

There is one description of horse with 
which we might be tempted, perhaps, to 
oblige a common colt-breaker; namely, 
some brute which appeared so incorrigiblv 
sulky and vicious that we might not wish 
men who were valuable for better purposes 
to undergo the trouble and risk of having 
anything to do with him; not but that we 
should be quite aware that a man with a 
better head would be more likely to suc- 
ceed; but for the reasons we state, we 
would, perhaps, give the savage to one of 
these kill-or-cure gentry, and let the two 
brutes fight it out. — Prairie Farmer. 

Disease of Joints. 

The knee joint is very large and impor- 
tant, and is liable to many injuries, as 
Spain, which is immediately followed by 
extensive inflammation, the symptoms of 
which are tolerably well marked, but as a 
matter of course, vary somewhat, accord- 
ing to the injury. When severe, there 
is considerable swelling around the joint; 
the horse is lame, and, when trotted, the 
lameness is greatly increased, which is a 
marked peculiarity of knee-joint lameness. 
The horse, when standing, slightly bends 
the knee, and, if the joint is quickly flexed 
or given a rotary motion, he evinces great 
pain which is immediately shown by his 
instantly rearing up. In the walk he 
brings the leg forward with a swinging 
motion. Inflammation of the knee is very 
apt to result in partial or complete stiff- 
ness of the joint. In slight sprains of the 
knee there is very little swelling, and the 
symptoms are not so well marked, and 
considerable difficulty is sometimes ex- 
perienced as to the precise seat of the 
lameness, especially by people who are 
not aware of the structure of this beauti- 
ful but complex articulation. In the 
treatment of injuries in this situation, 
however trivial, it is of the utmost impor- 
tance that the patient should be allowed 
perfect rest. It is often desirable that he 
should be kept standing in his stall, and 
the leg carefully bandaged with a proper- 
ly applied flannel bandage. The follow- 
ing liniment may also be used several 
times a day; equal parts of laudanum, 
tincture of arnica and tincture of camphor. 
In prolonged cases it is generally neces- 
sary to use a powerful counter-irritant, as 
cantharidine ointment or tincture of can- 
tharides, which should be applied around 
the whole joint. — Canada Farmer. 

Good Roadsters. 

How very few good road horses we have! 
How few persons are engaged in breeding 
really good road horses! Yet there is a de- 
maud for such, and they always sell well. 
Most of the horses brought to the city are 
clumsy farm horses, without action, style 
or high breeding. If farmers would pay 
more attention to the qualities desirable in 
good road horses, they would get double 
the price they now do for their stock. If 
the breeder wants to raise good horses, he 
should first select good mares. They 
should be of sufficient size for road pur- 
poses, have an easy way of going, hare good 
barrels, good style and color, and then he 
is ready to go to breeding. He should 
next select a stallion from stock noted for 
road purposes, that trots well, and from a 
family that imparts trotting action. He 
should on no consideration take ^-ither 
mare or stallion that don't suit — that don't 
fill the bill. Begin right and always keep 
right, and you will always be sure to be 
right. Don't buy a mare because she is a 
mare, but buy her because she suits you, 
and the same with a stallion. 

Good stock pays better than poor stock. 
Well bred stock properly managed will al- 
ways pay. There is less labor, and more 
pleasure, in raising tine stock than in 
carrying on almost any other kind of farm- 
ing business. — Ex. 



1\\E Api^f^Y- 



Bees. 

The domestic economy of a bee hive is 
an extremely interesting study, and we 
cull the following facts from the Canada 
Farmer: Bees are of three kinds. Every 
colony contains one queen, a multitude of 
workers, and a number of drones, j ust like 
the world in which we human beings 
move, except that a hive is an absolute 
monarchy while we rejoice us a republio. 
The queen is the only perfect female and 
lays all the eggs from which the others 
are produced. The eggs are of two kinds, 
the one hatches into drones while the oth- 
er produces workers. The latter are sim- 
ply undeveloped females, and every 
worker egg is capable of being developed 
into a queen. The queen-cell is a roomy 
pendant receptacle resembling a peanut, 
housing the egg and feeding it with "roy- 
al jelly." The food develops the young 
females. Bees raise queens when the hive 
becomes very populous, or when the 
reigning sovereign becomes jealous of a 
rival, or the worker of a stranger, in 
which case they kill her. Within five 
days after being hatched the young queen 
starts on her "bridal tour." courtships, 
marriages, and impregnation being ac- 
complished on her brief flight. When a 
queen does not happen to come across an 
eligible drone at the proper period she be- 
comes a drone layer, and the colony is 
therefore doomed to extinction. A queen 
has been known to lay 2,000 eggs in a sin- 
gle day. Her prolificacy is regulated by 
the supply of food. The average life of a 
queen is about three years, but it is con- 
sidered better to replace her in a good sea- 
son with a younger and more prolific suc- 
cessor. Drones gather no honey; they 
are consumers only, and like many human 
drones the fewer of them there are the 
better. Military order regulates the work- 
ers. They keep the hive clean, feed the 
young brood, build cell, gather pollen 
and honey, defend their homes, ventilate 
the hive and warm it in cold weather. 
Honey is gathered, not made, by the bees. 
Beeswax is manufactured by a very inter- 
esting process. The eggs laid by a queen 
bee, hatch in three days into small grubs. 
About the eighth day they become nymphs 
from which they emerge perfect bees. A 
queen matures in from ten to seventeen 
days, a worker in twenty-one days, a drone 
in twenty-four, If any one doubts the 
superiority of the female race, the use- 
lessness of a drone, or the beauty of in- 
dustry, let him visit a bee-hive. It con- 
tains a sermon more emphatic than the 
preaching of centuries or the most potent 
utterance of men. 

ToaDS Eating Bees. — A Missouri cor- 
respondent writes the Bee Keepers' Maga- 
zine: I have read that toads do little or no 
damage to the bee-keepers, but I lately 
found several on the front board of my 
hives, and one I watched, and within fif- 
teen minutes saw him at four Italians and 
two flies; then I executed and dissected 
him, and found his stomach perfectly 
crammed with Italian workers. This was 
a very small toad, and I suppose could 
not have had less than twelve bees in his 
stomach. A toad twice as large would 
likely eat twenty-four bees, and three 
meals a day (I think 1 am right) makes 
seventy-two bees for one toad in a day, 
and a small family of four would make 
away with 288 bees a day. Pretty stiff. 
Perhaps my calculation may be too high 
about his three meals a day, but I am cer- 
tain that when a toad finds how easy it is 
to get his meals at the entrance of a bee 
hive, he won't look for bugs or worms. 
But the most serious thing they can do is 
to gobble up the young queens returning 
home from their bridal trip. Let those 
who have their hives near the ground look 
out for toads. 



Species op Bees. — Entomologists tell 
us that there are about two thousand spe- 
cies of apiarw (bees.) How many of them 
are mere deviations from the same primi- 
tive type that produces our honey bee, we 
have no means of ascertaining. Of the 
honey bee proper (Apis) , there are but a 
limited number of distinct kinds. Wheth- 
er there is properly more than one species, 
naturalists have not determined. So far 
as I have seen any evidence, there is noth- 
ing to prove that they are not all of the 
same species, but in their diffusion over 
the earth they have met with different 
conditions, that have caused variations in 
color, size and other peculiarities, and 
they are but races, varieties or variations. 
— Am, Bee Journal. 



January lo, 1874 ] 



27 



Preparing Bones for Fertilizers. 

It frequently happens In country places 
where bones are quite plentiful (^and where 
are they not ?) that there are no mills to 
grind them, and if applied to the land as 
they are, they decompose so slowly as to 
be of comparatively little use. In such 
cases chemical means, which are always 
at hand, are to be brought into acquisi- 
tion. 

Of all the various means that can be 
employed for decomposing and dissolving 
bones, the best and most practicable is 
wood-ashes. They are generally plentiful 
in country places; they prevent any un- 
pleasant odor from being given off, and, 
above all, cause a rapid and complete de- 
composition. The bones are converted 
into a fine powder, which, mixed with the 
ashes, furnishes an excellent fertilizer, 
very rich in potash and phosphoric acid. 
The method of using them is as follows: 
A trench three or four feet deep, and of 
any desired length, is dug in the earth, 
and filled with alternate layers of ashes 
and whole bones, each layer being aboiit 
six inches thick. The lowest as well as 
the top layers are of ashes, and each layer 
of ashes is thoroughly saturated with 
water. At distances of three feet, poles 
are rammed down to the bottom of the 
ditch, and every eight or ten days they 
are taken out and enough water poured in 
the holes to saturate the ashes. At the 
end of two months the whole heup is thor- 
oughly stirred up with a fork so as to mix 
the ashes and soften the bones, which are 
then left to ferment again, water being 
added as often as necessary. In about 
three months more, the heap being worked 
over twice or three times more, the de- 
composition of the bones will be so com- 
plete that only a few of the largest bones 
remain, and these are taken out and put 
in another heap. 

This method of using bones comes to us 
from Russia and is very highly recom- 
mended. The action of the fertilizer upon 
crops is said to be something extraordi- 
naiy. It seems as if the salts in the bones 
and those in the ashes unite to form very 
soluble salts which can be at once assimi- 
lated by the roots of plants. 

Where wood ashes are scarce, recourse 
must be had to horse manure. The bones 
are soaked a few days in water and then 
placed in rectangular pits, with alternate 
layers of horse manure, each layer being 
drenched with the water in which the 
bones were soaked. The strata of bones 
are three inches thick, and those of ma- 
nure a foot thick. The pit is covered 
with earth so as to be tightly closed. The 
decomposition of the bones will require, 
in this case, about ten months, when the 
mixture is ready for use as a fertilizer. — 
Maryland Land. 

Care of Manure. 

From actual experience, I say by all 
means house your manure. If you haven't 
a cellar under your barn and cannot have 
one, build a shed at once over the accumu- 
lation behind the barn. You will save the 
cost every year. A few joists and boards 
will build a temporary one; the boys would 
be glad to do it if you give them a chance. 
The accumulating of forest leaves cannot 
be to highly recommended; they are worth 
twice as much as the swamp hay many 
farmers spend time and money to get for 
bedding. 

Last Fall I took hold of the old home- 
stead, and I determined at once to start 
out on a new order of things, and with the 
idea that to get good crops and improve 
the land was to stuff it with manure. I 
went to work accumulating everything 
that would rot and make vegetable mold. 
I went around the hedges of the mowing 
lots, in the pastures and on the rodeside, 
and mowed all the bushes I could get and 
stacked them in the yard for litter. When 
leaves fell I went to the forests and gath- 
ered several loads, filling all the spare 
room I had in the barn with them. I bed- 
ded the floor thick where the cattle stood. 
Each morning I hoed all the wet ones with 
the manure into the celler and bedded 
down anew. 

I am not in favor of saw-dust for an ab- 
sorbent, as sometimes spoken of, unless it 
be hard wood; pine contains pitchy sub- 
stance which is not good for land. Swamp 
muck or peat is the best, especially if you 
are to use your manure on dry land — if 



you are going to use it on low, black land, 
sand or loam may be best. Carry the low 
land on to the hills and the hills into the 
valleys, and you will improve both. I 
found that by the mixture of the droppings 
of the horse, cows, leaves, bushes, and 
everything of he sort, that the quality was 
greatly improved as well as the quantity 
increased. 

I found, however, that having so much 
vegetable matter decaying, it was more 
apt to heat, and having no boy to work it 
over, I had to do it myself, which I did 
three times, say once a month. I shook 
up the green manure, putting it one side, 
then in three or four weeks gave it another 
shake and more green in its place, and so 
on; consequently in the spring I had a lot 
of rotten finely pulverized manure to use, 
and the result was my crops have come in 
this Fall nearly or quite double what they 
were last year, treated in the old way of 
farming. Brother farmers, try it, and re- 
member the basis of success is the manu- 
facturing of manures. — Cor. Massachusetts 
Ploughman. 

Method of Managing Manure. 

Mr. Von Horskyfield, owner of the 
largest landed estates in Bohemia, has 
since 1850 introduced a method of treating 
the accumulating stable manure, which 
differs from the usual process, and for 
which he claims many advantages, viz., 
economy of time, space, feed, and bedding, 
a great saving of money and of hands, and 
no necessity for such contrivances as cel- 
lars, tank-pumps, etc.; also, a far better 
product, no loss occuring from evapora- 
tion and rot; and finally, a decided im- 
provement in the condition of the cattle- 
yards, which never show any trace of 
manure, either solid or liquid. He says 
ail these favorable results are obtained in 
the following way: The manure is not 
removed from the stable until it reaches 
the height of five feet; the straw for bed- 
ding is cut intolengths of about five inches, 
and thus more readily absorbs the liquid 
portion and facilitates the distribution of 
the manure in the furrows. The entire 
mass is constantly compressed by the 
weight of the animals, and thereby kept 
moist, while air and consequent putrefac- 
tion are excluded. After about three 
months this manure is carried to the field 
and immediately covered in the furrows, 
where it readily decomposes and yields all 
its strength to the soil, fully doubling its 
usual value, according to Mr. von Hors- 
kytield's experience. Besides this, the 
air in the stables is never tainted by ex- 
halations injurious to the health of the 
cattle. 

This plan is not new in this country, 
has been practiced by several, and is to be 
recommended where the height of the 
stable will permit such an accumulation 
during two or three months, and litter and 
muck are at hand to keep the stable sweet. 
—N. y. Times. 



Onder this head will be found the Dames and address of 
some of our most enterprising and reliable businessmen. 



Buyers' Directory. |MB?^'||»Jii5»»9:iiS^ai.is 



^ 



T. R. Churcli, 223 Montgomery Street, 

(Russ House Block,) San Francisco. Wholesale and re- 
tail dealer in Mens', Youths' and Boys' Fine Custom- 
made Clothing and Furnishing Goods; also Trunks, 
Valiaes, Baea, etc. 



Brittan, Holbrooi( & Co., Importers of 

stoves and Metals, Tinners' Goods, Tof Is and Machines, 
111 and 113 California, 17 and 19 D.rvis streets, San Fran- 
cisco, and 178 J street, Sacramento. 



San Francisco Wire Worl<s, 665 Mission 

St., S. F. C. H. Gruenhagen & Co., Manufacturers of al 
kinds of Wire Work for Gardens. Cemeteries, Flower 
Stands, Baskets, Tree Boxes, Arches, Bordering and 
Railing. 

Saul & Co., 579 Market Street, San 

Francisco. Manufacturers of Carriages, Wagons and 
S tage Work, of the most improved and practical styles. 



Warner & Silsby Manufacture all kinds of 

Bed Springs, including the Obermann Self-Fastening 
Spring, and the Westly Double Spiral, 147 New Mont- 
gomery street. 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits; also for the sale of Butter, Eggs, 
Cheese, Hops, Green and Dried Fruits, etc., 75 Warre i 
street. New York. Refer to Anthony Halsey, Cashier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank, N Y. ; Ellwanger A Barry, 
Rochester, N. Y. ; ". W. R.eed, Sacramento, Cal. : A. 
Lusk tfc Co., Pacific Fruit Market, San Francisco, Caf. 



H. S. CItOCKER Sc CO., 

IMPORTING AND WHOLESALE 

Stationers and Mercantile Job 
Printers, 

Nos. 401 and 403 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 

PACIFIC COAST AGENCY AMERICAN LE.U) PENCIL 
COMPANY. 

Leroy W. Fairchild's Gold Pens and Pencil 

Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co.'s Fine Printing 
Inks. 



THE BEST 

SEWING MACHINE! 

THE NEW IMPROVED 

FLORENCE. 

BACK FEED AND SIDE FEED. 



The lightest running, naost simple, and most easily 
operated Sewing Machine in the market. 

Always in order and ready for work. 

In the past ten years ELEVEN THOUSAND Florence 
Machines have been sold by me on this Coast, and no 
purchaser has paid me anything for repairs If there 
is a Florence Machine within one thousand miles of 
San Francisco not working well I will fix it without 
any exiiense to the owner. 

SAMUEL HrLL, Agrent, 

NO. 19 NEW MONTGOMERY STREET, 

25v6-lm Grand Hotel Building, 3. F. 




John D Yost, 
San Francisco. 



I<)v27-bp3m 



H. S. Crocker, 
Sacramento 




The object of this school is to impart a thorough edu- 
cation in business affairs. It is open to persons of both 
sexes and of all ages. There is an English Department 
for those not sufficiently advanced for the Business 
Course. Sessions continue day and evening throughout 
the year. Students can enter at any time. All wishing 
to be successful should secure a practical education at 
this College. Send for " Heald's College Journal," and 
learn full particulars. Sent free to all by addressing 
E. P. HEALD, Pros. Business College, San Francisco, 
Cal. 2v27-lv 



PKIC£, S50. 



The New Wilson 

SEWING MACHINE 

Has points of superiority over 
all others. A reliable warran- 
ty is given with each machine 
for 

FIVE YEARS. 
It is unequaled for light and 
heavy work. Examine and 
compare it with the highest 
priced machine in the market 
G. A. NORTON, Gen. Ag't 
for the Pacific Coast. 

331 Kearny St., S. F. 
2v'27eow-bp-ly 



S^OMIETHIIVG IVE TT. 




MOUNTAIN RANCH FOR SALE. 

A valuable and productive ranch is offered for sale, 
located on the public road, between Grass Valley and 
Colfax. The ranch contains 560 acres of land — 320 paid 
for, and patent received for 160 — containing all the best 
meadow land, and 400 apple trees 16 and 18 years old. 
There are six lots of 40 acres each, railroad land, which 
will make the title good to any buyer. The dwelling 
house is not furnished yet; it contains ten rooms, 
lathed and plastered; 6 on the upper ffoor and 4 on the 
lower, with hall; a good stone cellar and one good barn. 
Last year 1,000 boxes of winter apples were shipped. 
There are 200 pear trees, and plums and peaches enough 
for family use. The owner cuts from 30 to 40 tons of 
meadow hay per year. There are from 6,000 to 7,000 
cords of wood, worth $1 per cord, no* standing upon 
the ranch. Terms liberal. Apply to 

P. H. SUMNER, 
No. 311 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

September, 15, 1873. 



Wooden Pipe of all Sizes. 

From one to twelve-inch bore, suitable for water or 
gae, thai will stand as much pressure and last as long 
as iron, for half the cost. 

Send for descriptive catalogue and price list to 



llv27-awbp 



H. F. WIIiLIAMS. 

331 Montgomery St., S. F. 



San Francisco Cordage Company. 

Established 1856. 

We have just added a large amount of new machinery of 
the latest and most improved kind, and are again prepared 
to fill orders for Rope of any special lengths and sizes. Con- 
stantly on handalarge stock of Manila Rope, all sizes; 
Tarred Manila Rope ; Hay Rope ; Whale Line, etc., etc. 

TUBBS & CO.. 

de20 fill and BIS Front street, San Francisco. 



o — 



OoK Specialtt: "BEYOND THE MISSISSIPPI." 
tar GO WEST, YOUNG MAN I GO WEST I 

Gold Uy tbe Bunhel I Silver y>y the Ton I 

Capital required: Nerve and Honest Industry. 

THE FAR, WEST, 

The Great Treature Chamber of America. 
All about Its Resourcei, Mines, Railroads, Lands, Indians, 
Climate, and DevelopmenU Illuslralvd and Described in 

CROFUTT'S WESTERN WORLD, 

for $1.50 a year. With $10 Premium Chromo, 

"A-IWEERIOA-ISI moca-HEss," 

free Ia each subscrllwr. 
^M" Two sampte Worlds Beat for 10 oeot*. Ag«nta wanted. 



Patrons of Husbandry. 

NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN that the office of Secre- 
tary of the State Grange has been removed to San 
Francisco in connection with that of the State Agency 
320 California street. Room 9, third floor. By order of 
the Executive Committee. 

W. H. BAXTER, 
Secretary State Orang'e. 



Valuable Farm for Sale or Exchange. 

1,000 ACRES OF THE BEST FARM LAND IN THE 
STATE OF MICHIGAN, a portion of which is well 
timbered. Rapidly Increasing in value. Title perfect. 
Will be sold or exchai ged, in lots to suit, for REAL 
ESTATE IN CALIFORNIA. 

Apply to G-. D. CROCEEB, Room 16, No. 315 
California street, San Francisco. 15v6-Sm 



Valuable Dairy and Grain Ranch 

FOR, SA^LE, 

In San Mateo County, comprising 900 acres, 400 acreg 
under cultivation, and all well watered and substan- 
tially improved. Inquire of 
20v6-3m JOS. VT. JORDAN, 

N. E. cor. Clay and Front tts., San Francisco. 



BIBBINS & CO., 

t02 Kearny street San Francisco. 

(SUCCESSORS TO BRANDON i BIBBINS.) 

Deal extensively in Country Property. 

WANTED— FARMS TO SELL AND LEASE. 

FOn SALE : 

Farms, Grazing: Lands and Tula Lands 

5v5-ly Throughout the Coast. 



TO RENT'. 

An improved Farm— including a Vineyard— about one 
mile from Napa City. Address 

P. H. SUMNER, 
311 Montgomery street, San Francisco, 
Or Pacific Rural Press Office. 



P. H. SUMNER, 
Iteal Estate Broker, 

311 Montgomery street SAN FRANCISCO. 

The Improving, Purchasing and Selling of Real Es- 
tate, and Negotiations of Loans, in San Francisco and 
Oakland. 

Also, Farms and Country Property sold and ex- 
changed- 9v6tf 



i^K *A ff»£)/kr''rdnyl /Benta w«T,tc<ir yitlctftssesoi worltlngiieo 
At) lO*.jVl)lc,ofellber»i!S, Joui./orolil,limkoi7ior6nioneyal 
work foruelutl'i^ir aparo molneiiCil or all llio time than atanytltlug 
•lae. Particulars fi'oo. AddregiO. Btliiaua*C<>..PortlaDd4Uaino. 



Buy Real Estate while at Low Rates. 

ELEVEN W TEE-FRONT LOTS, CHEAP, 
Gift Map 4, 
Forming about half of a block fronting on the broad 
ship channel of Islais Creek; will be sold so low as to 
make it an inducement to the buyer. Inquire for the 
owner. Room 18. No. 338 Montgomery St., S. F. bptf 



CALIFORNIA LAND AGENCY. 

Will attend to the Location, Purchase and Sale of 
Lands and Farms, the Examination of Titles, and 
the Payment of Taxes. 

1,000,000 Acres of well selected Lands in Cali- 
fornia Oregon, and Washington Territory for sale. 
Also, buy and sell property in the city and vicinity. 



20v6-ly-lCp 



W. M. BRANDON, 

535 California street, San Francisco. 



A KANCH OF 160 A.CVi'ES, 

With Barn and House, thirty or forty tons of hay, and with 
all the neces :^ary farminR implements, to be let lor a term 
ol years, either'bv the acre or on shaies; situated beiween 
Medway Station and Moore's LandinK. 2)4 niilesfrcm eith»r 
place. For particulars, enquire of CHAS . ALI'ERS. '228 
Bush street, at 1 P. M. lT7-2m 



Anglo-Californian Bank. 

LIMITED. 

Successors to J. Seligrman & Co. 

London Office No. 3 Angel Court. 

San Francisco Office No. 412 California street. 

Authorized Capital Stock, $6,000,000, 

Subscribed, $3,000,000. Paid in, $1,500,000. 
Remainder subject to call. 

DiRECT"BS IN LoNPON— Hon. Hugh McOuIloch. Reuben 
D. Sa.'tsoon, William F. Scholheld, Isaac Seli^man, Julius 
Siugton. 

Managers: 
R. O. SNEATn and IGNATZ STIUNHAKT, 
San Francisco. 
The : 

tOHltS, ... . - - ., 

etters of Or<'ilit av.iilalile thioughout the world, and to 
loan money on proper securities. 2v27-eowbp 



i Bank is now prepared to open accounts, receive de- 
s, mike collections, buy and sell liichauKC and Issue 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE, 

SANTA BARBARA, OAL. 

A Boarding .School for Boys and Girl', otferln!; all the 
advantage^i of a thorough mndt-Tn education. French. 
German, .Spanish, Latin. Greek, DrawiuR, the Nnturnl 
Sciences, fxyraoastica and Danoine taui;ht without extra 
charge Vocal ynil Instrumental Music receive particular 
a'ti'ntion. Hupils furnish 'iiiU/ a pair of heavy blankets. 
Next lerm opens Januiry 6th, 1874. „„„„„ 

Write for Calalogue to ELWOOD COOPER. 

22v6-lv President Board of Directors. 




© mWBJ^S 3P11S8S* 



[January lo, 1874. 



CALIFORNIA. 

CONTBA^COSTA. 

6'<u-t(/e, Jan23: TnE Kains.— With little in- 
termission the rains have been falling for the 
past five weeks in moderate measure daring the 
period, giving us to this date, Friday, January 
2d, a total fall of eleven inches for the season, 
of which amount we had eight and a half 
inches up to the close of December, and 
one and a half inches have fallen in the new 
year. The wind is now from the west, the 
clouds are scattering, and we have assuring 
promises of a clearing up in the broad expanses 
of blue sky that are spreading in the arch over- 
head. Since the storm began, more than a 
month ago, there has been but little chance for 
plowing, and not much has been done in the 
central section of the county; consequently, if 
the rains are now over, as we hope, for the pres- 
ent, the seeding of the land will be delayed to 
a later period of the season than is usual; but 
with the store of water now in the ground and 
the spring rains that with much confidence can 
be relied on, we have re:ison to calculate on 
good grain crops notwithstanding the delay in 
getting the ground seeded for them. The delay, 
too, cannot be counted altogether a disadvan- 
tage since it has given the foul seed full chance 
to start, so that most of the weeds will be turned 
under and destroyed when the plows are run 
through the ground. The last rains have been 
quite warm and vegetation has come forward 
with unusually rapid growth, promising, with a 
few days of sunsliine, to give the hungry cattle 
inviting and refreshing pasturage. 
KEfiN. 

Courier, Jan. 3: From present appearances, 
a very respectable amount of cultivation will 
be effected this season. As far as we have 
been able to observe, every farmer is at work, 
inspired with high prices, with will and en- 
ergy. A considerable breadth of [grain and 
alfalfa is already sown. 

A fine warm rain set in on the morning of 
the 2d instant, and it promises to be of long 
continuance. Enough rain has already fallen 
to insure the best graining season we have had 
in this section for a long series of years. 

We learn that the Farmers' Irrigating Ditch, 
designed to water an immense tract of land ly- 
ing around and near Kern Lake, is completed, 
and that the water will be turned into it to-day. 
It is taken out of a river at a point due north 
of Bakersfield, and lis probably not less than 
twelve miles in length, in some places natural 
channels being taken advantage of. It is one 
of the most valuable franchises in the county 
and, thu coming season, will develop immense 
agricultural resources. 

LOS ANGELES. 

Co-oPEBATiON- -i-'xprcAS, Jan. 3 : Thos. A. Garey 
records au action which reflects the highest credit 
on the sublime spirit which actuates the 
Grangers in their relations to their fellow-men. 
He says: 

Happening to ride in the direction of the 
Agricultural Park, yesterday, I witnessed a 
sight long to be remembered; one that did my 
soul good, and I felt like exolniming, "Surely, 
mankind is not totally depraved, but human 
kindness and brotherly love find an abiding- 
place on earth." 

My attention was attracted to a busy gang 
of laborers, some plowing with gang and some 
with single plows (2C in all), some sowing 
grain while ,others harrowed in, and all at 
work on a plat of forty acres of land, the prop- 
erty of a poor man, sick and unable to plant his 
crop; in comparatively destitute circumstances 
and with a 'large and dependent family. I 
made enquiry, asking what the unusual scene 
meant, and was informed that " Enterprise 
Grange" had turned out en masse to put in the 
crop of a worthy brother. 

All seemed jubilant in the consciousness of 
good deeds, and hope kindled in the tearful 
eyea of the recipient of this disinterested kind- 
ness. And we feol that at least one pair of 
God's children feel that they have come to 
bless him for the Grange union. 

Here we have in tliis case a glimpse of the 
objects of the farmers' co-operative movement; 
to assist one another and protect themselves 
from oppression are cardinal doctrines of their 
order. 

And many a poverty-stricken farmer will 
bless the day when wise men gave the world 
the combinations of the Grange. 
NAPA. 

Deer hK-w.—Iieporlrr, Jan. 3:] It will be un- 
lawful to kill deer from last Thursday until the 
first of next September. We would respectfully 
call the attention of our representatives to the 
fact that the time of prohibition should be 
changed, and commence on the 1st of Decem- 
ber and end on the Ist of July, for the simple 
reason that during the month of December it 
is almost an impossibility to kill a doe without 
destroj-ing an embryo fawn, the rutting season 
having commenced 1>efore the first of that 
month. After the 1st of July the fawns are able 
take to care of themselves. The change we 
speak of as applicable to Napa and Lake coun- 
ties, would save us numbers of deer that never 
see the light. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Stock. — Union, Jan. 6: Night before last 
there came through from the East, in the cars 
->i the National Dispatch Company, a large 
liber of thoroughbred sheep from Vermont, 
en route for ban Jose. There also arrived 
twenty-one car loads of beef cattle, bound for 



San Francisco, from Iron Point. As the ani- 
mals were very tired, they were unloaded at 
the corral in this city for a few hours' rest; then 
loaded again, and fowarded to their destination 
last evening. 

Cattle Killed. — Armstrong & Hinkson of 
this City purchased forty-five head of dairy 
cows at Gait, recently, and on Saturday they 
were loaded upon cars lo be brought here. In 
starting, the locomotive gave such a jerk that 
all the cattle were crowded into the hind ends 
of the cars, and the jam was so great that six 
or eight of them were killed outright, and many 
others seriously injured, so that they will have 
to be sold for beef. In uU thirteen or fourteen 
are killed or permanently injured. 

Home Inditstbie3. — The Bergman Brothers, 
proprietors of the Sacramento Pottery, are 
just about commencing the manufacture of ink 
bottles and ink stands, in sizes varying from 
the smallest up to quarts. The ink fiictory 
will be established in this city by C. Page Bon- 
ney & Co., with lionney as Superintendent, he 
having conducted a likebusiiu-ss in Minnesota, 
whence he arrived a few weeks since. It is the 
intention to turn out inks of all kinds and at 
prices to defy competition, and put a stop to 
importation of such commodity. In addition, 
as soon as the necessary machinery arrives, 
Bonuey will go into the manufacture of cracked 
wheat, and will gradually extend his business 
as the public wants may require. The site 
for the factory has not yet been selected, but 
it will be in Sacramento, and the potters 
Bergman are already busy at work preparing 
for the manufacture of ink bottles. 
SAN BERNARDINO. 

Arijus, Jan. 1: The recent warm we;ither has 
brought up the green grass on our mesa, and 
Mother Earth smiles in her mantle of green. 
Our farmers are busily engaged in plowing, 
and the crop this year bids fair to equal that of 
any previous. 

It is said that the Kiverside people will, this 
spring, set out 300,000 vines and trees. Just 
think what the income will be to this settle- 
ment when all this fruit oomes into market. 
This settlement has gone more extensively 
into the fruit business than apy other settle- 
ment in California. They are sure to reap 
their reward. All that is required is a little 
practice and industry. 

ADonT San Bkrnaudino. — We are permitted 
to make extracts from a letter written by Mr. 
Frazee, to Hon. T. A. Morris, of Indianapolis, 
Indiana: 

After traveling for three years over the State 
of California, I can say unhesitatingly that 
San Bernardino is the healthiest location that 
I have found. It is not subject to fogs, as the 
coast towns; its atmosphere is dry and healthy; 
it is the richest and best watered valley in the 
State; more mill streams and more artesian 
water than in any two counties in this State. It 
is a rapidly growing city of 3,000 population. 
The west end of the Southern Pacific Railroad 
is within thirty miles of this place, and is rap- 
idly approaching completion. The railroad 
from Salt Lake City is being pushed on to in- 
tersect the Texas Pacific Itailroad at this place. 
This is a delightful climate; now (Dec. 25tb,) 
persons are comfortable in their shirt sleeves, 
and children have been playing barefooted, 
and comfortable all winter out of doors. Flow- 
ers ure in bloom; oranges are ripo; early -corn 
has been planted and early gardens look beau- 
tiful. Wheat yields 50 bushels to the acre; al- 
falfa (clover), grows six feet tall, and brings an 
annual income of from oue to two hundred 
dollars an acre. Land can be bought at from 
two to twenty dollars an acre. This is the gar- 
den spot of California for health or for making 
money. 

SAN JOAaUIN. I M O 

PiAiN. — Anjus, Jan. 3: The rainy weather 
that has prevailed for some time past seems to 
have improved since the advent of the new 
year, rain falling steadily throughout the whole 
of Thursday and Thursday night and up to the 
hour of going to press with our paper on Fri- 
day afternoon, and ftill no appearance of let- 
ting up. The roads are still passable for the 
stages and light vehicles, but freighting has 
entirely ceased from this point. Judging from 
the appearance of things at the present time, 
the farming prospects are most flattering in- 
deed, and three weeks of open weather in this 
month will enable farmers to very greatly in- 
crease the breadth of land in cultivation. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

Sentinel, Jan. 3: If any one doubts the mild- 
ness of the winter climate in Santa Cruz he 
should tarry a moment at the window of Post- 
master Brazer's Store. He will there find, at- 
tachoii to the stem, a ripe orange which was 
grown in the open air in Mr. Edward Briody's 
garden in this city. A large number of tropi- 
cal plants are in full bloom in the various pri- 
vate gardens of Santa Cruz. 
8ANTA:CLARA. 

At Wor.K.— .IcZuoca/e, Jan. 3 : Our farmers 
eagerly seizo upon the intervals in the rain to 
prepare their ground for the reception of the 
seed which is to yield them a golden harvest. 
On every hand plowing has coiiimeuccd, and is 
being prosecuted with vigor. On the high land 
the ground is in excellent condition for tilling, 
and a shcrt season of dry weather will place 
the lower portions also in suitable condition 
for the plow. A more auspicious season has 
never opened for the farmers. The rain has 
been cojjious and nicely distributed thus far, 
with very little frost, and vegetation has felt its 
benign influence, as evidenced in its rapid 
growth. Already the tiny blades of grass are 
upon the ground, the beautiful green forming 
a pleasing contrast to the brown earth, while 



shrubs and flowers are showing signs of new 
life, and sending out fresh sprouts to bloom 
in their season. With no drawbacks, we may 
confidently look forward to a season of pros- 
perity such as has not blessed our State for 
years. 

The New Year opens with cheerful prospects 
for Gilroy and the district of which it is the 
center. In agriculture and rural pursuits the 
copious, but gradual, rains, without deluging 
the soil, have prepared it for the reception of 
the seed, and have facilitated agricultural and 
gardening operations. Plowing and seed-sow- 
ing are now going on steadily all around, and 
though here and there is complaint of the earth 
being too soft, the ground, taken all in all, is 
in excellent condition. So long aa the plow 
leaves a clean, glistening funow, and so long 
as the soil yields to the harrow without leaving 
heavy lumps of earth, there cannot be too 
much rain for grain-growing purposes. In fal- 
lowed ground, whore seeding was done in No- 
vember, the corn-grass is several inches above 
the ground, and looks very healthy. 

The cultivation of tobacco, which is the pet 
enterprise of Gilroy, assumes unusually large 
dimensions this year. Last year the company 
had five hundred acres under crop, and this, it 
was thought, was a good area for a company 
that was thou in embryo, and it may be said, 
is so yet. But this year there will be at least 
fifteen hundred acres under tobacco, and all in 
the immediate vicinity of this city. When 
Gilroy has been so pressed for store-room for 
the produce of five hundred acres, as it has 
been in the year just passed, where shall be 
found storage capacity for next year's crop, 
unless the company erect stores of their own, 
as they are likely to do, and must doV 

FuTUBK Pbospects. — Taking all in all, we 
have every cause for feeling elated at the grati- 
fying prospects before Gilroy. The tobacco 
interest is assuming huge proportions, and that 
alone will contribute largely to our prosperity. 
It will also undoubtedly have the effect of 
drawing hither other industries and manufac- 
turing enterprises, and largely augment our 
population. Laud is already being purchased 
and rented by strangers to engage in tobacco 
raising, and the farming interest is also taking 
a broader scope. A considerable quantity of 
new laud will be broken up this year to be 
sown to cereals, and we anticipate that our 
yield of grain will be much greater than ever 
before. Wo congratulate our people on the 
auspicious opening Of the new year, and sin- 
cerely hope that it will indeed prove a happy 
new year to each and every one. 
SOLANO. 

Chronicle, Jan. 3: The plains above Sacra- 
mento were yesterday reported to present the 
appearance of a vast sea of water. 

'The water was very high around Bridgeport 
yesterday from the rains. The railroad em- 
bankment above Lemon's place was sufl'oriug 
from the body of water coming out of the Jami- 
son canon. 

PuTAH Crebk broke from its banks Tuesday 
evening, and the water turned rapidly into So- 
lano county, and covered the country in the di- 
rection of Silveyvillo. The Yolo bank of the 
creek held good, and those on the Solano siile 
are the only sufferers as far as heard from. The 
break occurred above the Solano House, not far 
from Davisville. 
TDI.A&E. 

Stock Dyinq. — Delia, Jan. 1 : Wo hear that 
considerable numbers of cattle are dying of 
starvation on the plains. This is expected in 
this valley at this season. The sickly and lean 
stock succumb to the great privations which 
are involved in the change from old feed to 
new, during the first rains of winter. No pro- 
vision is made to mitigate the pangs of hunger, 
and no shelter is afforded from the cold, pelt- 
ing, pitiless rain. All stock suffers greatly at 
this season on the plains, and the most hardy 
go bellowing with hunger from one range to 
another. There is a barbarity in this business 
worthy the attention of our legislators. We 
have no society for the prevention of cruelty to 
animals, but there is no wider range lor sym- 
pathy with the brute kind than that which is 
excited in the breasts of humanitarians at the 
spectacle presented in the wholesale starvation 
of useful animals by their owners in thin sec- 
tion of the State. 

FoGcii'. — We have had several successive days 
of foggy weather the past week — an nnasnal 
thing in this section of the State. For two or 
three days the sun was totally eclipsed; mois- 
ture settled upon everything, and the trees were 
constantly dropping water. As "Pretzel" would 
say, it reminds us of " tobacco wedder, " when 
dampness brings the dried leaf to a propcJ soft- 
ness for stripping, handling and packing. The 
misty weather has been very favorable for vege- 
tation, and is bringing live stock on the plains 
through the starvation season in much hotter 
shape than usual. 

Cotton. — Times, Jan 3: Tulare valley prom- 
ises to be a great cotton growing country. In 
Fresno county some fine crops have already 
been raised. Last year a gentleman in this 
county produced a crop averaging l.GOO pounds 
to the acre, which is worth 18 cts. per pound, 
thereby yielding $288 to the acre. Mr. Joshua 
Lindsey has leased his ranch of 120 acres, which 
is about ten miles from here, to a gentleman 
for the purpose of further testing the experi- 
ment. He feels quite sanguine and is going to 
procure a cotton gin. We shall from lime to 
lime give such facts pertaining to the subject 
as may be of interest to our readers. Fresno, 
Tulare and Kern counties are favored with a 
genial climate, a luxuriant soil, and water ad- 
vantages that make them equal if not superior 
to the favored cotton land of the South. 



® 



ATENTS & iNVENTIONa 



A Weekly List of U. S, Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

(From Offioiai Reports fob tde Miniko ahd Soibw. 
Tine Pbbsb, DEWEY & CO., Pdbluhjuis amo 

U. 8. AJTO FOKEIOM PaTINT A0KNT8.] ■^ 

By Special Dispatch, Dated 'Washinirton. 
D. C, Jan. e, 1874. 

Fob Week Ending Dec. 23d. 1873." 

Combined Tank and Liquid Measdbe. — Joseph 

H. Corliss, Beno, Nevada. 
Manufactuke ok Cioab Boxes fbom Rbdwood. 

— Charlej A. Iloope', S. F., Gal. 
QoicKsiLVEE PtJMP. — Martin P. Boss, Bnllion- 

ville, Nevada. 
Mechanism foe Towing Boats. — Giles S. Olin, 

Deer Lodge, Montana. 
Locomotive Fuenace. — Andrew J. Stevens, 

Sacramento, Cal. 

PjJOCESS of PbEPABINO GbAIN fob MANtJPAC- 

TCTBE INTO Floub. — Oreu F. Cook, Grand 
Island, Cdl. 

Tbaob Mabks. 

The Giant Powdeb Company. — Giant Powder 
Explosive Compound, S. F., Cal. 

Atlantic Giant Powdeb Company. — Dynamite 
Explosive Compound, S. F., Cal. 

"The patents arc not ready for delivery by the 

Pateut Office uutil some 14 days after Uiodat« of iesus. 
Note.— Copies of D. a. and Foreijni Patents furuiehed 
by Dkwkt a Co., In the Hhortest time possible (by tel- 
e^'raph or otborwlxe) at the lowest rates. AU patent 
busiuoKS for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
i;rcat«r security and in much less time than by any other 
agency. 



Oakland Farming. Horticultural 
Industrial Club. 



and 



January 2d. Dr. Carr (President) being ab- 
sent, on motion, A. D. Pryal was elected chair- 
man pro Urn.; minutes of meeting of December 
5th aporoved. A communicition was received 
from Dr. Carr, regretting his inability to be 
present, and declining, if nominated, to con- 
tinue as President. It was 

Rcaolvtd, That bills for all delinquent fees and dues 
of membors be placed in the bands of the committee 
on drinkinK fountain, for collection and that the 
amount collected, to);ether with the balance now in 
the Treasury be expended by them for crectinK one or 
more drinking fountains in Oakland, with suitable in- 
scription. 

On motion, Mr. A. D. Pryal, A. F. Moutan- 
don and Mrs. Jennie C. Carr were appointed 
a committee to publish an address on the sub- 
ject of forest tree culture, and also on the sale 
of our public timber lands. 

Raolred, That Dr. W. P. Gibbons, Dr. E. 8. Oarr.Mrs. 
0. P. Moore, A. F. Montandon, and A. D. Pryal be ap- 
pointed a committee to circulate a pvtitiuu to the City 
Coiiniil, urt;ing that immediate action b«> taken on the 
part of the city to secure a large and suitable public park; 
the committee to present with the same, facts and rea- 
sons for eHtablishiug Huch a i)ark. 

Rftolifd, That we recommend the horticulturists of 
Alameda county to form • permanent borticnltnral 
society and to hold exhibitions annually, or ofteuer. 

On motion of Mrs. Carr, a vote of thanks 
was tendered to the daily and weekly press for 
generous courtesies to the club since its or- 
ganization. 

Raolefi, That this club adjourn wltbont dst«. 



Peofits of Cbanbebbies.— Cranberry vines 
do not, as may be commonly supposed, root 
into the soil. They appear to twine their roots 
around grasses and moss, propagating from 
their joints and obtaining their nourishment 
apparently from the water around their roots. 
They are strong and hardy, and, if the water is 
regulated properly, will multiply with astonish- 
ing rapidity. Eespecting their value as a pro- 
duct, we have some Munchausen reports for 
the year 1873. One gentleman picked from 
his "best acre" 1,373 bushels. He received 
$2.80 per bushel, and as the picking cost him 
SI per bushel, his income from that one acre 
was $2,401.40. Others had a yield of from 700 
to 1,000 bushels per acre, but these are exam- 
ples of the greatest yields. Some parties aver- 
age 113 bushels to the acre, others as low as 
twenty bushels, the latter being marsh, just 
commencing to bear. By the sudden api>reci- 
ation of the marsh lands producing this article 
of consumption, many have almost instantly 
found themselves wealthy. Men who, a year 
or two since, would have taken a thousand or 
two for all they possessed, ore now the "heavi- 
est" men known to the bankers of their towna« 
— Miiwaukee Journal of Commerce. „ 

Sweet Feic< fob Tanning. — The inquisitive 
sons of Michigan have just discovered that tens 
of thousands of her acres, hitherto deemed 
worthless on account of the dense growth of 
sweet fern, are really valuable, for this lux- 
uriant vegetable is found to be a much more 
powerful astringent than hemlock, and far su- 
perior to that substance for tanning purposes, 
yielding 40 per cent, extract where hemlock 
yields but 14. 

In dense forests, where the sunlight can not 
reach the ground, only tall trees and timbers 
which can lift their leaves to the light can 
hope to flourish. Humboldt tells us that some 
of the South American lianas show almost a 
reasoning power in this particular, refusing to 
climb up certain trees, while those which they 
apparently select are just those which are best 
adapted by nature to their purposes. 



January lo, 1874,] 



29 



At wholesale when not otherwise Indicated. 

Weekly Market Review. 

(By our own Keporter.] 

t' DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

y Ban Fbancisco, Jan. 7, 1871. 

The general aspect of the Produce market is no better. 
As a rule no important rises have been made. On the 
contrary there have been some rather unaccontable 
fallings off in several directions. Prices have been so 
satisfactory during the last few months, on the whole, 
that no discontent will be felt by our farmers because 
higher prices are not obtained. Even with present 
ruling rates, there is no cause for complaint. The 
somewhat remote influence of a prospective good har- 
vest year, for 1874, has its effect, and this, with the con. 
tradiction of over confident prophecies, has kept 
quotations *ithin reasonable limits. Provided that 
producers get their fair proportion of the profits accrue- 
Ing to the State at large, and their share of the evident 
prosperity now admitted to be real and on a solid basis, 
they may enter the past year in their records as one of 
the best they have had. 

Wheat. 

The total receipts of Wheat at this port from July 9, 
1872, to the close of the year, amounted to 7,160,068 
sacks; the exports" to 4,374,993 sacks. In the corres- 
ponding period of 1873 the receipts were 5.493,044 sacks; 
and the exports, 5,007,426 sacks. But the prices ob- 
tained during the latter year were so much in advance 
of those received in 1872 that the difference in the crop 
is well compensated for. Thus the price In Liverpool 
Jan. 1, 1874, was Is. 3d. in advance of that of the same 
day one year before, and hero the difference was 27 cts. 
^cental. And Wheat is not alone in this position, as 
compared with returns of a year ago. From Friedland- 
er's Circular we extract the following: The first half 
of the harvest year having now closed, it may be inter- 
esting briefly to review the course of the produce busi- 
ness during that time, certainly, in that respect, one of 
the most interesting periods in the history of the State. 
The spring and early summer did not carry out the 
winter's jiromiso regarding crops, for, after February 
last, it may be said we had no rain at all. During the 
weeks and mouths of suspense that ensued, the high 
anticipations of the farmers gradually faded out, and 
by July, instead of a surplus for export of 700,000 tons 
of wheat, which was at one time confidently anticipated 
serious doubts began to be entertained if we would 
have to spare over 250,000 tons. The farmer, in each 
case finding his own crop seriously curtailed, magni- 
fied the loss to his neighbors, and instead of beiug a 
free seller at $1 6ll®$l (V), as had been anticipated, held 
out for $ I 80®$! 86. The business done in June and 
July wag consequently liuiited in amount, rates in some 
cases going as low as $1 60, but averaging $1 70@$1 75 '^ 
cental, and hardening whe :ever any serious attempt 
was made to force purchisos. lu the meantime, ton- 
nage was accumulating, and the Liverpool market 
showed great firmness and was slowly but steadily ad- 
vancing. By the middle of August, parties who hail 
tonnage engaged to arrive abandoned the hope of low 
prices for wheat, and entering the market suddenly and 
boldly, secured large quantities in the neighborhood of 
$2, from which point the market rose steadily to $2 3s 
per cental, which was the price in September. By this 
time, a very large portion of the crop of wheat had 
passed out of first hands, and the residue has. ever since 
been very firmly held, although prices have never risen 
above those ruling in September. 

During the period under review 
Flour 
Has been very active, and marked by a strong demaml 
for export. The most remarkable feature in this lias 
been the demand for Great Britain, to which country 
we have shipped 233,000 bbls. , and will probably send 
40,000 bbls. more before the season is out. This 
result has been brought about by the great—." relative 
cheapuess of flour to wheat. It is too early yet to say 
how these shipments will turn out, but as the flour ex- 
ported has all been of high grade, and as great care has 
been taken in shipping it, we have hopes that it will 
meet with favor, and realize fully the anticipations of 
the shippers. From the AUa'a summary we find that 
during the last six months of 1872, 486,441 sacks of 
Flour were here received, and 4(J5,. 519 exported; in 1873, 
1,036,972 sacks were received, and 1,284,121 sacks for- 
warded. These figures show a marked progress of one 
of our leading industries, the manufacture and export 
of Flour, especially when we take in account the Wheat 
figures, from which no such results could have been an- 
ticipated. Flour here is steady at the same quotations. 
In the New York market It has been quiet or dull for 
some time past. 

Peed 
Is, if anything, weaker, as will be seen from our tables. 
Hay, however, is a little firmer. 

Dairy Produce 
Has been Influenced by the weather, and is low. But- 
ter has fallen off very much , and much has been sent 
to the interior and East, to relieve our market of sur- 
plus stock. Some Eastern Butter has also been ship- 
ped back again, on the turn uf the market, and more 
will probably follow. 

Hops. 
Our mail advices of Dec. 27 state that the market in 
New York has had a heavy tone since our last writing; 
the call from brewers has been liKht, but the lower 
prices which holders have been willing to accept have 
perhaps awakeued a little more business. For the best 
grades of State 40 cents is now the outside rate, for cash 
transactions. Foreign Hops are freely ofl'ered at lower 
prices; English at 30c @37c., and Bavarian, 28c.(5)35c.; 
California Hops, crop of 1873, were at the date men- 
tioned quoted at 40c,@45c. 

Potatoes 
ArB steady for White; Sweet are very scarce. The va- 
rious kinds of White rahgo widely in price, as in 
quality, and more depends on the condition of B«m- 
pliM.tluui the locality iu which they were grown. 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

Wednesday m.. Jan. 7, 1874. 
Australian Coal is $1 per ton higher. Coffees very firm. 
Oils weaker, especially Kerosene, which has fallen con- 
siderably. Preserved Fish still weak. Sugars and Syrups 
(luiet. 




Eng. stand. Wh't 12 
Detrick'sMach e 

Sewed, 22 X SB, 

<iilroy E 

do, 2-.ii3«, d<i W 

do. 22x40, do... 

do, 23x10... . 

do, 24x40 

tTour Sacks J-$9.. 

■' 'As. 

Stand. Gunnies.. 

" Wool Sacks. 

" Barley do... 
Hessian l.')-in.gd6 

do eo 
Burlaps, yard.... v-. • 

CA!ViV£D GOOI>!!). 
Asst'dPie Fruits 

in 2'^ n> cans. 2 7.5 

du Table do. .. — 
Jams* Jellies 4 00 
Pickles ii g].. — 
Sardines.qr box2 00 

do hf biixcs.3 .W 
COAL— .Jobblnsr. 
Australian, ^tonll UO (ail2 00 

Ooos Bay (2)11 00 

BellinKham Bay. @ 8 60 

Seattle (a)ll— 

Oumberrd, cks. .2.') Oi (a2S 00 
do bulk.. .21 CU (m25 00 

Mt. Diablo 6 JO m SO 

Lebigh 14 — (^15 — 

Liverpool 11 00 @12— 

West Hartley.... 12 00 @14— 

Scotch .■) .W @10 00 

Scranton ..!0 00 & — 

Vancouver's IsI..12 00 @i4— 
Charcoal, ^sk... 75 @ — 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich I.sland — @ 24 
(>o3ta Kica per 11) 24'2(g 2-').'; 

Guatemala ii'/im 2.i 

Java — @ 31 

Manilla — (ffi 24 

Ground in C8 25 § 27 

Chicory 10 @ — 

FISH. 
Pac.Dry Cod.ncw rili® 7 

cases 8 @ 8'i 

Ea.stern Cod 7 (tf 9 

Salmon in bbls. .8 .W (^9 00 

do )4 bbls.'j 00 (^,6 50 

do 2^'Bb cans — 

do 2Ib cans. .2 80 

do 1 lb cans .2 25 
Do Col. K. >6b... - 
Pick. Cod, bbls.22 (ill 
do ^ bi.lsll 00 
Bos . Sm'k'dHer'e40 
Maok'l.No.l.'^blsU- 
Extra. ... — 

" in kits.... 2 7.1 

*' Ex mess. 3 ."jO 

Ex mc.ss..i4bs-a)13 00 
Sm'k Herr'g. Ijx. 40 @ 50 

Assorted size. tb. ,s (^ 7 
IVAVAI.. STORES. 

Tar 4 Pitch, "# lb 7 @ 8 
Oakum pr bale 501b 4 to4 50 




10 IS 10>2 



@ 



1>i 



Rosin 6 00 (g6 50 

Anchors 8 ' 

Oliains 7 

OILS. 

Pacific Glue Co. 

Neat F't No. 1. — m 00 

Pure 1 25 @ — 

Castor Oil, No. 1..1 40 @1 45 

do do N0.2..I 25 m 35 

Oocoanut .55 @ tiO 

Olive Plagniol..5 00 @ — 

do Possel 4 76 @ — 

Palm : 9 @ — 

do Bagicalupi. — @ — 

Linseed, raw.. .1 00 gjl 05 

do boiled 1 0.5 @1 10 



China nut in cs.. 


--a 


80 


do bulk 


70 (a\ 


72 


Sperm, crude.... 


— (Oil 


40 


do bleached.. 


— iofi 


20 


Doast Whales... 


40 


45 


Polar, refined.... 


.W @ 


70 


Lard 


85 W 


(15 


Coal, refined Pet 


40 


Jleiiphine 


. — W 


33 


[Jevoe's Bril't... 


43 @ 


45 


linns Island 


— (0 


34 


Sureka 


37^(0) 


40 



Devne's Petro m 32;^® 31 
Barrel kerosene — @ 27,'2 
Downer Kerose'e 45 @ 50 
Gas LiKht Oil.... — (a) 34 

rAINTS. 
Atlan. W.Load. 8 (^ 11 

Whiting \H'd> 

Putty ■ •■' 

Chalk 

Paris White 

Ochre 

Venetian Red. . . 

Red Lead 

Litharee 

Eng. VermillioTi ■ 
RICE. 
China No. 1,* lb 
do 2, do. 

Japan 

Siam Cleaned... 

Patna 

Hawaiian 

arolina 

SALT. 

Cal. Bay.perton 10 00014 00 

do Common.. 5 00 (mii 00 

Mexican 11 Oinai:) 00 

Carmen Island.. 12 00:5)20 00 
Liverpool fine... — fd.20 00 
do coarselS 00 (ilO 00 
SOAP. 

Castile 1* lb lO'^ra) 11 

Local brands 5 (a) 9 

.SPICES. 
Allspice, per lb . . 15 @ 16 

Cloves 3'i'i® 40 

CiBsia — ^ 24 

Nutmeg. 1 07 @1 10 

Whole Pepper... 25 ® 26 

Pimento — 21 15 

Or'nd Allspprdz — (a)l 00 

do Ca.ssia do . . — ml 50 

do Cloves do.. — Ml 25 

do Mustard do — @i .50 

do Ginger do.. — @I OO 

do Pepper do.. — fall 2.5 

do Mace do....l 2"i (ail 30 

SUOAR, KTC. 

Cal. Cube per lb. 

Circle A crushed 

Pfiw iere<l 

lirailulated 

Dry granulated 

Extra do 

Hawaiian 

Califurnia Beet. 

Golden O 

do R.y'g grade 

Cal. Syrup in bis. 

do in }^ bis. 

do in kegs.. 

do Hawaiian.. 

TEA. 

Oolong, Canton, lb 19 

do Amoy... 2K 

do Formosa 40 

[mperial, Canton 25 

do Pmgsuey 45 

do Moyune . 60 ,.. , _ _ 

Gunpo'der.Cant. 30 (S 42'^ 

do PinKsuey 60 @ 90 

do Moyune. 65 (01 25 

Y'ngHy., Canton 2,'i @ 40 

do Pingsuey 40 la) 70 

do Moyune.. 65 (t^ 

Japan, >^ chests, 

bulk 30 

Japan,Iacquered 

bx3,4J^and5 lbs 45 
Japan do.3 lb bxs 45 
do prnbx,4'ilb 35 
do %&\ lb paper .10 
TOBACCO— JobblnB. 

Bright Navys 

Dark do 

Dwaf Twist 

12 inch do — 
Light Pressed... 
Hard do 
Conn. Wrap'r — 
Penn. Wrapper.. 
Ohio do 
Vrigi'aSmok'g.. 
Fine ct che'g.^r.. 
Fine cut chew- 
ing, bnc'tp.Tf* lb 
Banner fine cut.. 8 75 

Eureka Cula 8 00 

TURPENTISTE. 
lEastern 60 @ 62^ 





DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



BEAKS. 

Beans, sm'l wli. lb 3'i>a> 3'4 

do, butter 4 @ li^ 

do, large, do... — m 4'<> 

do. bayo 25(i@ 2't 

UO, pink 2'4(<^ 2;* 

do, pea — faj I ~ 

du.Liina — (3 4 

BROOM CORN. 

Per ton SIO!)foi2.50 

DAIRY PRODUCE 



Wednesday m., Jan. 7, 1874. 

|Chile Walnuts.. 12 @ 12'-2 

Pecan nuts — @ 18 

Hickorv do — M — 

Brazil do 15 @ 16 

Ooc'anuts.'W 10".. 7 00@9 00 
■VIm'dsh'rd shell 10 (a) 12'^ 

do. soft 20 (i 22!* 

Filberts — (a) 18 

East'nflhestnut.s — (fi\ 25 
POTATOES. 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

WEDNESD.iY M., Jan. 7, 1874. 
Lorlta Oranges are in market, of good nuality, and bring 
SIOper.M. Morocco and Tokay Grapes, the last of the sea- 
son, are now completely out. There is very little variety 
in the supplies now received, and our string of blanks be- 
comes distressingly long. Dried Fruits do not change. 
Vegetables are scarcer and more limited in kinds. 



FKIJT MARKET. 

Tahaii. Or. 'H luO & 

Mexican do.... 2 00 @> 3 .50 

Cal. do 1 .50^ 4 00 

Limes,"* M.... 8 mmH 00 
Cal. Lemons, 100. 2 50® :1 00 

Messina do 6 — @ 7 — 

do per box 12 00@14 00 

Bananas, ^ bnoh Im 

Pineapples, %«dz 6 00 @ S 00 
Apples,eat'g, bx.l 25 ^2 25 

do Common.... 61 © 1 00 

Cherries — 

Blackberries — 

Strawberries^^D) — 
IJooseberries. ... 

Raspberries — 

Currants — 

Anricots — 

Plums — 

Peaches, ^ lb. . — 
Pears, Eating... 2 00 

do Cooking....! 00 

do, Bartlett... — 

CrabApples — 

Nectarines . — 

Wat'rmel'slSlOO — 
Cantclo's?.100... - 
Pomegran's,^ dz — 

? Figs — 

Grapes, Bl'k H'g — (^ - 
do Muscat.. — @ — 
do Malavo'e.. — m ~ 
do Sweetw'r. — ffl — 




9 
T)18 



(10 Mission .... — @ — 
do Rose of Peru — (^ — 

doTokav —.a) — 

do Morocco — !(^ — 

DRIED FRXJIT. 

\pple3. * lb 6 Isi 

^ears, TS lb 8 U 

Peaches, « lb 8 

\nricols, ^4 lb — 

I'lums, ^ lb 5 

Pitted. do ¥, lb 17 

d" Extr.a. )? lb.. — 

Raisins ^ lb 5 

Black Figs, f* lb.... 6 B) B 
White, do nH®i» 

Prunes 6 («» 8 

do German.... 12)4® 15 

veoetabljS. 

Cabbage, ■» 100 lbs..— 31 37'^ 

Garlic,^ ft) 8 @10 

Green Peas 6 @ 7 

Green Corn ^ doz..— ®— 
.Suni'rSquash, bx. ..— @ — 
Marro'lat So'sh.tn 12 00ia»1500 
Artichokes. ?( lb.... — @-50 
String Beans.^tb... 8 @10 

Lima Beans — m 3 

Shell Beans 2 @ 2!^ 

Peppers,"!!* bx,461bs,.— @— 

Okra^B lb 4 fa> 6 

Okra,(ireen — ® — 

Cucumbers, bi --@— 

Tomatoes, per box . .-- @ — 
EggPlautfetb — (<^- 




&■ 



LUMBER MARKET. 

Wednesday m., Jan. 7, 1874. 
We quote the following: (^argo prices for Oregon 
Pine are Sie-^IS for rough and $26 i2S for dressed ; Laths, 
$:IM.25. Sugar Pine is quiet at 35'j)l5; Cedar, $12. .50, $32.50 
and $22..50 for the three tiualities. 

CARGO PRICFJ* OP PU«ET SOUND PIXE 
REDWOOD. — Refall Pi-lce. 

"'"**"• Rough, HM 25 00 

Rongh, H M $20 OOlFenclngandStepping.M 37 .50 

Rou;;h refuse, f. M 16 00 Fencing, 2d (lualny.TH iVl 30 00 

Rough clear, %» M 32 .50IKencing, •$» lineal lool.. Ic 

Rough clear refuse, M.. 2i .50 B'looring and Step, fi M 30 00 

Rustic, ^ M SSOOFloormg. narrow. ^ .M.. 32 50 

Rusiic, reluse. "i? M 24 00 Flooring, 2d quality M..'-'5 0O 

Surfaced,^ -M S2 .50' Laths, T^ M :i .50 

Surfaced refuse, i* M... 22 .50 Furring, "m lineal ft % 

Flooring, flM 30 00 RRD WOOD— Retail. 

Flooring, refuse, iS M.. 20 00 Rough, ^.\I 25 OO 

Beaded flooring, fi M... 32 .50i Rough n^fuse. ^ M 20 00 

Beaded Hoor, rclm.c, M. 22 .50iRough Pickets, lj( M... 18 00 

Half-inch Siding. M 22 .50lR.ingh Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 uo 

Half-inch siding, ref. M. 16 00| Fancy Pickets, ?* M 30 00 

Ualtlneh, Sllrlaccd,M. 25 0O|Siding, %« M 27 .50 

Half-inch Surf. ret.. .M . 18 OO.Tongued and Crooved, 

Halt-inch Battens, M... 22.501 surfaced, ^ M 35 00 

Pickets, rough, i( M.... 14 00 Do do refuse, |4 M 27.50 

Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 16 00 Halt-Inch surlaoed.M.. 40 00 

Pickets, fancy, p'ntd.... 25 00 Rustic, ^ M 42 .50 

Shingles, WM 3 OO- Battens. ^ lineal foot... 10 

, Shingles %)M 3 6 



Butter, Cal. frsh.tb37 

do, orOin'y roll 

do, new tlrkin. 

do. pickled . . . 

do,We.stern ... 
Cheese. Cal new 

do. Eastern . .. 
I!:gg3. i;al. fresh 

do. Oregon 

do. Eastern- . . . 

FEED. 
Bran, per ton.... 18 00,^20 00 

Middlings 27 50^30 00 

Hay 14 OO'Sjn 50 

Straw 9 00 al 

OH cake meal...— — f*32 .50 

Corn Meal 37 50<i3il 00 

FLOUR.— Siiperflne <& 

Extrii. 
Alviso Mills, bbl.5 60 

California 5 50 

City Mills 5 .50 

Comme'l Mills.. 5 .50 

Golden Gate 5 .50 

Golden Age 5 .50 

National Mills.. ,5 .50 
SantaClaiaMills 5 50 
Geneste Mili8...5 50 

Oregon 5 .50 

Vallejo Star 5 50 

Venns, Oakland. .5 .50 ®7 00 
Stockton City. . .5 .50 ®7 00 
Lambard. Sac. . .5 50 ©7 00 

FRESH MEAT. 
Beef, fr quality.. lb 7 @ 8 

do, second do. . 6 @ 7 

do, third do 4 la .5 

Veal 6 @ 8 

Mutton 6>^a 6 

Lamb 6'4@ 7 

Pork, undressed. 53^(0 5i 

do, dressed 7^8 

GRAIN, ETC. 
Wh'tCal. cst.cl.2 15 ®2 25 

do, shipping . .2 25 ^2 30 

do, milling 2 25 @2 30 

Barley, Feed 1 30 @1 45 

do. Brewing...! .55 @1 80 
Oats. Ci r.ft,Feedl m 1 65 

do Choice Bay.l 65 @1 80 

do Oreeon 1 70 m 80 

Corn, White 1 35 ®1 55 

do, Yellow 1 35 @1 .55 

Buckwheat — @2 00 

Rye 1 75 ^1 80 

HOPS. 
California,1872. . 40 @ 45 
Eastern, 1873, ft.. .55 (a 60 

do New York.. - fri 60 

MISCELLANEOUS. 



00 
00 

7 00 
7 00 
i7 00 
7 00 
17 OO 
17 00 
i7 00 
00 
00 



1 10 Cqd 20 
1 10 ®1 20 
SO (0)1 05 
90 (^1 10 
— lai — 
90 HI 1 05 



Sweet, per 100 lbs — fol 

New CufTee Gove — (a> 

do H. M. Bay.. 

do Pii-'eon Pi... 

rti) Humboldt... 

do Peialiima . . 

do Toniales 

do Mission . ... 

do Salinas 

FOULTRV ac GAME. 

Live Turkeys lb. 17 tai 19 

Hens, per dz 6 00 iSf7 25 

Roosters 6 (lO (&7 0:1 

Spr'g Chickens. .4 00 @6 00 

Broilers 4 00 ,W5 .50 

Ducks, tamc,doz9 00 @'lO llO 

Geese, per pair. 2 25 @:i 00 

Hare, per doz. . . 2 .50 @3 60 

Snipe, Eng., dozl 25 ^1 .50 

Quail, per doz . ..2 00 ('u;2 25 

.Mallard Ducks.. 3 00 (Si3 .50 

do small 1 25 fid 75 

Wild Geese, gray! 00 @l .50 

do white 2 (0 (o!2 .50 

Doves, per dozen .50 COJ 7.i 

Rabbits 1 00 @l .50 

Venison, per lb.. 5 5i» 6 

PROVISIONS. 

^al. Bacon, Light — ^ 12 

do Medium — 

do Heavy — 

Eastern do 10 

Cal. Hams 12^1 

do Wbittakcra 

do Liitfield, ch 

do Plankton A 
Harmun 

doHarm 'mVCo — (S^ 

Eastern Should's 10 «8 

do new hams lG'i(<A 

Cal.Sraoked Beef In @ 

bard, Cal lO'^'ol 

do Eastern Wiiigi 

SEKDS. 

Alfalfa 21 @ 

Canary 5 la' 6 

Flaxseed 4 (aj 5 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 40 (gt 50 

Mustard, white. 2 (s 3 

do. Brown 3 la 4 

Italian Rye 26 (a) 30 

Perennial do — (o) 



Beeswax. per lb.. 25 © 

Honey cliolce... 17 'a) 

do ex. ch'iceMt — ^ 

do Los Ang. .. 20}^(^ 

do choice Nrlhn 15 (3) 

do Dark 5 & 

do Strained 8 @ 

Pulu 8 ® 

Onions .. ^ 1 S^ol 



IIOOB ... I "^lUl 

NTIT.S -JOBBING. 

Cal. Walnuis .... 13 @ 14 

Peanuts per lb... 4 ® 6 



Timothy 


14 1st 


15 


Sweet V Grass.. 


60 la) 


75 


Orchard do — 


30 la) 


35 


Red Top do... 


30 @ 


40 


Hungarian do 


- © 


12 


Lawn do 


50 (g> 


60 


Clover Red 


- lai 


20 


do White 


60 lai 


75 


Alsike 


60 (a> 


75 


Esparto Grass in 






Packets 


- rrf>l 00 


WOOL, 


ETC. 




Spring, short,lb. 


16 M 


18 


do cnoice Nort 


22 iai 


23 


Medium grades.. 


15 (5) 


18 


Good to Choice.. 


16 @ 


19 




10 @ 

\vm 
3 50 as 


\VA 


Hides, diy 


18i« 


do wet salted 


00 


Tallow, Crude.. 


6 '4® 


6-Aj 


do Retlned... 


— 01 


i 



SAN FRANCISCO METAL MARKET. 

Wednesday m., Jan. 7, 1874. 
The Metal market is quiet, business having slackened 

considerably since the demand for building purposes has 

lessened. 

Scotch Pig Iron,?* ton $52 00 (g 

White Pig, 1f( ton 52 00 @ 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, ^. lb &— i'h 

Refined bar, good assortment, f*n> @— 4 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 — 0.5K@ — 06 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 — OB'^iii — 07 

Sheet., No. 10 to 13 — 07'ital 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 - 6 (S) - 7 

Sheet,No.24 to 27 — 08 @ — 09 

Horse Shoes, per keg 7.50 iu 8 00 

Nail Rod — Vi(& 

Norway Iron — ** @ 

Rolled Iron — 6 t^ — 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. — 5 ^ — 

Copper.- 

Braziers @ — 40 

Copper Tin'd —50 @ 

O.Niel'sPat - 65 (0 

Sheathing,* lb (<S — 25 

Sheathing, Yellow g — 25 

Sheathing, Old Yellow (S — 12 

Composition Nails — 25 @ 

Composition Bol ts — 25 l^i) 

Tin Plates.— 

Plates, Charcoal, IX ^ box 14 00 (St 14 .50 

Plates, ICCharcoal 13 00 @ 13 .50 

Rooting Plates 13 00 @ 13 50 

Bancs Tin, Slabs, i» ft — 40 & — W-i 

Steel.— English Cast, ^ Ik — 18 @ - 22 

Drill - 18 m- 22 

FlatBar -18 @ - 2i 

Plough Points — 16 (S - 17 

Zinc - »A<Si - 10 

Zinc, Sheet ... — 9 @ — 10 

NAILS-Assorted sizes — fi%l^— 8 

Quicksilver, per lb — &> 120 

LEATHER. 

Wednesday m., .Ian. 7, 1874. 
City Tanned, Santa Cruz, Stockton .^nd Country Leather 
have fallen off Ic per pound on lowest rates, though heavy 
grades continue to obtain the old quotations. Trade is 
quiet, with moderate transactions. 

City Tanned Leather, %( n> 2.50129 

Santa Cruz Leather, ^ lb 2.5'g)29 

Country Leather, * lb 24'a28 

Stockton Leather,^ lb 25fU29 

Jodot, 8 Kil., per doz ...$.50 OOfg) .54 00 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil., per doz 66 00® 85 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 16 Kil. ?( doz 55 00® 70 00 

Cornellian, 12 to 16 Ko 57 OOta) 67 00 

Cornellian Females, 12 to 13 60 OOftO 64 00 

Cornellian Females. 14 to- 16 Kil 66110® 74 00 

Beaunicrville, 15 Kil 60 OOfi) 

Simon, IS Kil„5» doz 61 00(a» 63 00 

Simon, 20 Kil. * doz 65 00(g) 67 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. %» doz 72 00(g) 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00(a) 40 00 

French Kips, 1* lb 100® 135 

California Kip, f doz 40 00(,()1 60 00 

French Sheep, all colors, 'S doz 8 00«b 15 00 

EaatornOalf for Backs, ^ ft 100(a) 126 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all oolors, ¥ doz 9 00(3 13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings,?^ doz 5 .5O13 10 .50 

California Russett Sheep Linings 1 7.Xa) 4.50 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs, lift pair 5 00® 5 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, # pair... 4 0;l(a) 4 7i 

French Calf Boot Lega.^ift pair 4 00® 

Harness Leather, %* ft) 30(a) 37*4 

Hair Bridle Leather, W doz 48 00^ 72 00 

Skirting Leather, V lb 34(a) 37)< 

Welt Leather, 3* doz 30 OOig .50 00 

Buif Leather, * foot 19'3) 23 

Wax Side Leather, * foot 17|4 IK 

Eastern Wax Leather ... — W— — 



UIMTQ FflR We will send on receipt of stamp for 
n 1 11 10 run postage. FREE, our .52-page Circulars 
containing 112 Illustrated Mechani- IKII/FNTOR^ 
cal Movements; a digest of PATE NT ■«'»»-'» • ""»». 

LAWS; information how to obtain patents, and about the 
rights and privi'oges of inventors and patentees: list of 
Goverment fees, practical hints, etc., etc. AddressDEWKY 
& 00., Publishers and Patent Agents, Sao Franoieoo. 



San Franclsoo Retail Market Rates. 

Wednsday m., Jan. 7, 1874. 
POULTRY, GAME. FISH, MEATS. ETC. 

Spring Chickens are now quoted at 62S to 75 cts. Eggs 
are much lower and oommand only 50 cts. Domestic Pig- 
eons are .50 cts lower per dozen. Fish generally are more 
plenty. Flounders have declined 10 els, Salmon 5 cts and 
Toincod 2 cts per pound. Fresh Water Perch and also 
Crawfish are in market, and bring 20 cti and Vi'/i ots per 
pound, respectively. Green Turtle cuts are worth 25 cts 
per pound. 



Spring Chickens 62 ^S) 75 

Hens 75 (Si 00 

Eggs — M 50 

do Ducks' 60 m 65 

Turkeys, * ft.. 2i m — 
Ducks.CanBk,pr — @l 00 

do Mallard,pr — @1 00 

Tame, do 1 60 ^2 00 

Teal, * doz.... — @3 00 
Geese, wild, pair. — © 75 

Tame, % pair..:i .50 W4 00 
Snipe, %« doz.... 2 .50 2(3 00 
Quail, per dozen2 00 @2 60 
Pigeons, dom. do — w^4 00 

Wild, do — Si2 00 

Hares, each ... 37'4W 50 
Rabbits, tame. .50 @ 75 

Wild.do,* dz.2 Oil 0> - 

Squirrels d(. 10 (it) 15 

Beef, tend, 1* ft). — (i 20 

Corned, ^ ft.. 6 iS 8 

Smoked,^ ft.. — (^ 12 
PorterHouscSt'k — @ 20 

Sirloin do 12 (a) 15 

Round do 8 (3) 10 

Pork, rib, etc., ft 

Chops, do, ^ ft 
Veal, ^ ft 

Cutlet, do 

Mu tton — chops,* 
LegMutton, ^S ft 

Lamb, ^ lb 

Venison 

Tongues, beef, . . 

do. do, smoked 
Tongues, pig. ft 
Bacon, Cat., Jl ft 
Hams, Cal, fS ft. 
Hams, Cross' s c 

Choice Difield 

Whitt.aker's.. 
Flounder, ^ ft.. 



- % 



30 



15 



75 



- ®5 00 
2;i(S — 



- O 15 

15 @ 

10 @ 15 

10 a 15 

12 g 15 

8 ® 12 

10 (4 15 

10 (g 15 

75 <$ — 

- #1 00 
10 @ - 

- ® 18 

16 a — 
ii i - 

18 ® 20 

- ® 30 



Salmon, W ft 

Smoked 

Pickled,^ lb.. 

Salmon bellies 
Rock Cod,* ft.. 
Cod Fish, dry,, ft 

Jo fresh 

Perch, s water,ft 

Fresh water, ft — 
Lake Big. Trout* — 
Smelts. large^ft — 

Small Smells — 

Herring, Sm'kd. 

do fresh 

Pilchards, ^ij* ft.. 
Tomood.i* ft.... 
Terrapin, * doz. 
Mackerel, p'k,ea 1 

Fresh, do ft... — igi — 
Sea Bass, * ft... — ® — 

Halibut 60 @ 75 

Sturgeon, * ft.. — @ 5 
Oysters, « 100... 1 00 @ — 

Cheap. 1* doz.. 75 (9 — 

Clams * 100 — @ 50 

.Mussels do - (g) 25 

I'urbot — (a^ 00 

Grabs «» doz.... 1 00 S — 

Soft Shell — a 60 

Shrimps 12!i@37>i 

Sardines 8 ffl — 

Anchovies 

.Soles 

V'oungTrout.bay 
Young Salmon.. 
Salmon Trout ea 

Skate, each 

Whitebait, i^_ lb.. 
Crawfish l^lb... - 
Green Turtle 6 00 

do T^ lb — 



,50 



25 



FRUITS. VEGETABLES. ETC. 
Grapes are at last entirely out of market; of course there 
are a very few packed away, but none are sent here. 
Bananas are more plenty. Oranges of a certain kind may 
be had for 25 cts per dozen ; good specimens bring much 
more. Quinces are out. Ditto Tomatoes. 

Cauliflower, t . 



5 



50 



(Si 00 
@ 10 



gl 00 
® - 



Lady App'es f, lb 
Apples, pr lb. . .. 

Pears, per lb 

Aorlcots, ft 

Peaches, ft 

Plums 

PlneApples.each 

Crab Aiiples 

Grapes 

Bananas, ^ doz. . 
CanteleuDS..... . 

Watermelons.. . 
Blackberries. . . . 

Cal. Walnuts, ft . 
Green Almonds. 
Cranber'es, Or.,g 

do Eastern 
Huckleberries.. 
Strawberries, ft 
Raspberries, ft.. 
Gooseberries*... 
Currants 

do Black 

cherries, ^ ft,. . 

Nectarines 

Oranges,13 doz.. 

Quince.H 

Lemons 75 igi\ 00 

Limes, per doz.. 25 (^ — 
Figs.dried <;al. * i2'2@ 25 

Figs, fresh — @ -- 

Figs, Smyrna, ft 25 (oi 35 
Asparagus, ft.* 
Artichokes, doz. 

du .Jerusalem. . 

Beets, ^doz 

Potatoes, * ft... 
Potatoes, sweet,* 
Broccoli, each.. 



.50 @ 75 
- (9I 00 



25 @1 00 
@ - 



Cabbage, each... 
OysterPlant.bch 
Carrots, ^ doz. . . 
Celery,^ doz... 
Cucumbers, dz.. 
Tomatoes, ^ ft.. 

Green Peas 

String Beans 

Egg riant, ft.... — 
Cress, "^ doz Dun 20 

Onions 3 

Turnips. ^ doz 

bunches 20 @ 25 

Brussels Sprouts 8 (^ 10 

Eschalots 20 (5) -ii 

Dried Herbs, doz 25 ^ 35 
Garlic^ ft Vi'^'i^ 15 





Green Corn, doz. 
Lettuce, %( doz.. 20 
Mushrooms,^ ft 25 
Horse radish.'J! ft 20 
Okra, dried^^ to — 

do fresh, ^ ft. — 
Pumpkins. ^ ft. — 
Parsnips, doz — 15 

Parsley 1.5 

Pickles.frsh.^ft 
Radishes, doz.. 
Summer Squash 

Marrowfat, do* 

Hubbard, do 
Dry Lima, 8h..r- 
Spinage, ^ bskt. 

Rhubarb 

Green Chillies.. 

Dry do 

Peppers, dry.... 
Butter Beans . .. 



20 

4 

2 
8 
25 



& 25 
@ - 



- (a) 

- @ 

- (u) 
20 (yl 

6 ((^ 



8 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

[ Corrected weekly by B. Sharboro & Bro., Grocers, No. 635 

Washington street, San Francisco. I 
Eggs, Kerosene and California Cheese are lower in price 
this week. 



Butter,Cal.oh'ioe ,50 (d) 

do common. ... 37'-2(i$ 

Cheese, I'al.. ft.. 15 (a) 

Lard. Cal.. ft..... _ 12;i(a) 



Flour, ex.fam, bl 6 75 (gl7 00 

Corn .Meal, ft 2'(!(a) 3 

Sugar, wh.crsh'd 11 (m 12 

do it.brown,ft 10 & H 
C'otree.Sbarboro'a 

family gr'nd, ft — (a) 35 
(lotfce, green, ft.. '25 (io 30 
Tea, fine blk,.50, 6.5,76 (§100 
Tea,finstJai),.5.5,75, 90 (Ml 00 
(>aiidles,Admant'el7 @ '25 
Soap, Cal-, ft.... @ 10 
Oan'dOysters,dz.2 50 @3 75 
* Per ft tPor dozen. 



Syrnn,S F.Gol'n. 

Dried Apples 

Dr'd Ger.Pnines 

Dr'd Figs, Cal... 

Dr'd Peaches 

Oils, Kerosene .. 

Eggs 

do Eastern 

Wines, Old Port 3 .50 
do Fr. Claret.. 1 110 (ail 25 
do Cal ,dz.bot3 00 (a)4 .50 

Whislty,0.B,gal.3 .50 (al5 00 

Fr. Brandy 4 00 («10 00 

Rice, to 10 @ 13H 

Yeast Powders, dz.l 50@2 00 

1 Per gallon. 



.50 


i 


fO 


10 


12s 


10 


% 


I2'4 


9 


10 


8 




10 


35 


10 


to 


— 


'ra 


60 


35 


@ 


4(1 


.50 


(015 00 



CONTEMPLATING HUSBANDRY. 

Agency P. O.. (via MissotiLA) M. T.l 

December 18th, 187,3. j 

Dewey k Co., Publishkhs Pacific Rukal Press.— 

Gr/ilUmni: Find enclosed $5, for which please send 

nie the Pacific Uu. al Pdess, commencing with Jann- 

ary, 1874. 

In a few months I hope to make your noble State my 
home, and among other things become a practical 
Patron of Husbandry, and finding everything in the 
Rural {for I have carefully examined and compared it) 
that the farmer would need as a guide, I ask you to 
enter my name as a perpdual subscriber. 

Very truly yours, 

J. H. McKEE, M, D. 

A Good Binder for $1.50. 

Subscribers for this journal can obtain onr Patent 
Elastic Newspaper File Holder and Binder for $1.60— 
containing gUt title of the paper on the cover. It pre- 
serves the papers completely and in such shape that 
they may be quickly fastened and retained in book form 
at the end of the volume, and the binder (which is very 
durable) used continuously for subsequent volumes. 
Post paid, 25 cts. extra. It can be used for Harper's 
Weekly and other papers of similar size. If not entirely 
pleased, purchasers may return them within 30 days. 
Just the thing for librarios and reading rooms, and all 
who wish to file the Press. lambp 



THE NEW TJ. S. MINING LAWS. 
The new Laws of 1872, governing the location and 
purchase of Placer and Qnartz Mines and AgricuUnral 
Lands in Milling Districts of the U.S., printed In cir- 
cular sheet, f or sale at this office. .Single copies, 28 etc. 

Photograph Paintino done in the most satisfactory 
manner at 426 Kearny street, from the smallest card to 
full life size, on very moderate terms by Emily B. East 
MAN, Artist, 426 Kearny street, Pan Franc isco. • 

For the very beat Photographs go to BRAD ■ 
LEY & KULOFSON'd GALLERY, with an "Elevator,' 
429 Montgomery street, San Francisco, 2v7-6m 




[January lo, 1874. 




Pure Blooded French Merino Rams and 
Ewes, 

For 8»Ie by ROBERT BLACOW, of Centreville, Alameda 
County, Cal., near Niles Station, on the Western and 
Soutbem Pacific Railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Rambouillet. 

Also a few well-bred young Bulla of the Durham 
blood. 12v6-3m 

Importer and Breeder of 

Angora or Cashmere 
GOATS 

—OF— 

PURE BLOOD 

— AKI>— 

ALL ORADE3. 

For aalc In lots to suit purchasers. Location, four 
miles (rora Railroad Station, connecting with all parts 
of the State. For particulars, address 



llTC-eow 



N. OILMORE, 
El Dorado, El Dorado county, 
California. 



liuperterB and Breeders of 

Cashmere or Angora Goats 

— OF— 

PURE BLOOD AND ALL GRADES, 
For Sale in Lots to Suit Purchasers. 

Including a Choice Lot imported by A. E0TTCHIDES, 
a native of ADgur«. For particulars apply to 

S. P. THOMAS, Sacramento, Cal. 

— OB— 

E. D. SHIRLAMD, Auburn, Cal. 



3ve.3m 



Pure Bred Spanish Merino Sheep. 

ONE HUNDRED BUCKS AND A FEW EWES, 
Bred from Vermont Stock. 
A portion were bred by JEWEl'T BUO., of Kern Co. 



Osn be seen at Swerner Tarda, comer Howard and 
Tenth atreets, San Francisco, 



6T6-tf 



JEWETT & MTJNSON, 
Cosmopolitan Hotel. 



THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

Breeders and Importers of the 
Ootawold, Lincoln, Leicester, Texel and 
^-^^^ South Down 

■■r H h: k: Jb: r* . 

THE ANGORA. GOA-T. 

Now offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot of Bucks of crosses between the 
Cotswold and South Down, between the Lincoln and 
Leicester, and the Lincoln and Merino. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD b SON, 

19Ti^f Hollister, Monterey County, Cal. 



H. ■• oUMMiaoe. 
1868. 



H. H. BALSTON. 

1873. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Whol««al* Fruit and Produce ConuniBalon 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 18S8. 

BemOTed to 424 Battery street, southeast comer of 
Washington, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 

interests t^at will conflict with those of the prodncer . 

4V23-1T 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHK DANIEL & CO., 

Usnufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 
Pine street, between Montgomery and 
Kearny, Bam Fbasoisoo, 
nv3-l7 



.BS!vS V 



The attention of Wool Orowers is continually Invited to the 

Thoroughbred Stock Bred and Kept upon the 



mn^m^mng^an 



Situated at Niles, Alameda County, Cal., only five minutes walk 
from the station, junction of San Jose and C. P. R. U. Parties 
desiring to visit our ranch can leave San Francisco at 3 o'clock 

p. M., and have an hour at the ranch, rftuminj; on Overland train at C r. h. Or coming ou( 

return to city at 11 o'clock a. m. The proprietors make the 

THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINO SHEEP A SPECIALTY, 

Believing them to bo the BEST SHEEP IN THE WORLD, and are constanlly rccplving fresh importations from 

Addison County, Vermont. 
Our flock arc all Imported Sheep, and have no superiors in the United States. We always liave on hand 
choice younu RAMS and EWES, of all agi-s, for sale at Reasonable Prices, giving time, if required, to responsible 
parties. City Office— 315 California Street, San Francisco. 

SEVERANCE A PEET, 

9vC-3m Importers and Breeders of Spanish Merino Sheep. 



THE PEOPLE'S PUMP. 

THE ONLY RELIABLE PUMP FOB 

Farmers, Stockmen and 
Stable Keepers, 

BEING A 

NON-FREEZING FORCE PUMP, 

Working In Wells from 

O to lOO feet deep. 

Suitable for either Hand or Power use. 



Bate i^ Price, from $12 up. 
Send for Circtilar. 




Depot for Pacific Coast, 

CONROY, O'CONNOR & CO.. 

Sj(.N FRANCISCO. 




Rfiei*^^. 



VICTOR" 
GANG 

IS THE 

BEST. 

Hui. 'k Patent, with all IniprovcmentB to '73. and with 
"JONES" Plow Bottoms, the "r/CTOR" is the 
best (iA^Pid I»1^<>\V in the world. It is 
simple, strong- ami durable, and dors its ■work 
iiTocuiiilly. Uon't fail to B<;i; it before buying. Price, 
$75. Hold only by TREAD WELL & CO., San 
Francisco. f^~ Send for circulars. We have also a 
larj,'c stock of Single Plows, Including the •' JONES," 
COLLINS, Boston Clipper, Peoria, etc., etc. Cultivators, 
Harrows, Seed Sowers. Drills, etc., etc. 

•/" Send for our new Illuitraled Price IM. TREAD- 
WELL & CO., San Francisco. 16vC.3m 



a. 0. BowLzr 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match In Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow Is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what Is re- 
quired in the construction of Qang Plows. It Is quickly 
adj usted. Sufficient play Is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 



14v2-3m 



MATTESON k WILLIAMSON, 
Stockton, Cal. 




AVERILL'S 
CHEM:ICA.L PA-IIVT 

Of any desired Shade or Color, 
Mixed ready for application, and sold by the gallon 

It Is Cheaper , Handsomer, more Durable and Elastic 
than the best of any other Paint. 

Office, comer Fourth and Townsend streets, San 
Francisco. Send lor sample card and price list. 

16r3S-3meowbp HEALT k JEWELL, Agents. 



PtTRrHASKRS pleaM say advertised in Pacific Rural Presa. 



CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Importorti n.n<l Alftnutbcturers 

—or— 

CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 Merchant's Exchange. 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCISCO. 



Keep constantly on hand top and open Buggies, top 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and flniwt workmanship. 

We would call particniar attention to our flue atock 
o< light Koad and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles S. Coffrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Helfleld *: Jackson, Railway, New Jersey; 

Gregg k Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 
And other first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double Har- 
ness, of the most celebrated makers: 

O. Oraham, New York; J. H. Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
k Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes, Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, Oalitomla street, 

31v(>-3m San Francisco. 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS! 
X Line to Liverpool. 

DIRECT. 
The A 1 Iron Ship 



Is intended to sail with dispatch. To ba fol- 
lowed by other vessels. 
Freight taken in lots to suit shippers. 

Apply to E. E. MORGAN'S SONS, 

320 California Street, 
San Francisco. 



100 AGENTS WANTED. 

$5 to fiH per day, selling the attractive little "Col- 
by's 'Washers." Great Inducements offered. S'nd 
for Circulars. Address, 

20vC-3m O. B. CODDING, Petalams, Oal. 



PACIFIC LAMP MANUFACTORY. 




Ne-w M.lning' Jic ^lill IL.i{rltt«9. 

2lvi7-.'ow-3m 



ATTENTION, DAIRYMEN ! 



RALPH'S PATENT 

ONEIDA CHEESE VATS, 

TO HOLD FROM 
One Hundred to Five Thousand Oallons. 

CHEESE HOOPS, 

FROM SMALLEST TO LARGEST SIZE. 

PRESSED MILK-PANS, 

PIECE BULK-PANS. 

STRAINER PAILS, 

CREAM PAILS, 

MILK PAILS, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

The above are made of the best materials and in the 
best iitaoner. We are making a specialty of DAIRY- 
MEN'S GOODS, and sell the same at prices that are 
very low, as compared with the Eastern States. Dairy- 
men will find It to their advantage to call upon ua. 

GEOBGE TI. TAY «Sfc CO.. 

614, 616 and 618 Battery St., 

25vC3m SAN FRANCISCO. 

Friers Patent Paragon Vapor Stove. 

PATENT GRANTED MAT 20, 1873. 

The Great Labor Saver of the Household. 

ECONOMT, CUNVKNIE.NCE AND SaFETX COHDIHKD. 

JUST THINE OF IT— 
No Wood, no Coal, no Coal 
Gas, no Stove Pipe, no 
Chimney, no Smoke, no 
Ashes, no Dirt, no Wood 
Boxes, no Coal Scuttles, 
no Kindling Wood, but a 
Friction Match, and the 
FUtE IN FULL BLAST IN 
HALF A MINUTE. 

Oven Hot in Two 
Minutes. 
Steak broiled In seven 
uiiuut«8l Baked Beans in 
thirty minutes) The fire 
extinguished in a moment 
and the house unhealed t 
It has no rival in all 
kinds of Cooking and Flat 
Iron Heating, and com- 
bines Economy, Conven- 
ience, Neatness, Safety 
and Durability I The La- 
dles welcome It; a little 
Child can operate It, and 
-AIL.!^ K,iiC!OM;M.E]VI> IT. 
Prices from f6 to $25, according to size. Manufac- 
tured and sold by WM. ERIEL, 

69 and 71 Fourth street, San Francisco. 
N. B.— Agents wanted In every town In the SUte. On 
payment of S6 one Stove will be sent as sample. 
6T6->m-2am 




Murtha's Patent Chimney Tops 

OR VENTILATORS. 

A sure cure for smoky 
chimneys, and WARRAN'r- 
ED lo give entire satisfac- 
tion when all others fail, 
or no pay. They are made 
to fit any size fiue. 

CotJNTBT RESIDXHTS, bjT 

sending the measure of the 
chimney flue, can have 
them sent to any part of 
the SUte. 

Refers by wrmlaslon to 
Supt. New Almaden Mine, 
W. T. Oarralt; Wm. Mc- 
Kibbln, Tbos. Boyce, Jaa. 
Dows, J. Bandmann, and 

BUNDREnS OF OTHEBS. 

»■ Send for Price List. 
BY ARCHITECTS GENERALLY. 

■W. O. MURTHA, 
No. 16 Tyler street, San Francisco. 




RECOMMENDED 



l7v27-eowbp-3m 



MONTGOMERY'S HOTEL, 

JTJ and 229 Second street SAN FRANCISCO, 

This Hotel has been newly fumiihed, and is altualad ia a 

centra] and healthy Incatlnn, and Is one of the few 

Hotels in San Franciftco conducted on 

Temperance Principles. 

BOABD, FEB WEEK. $3.90. BOABD A1<0 LODOIKa, (4 TO $5. 
Six UEAL TICKETS rOB fl. 

COAJh 1IOKT«OMKRT, PropHetor. 
Paaaencers and BiMsa* taken to the Hotel (re*. •Mt 



January lO, 1874.] 



EIHTA-BLISHEO 1853. 



Stock for Nurserymen and Florists. 

TERMS CASH. 

Cherry Seedlings — Mazzard $12 per 1000 

" " — Mahaleb 20 per 1000 

Apple Seedlings 12 per 1000 

Pear Seedlings 15 per 1000 

Walnuts, English, 4 to 6 ft 15 per 100 

California bl'k, 4 to 6 ft 15 per 100 

Spanish Chestnuts, 6 to 12 in 15 per 100 

Corlf Elm, 4 to 6 ft 15 per 100 

" " 6to8ft 20 per 100 

Bine Qums, or Eucalyptus, in variety..$3 to 10 per 100 
Magnolia, Grandiflora, 3 to 6 in 3 per doz. 

" " 6 to 12 in 6 per doz. 

" " 12 to 18 in 12perdoz. 

Golden Arborvita 8 to 12 in 6 per doz. 

" " 12 to 18 in 6 per doz. 

Heath-leayed Arborvita, 12 to 18 in 6 per doz. 

CrataguB Arboria, 12 to 18 in 2.50 per doz. 

" " 2 to 4 ft 6.00perdoz. 

Enonymous Reptans, Varigata 2.50 per doz. 

•• Pulehella 2.50 per doz. 

" Argentea Marginata 3.00 per doz. 

" Japonica 3.00 per doz. 

" Aurea 3.00 per doz. 

Swedish Juniper, 12 to 18 in 3.00 per doz. 

Heath, Mediterranean "Hardy" 2.50 per doz. 

Will only Bell in quantity specified at these prices. 
If less, 10 per cent, added; if more, 10 per ct. discount. 



lSv6-tf 



BERNARD S. FOX, 

San Jose, Cal. 



Fruit Trees ! Fruit Trees ! 

AND WHERE TO PURCHASE THEM. 

The Santa Olara Valley Agricultural Society has 
awarded : 

Largest collection of Pears, first premium. ..B. 8. Fox. 

Best twelve varieties of Pears B. S. Fox. 

Largest collection of Apples B. S. Fox. 

Best twelve varieties of Apples B, S. Fox. 

Best collection of Plums B. S. Fox. 

Largest collection of Nuts B. S. Fox. 

Best soft-shelled Almonds (Languedoc) B. S. Fox. 

Forest Trees, Shade Trees, largi and small, in 
quantity. 

BERNARD S. FOX, San Jose, Cal. 

Agent, Mr. THOS. MEHERIN, Battery street, San 
Francisco. oclS 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental 

EVERGREEN TREES AND 
Plants for SSale, 

At the old stand, corner Oregon and Battery streets. 
Directly opposite Poet Office, San Fbascisco . 

I NOW OFFER FOR SALE 

The Largest and Best Collection of Fruit, 
Shade and Evergreen Trees and Plants 

Ever offered in this market, and at Seduced Prices. 
Persona laying out new grounds would do well to call 

and examine our stock before purchasing elsewhere. 

Orders from the Country 

Promptly attended to and packed with care. 
Send for Price Catalogue. 
AGENT FOR B. S. FOX'S NURSERIES, SAN JOSE 
Address THOMAS MEHERIN, 

616 Battery Street, 

San Francisco. 
P. O. Box 722. 24v6-3m 



FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

O-LEN O-ARDENS, 

ONE MILE EAST FROM SACRAMENTO. 



My stock embraces all the most desirable varieties 
known, including several new Peaches, among which 
are the Beatrice, Louise, Early Rivers, Rivers' Early 
York, Stanwix Early York, Victoria, Prince of Wales, 
and several others, (all hybridized by 8. Rivers of En- 
gland) and fruited on my grounds this year for the 
first time in California. 

Th« liouise and Beatrice are 15 and 20 days 
Earlier than the Hale's Early. 

Being the first to import these new fruits, including 
many sorts not mentioned, purchasers may rely upon 
getting trees true to name. Also, the FREEMASON and 
8ALWAY, the most valuable late peaches in culti- 
vation. 

Blackberry, Raspberry and Strawberry Plants; fresh 
Locust Seed— CHEAP FOR CASH. 




de27-lm 



Proprietor. 



TO FRUIT GROWERS. 

Tne undersigned offers for sale a fine stock of one- 
year old and dormant budded Trees of the following 
new fruits: 
EARLY BEATRICE PEACH— The earliest Peach in the 

world; one to three weeks earlier than Bale's Early. 
BT. JOHN— The best second early Peach in the South. 
PLOWDEN-^Said to be earlier and finer than Hale. 
FREEMASON— The best Peach ripening about Sept. 16. 
PICQUETS LATE— See Rural Press, June 7th, 1873. 
BLOODLBAVED PEACH— New and very ornamental. 
Van BUREN'S dwarf, and ITALIAN D WARif— Good 

fruit, and adapted to small gardens. 
WILD GOO?E PLUM— Early, good and productive 
MINER PLUM— Later, flue. 

Also, a general assortment of other varieties of fruit, 
including Cherries. Nursery, three miles west of Va- 
oavUle, on the Suisun road. Address 

.ioJ»it , D. B. HOXraH, 

16T«-Jia VacavUle, Cal. 



ICING'S NURSERY, 

ELM Street, between Telegraph Avenne and Broadway, 
Oakland, Cal. 

GREEN HOUSE PLANTS, 
EVERGREEN TREES, 

SHRUBS, ROSES, ETC. 
100,000 MONTEREY 

CYPRESS TREES. 
A superior stock of large sized AUSTRALIAN GUM 
TREES, including :-EUCALYPTUS GLOBOLUS (Blue 
Gum)— extra fine street and shade trees. EUCALYPTUS 
VIMENALIS— both sorts very popular. ACACIAS in 
variety. Monterey Pines, Lawsun's Cypress, etc etc 
Orders attended to. Address: ' 

M. KING, Nurseryman, 
23v6-3m OAKLAND, CAL. 





Horticulturist— Los Angeles, Cal. 

Has for sale as per catalogue the following varitles of 
trees, adapted to the climate of California. 

ORANGE TREES, BUDDED AND GRAFTED; 

ORANGE TREES, SEEDLINGS; 

LEMON TREES, 

LIME TREES, 

CITRON, 

SHADDOCK, 

POMEGRANATE. 

ITALIAN CHESTNUT-This tree is unsiu-passed for 

beauty, and very prolific. The Chestnuts are delicate 

inaavorand very large, and an almost endless variety 

of rare, useful and ornamental trees. 

Send for priced Catalogue. 24v6-6m 



TREES FOR SALE. 

T'he undersigTied offer for sale at their 
INurseries, 

Near Niles Station, Central Pacific Railroad, Alameda 
county, Cal., a fine stock of Standabd Fbhit 
Trees of the orchard varieties, best adapted for Cali- 
fornia. Our Trees are one and two years old, and all 
well grown and well rooted, and true to the label. 

We invilc Planters and Dealers to examine our stock be- 
UiTe purchasing. Send for a Descriptive Catalogue and 
Fnoe List. Trees can be sent by resular freight routes or 
by kipress, at directed. Caretul attention given to pack- 
ing forslupmcnt. Local AKi-iita wanted, to wliom a lilieral 
commissnin will be paid. Address the undersigned, either 
at Oenterville, Aliimeda Co., Oal., or at 118 California st 
San prancisco. Cal. 

'8ve-4in SHINN at CO. , Proprietors. 



ALMOND TREES. 

Tho subscriber has a large lot of young Almond 
Trees, one, two and three years old, in a thrifty con- 
dition, of the celebrated Languedoc variety, which will 
be disposed of at reasonable rates. 

Orders may be sent to the undersigned, and tho trees 
will be properly packed and delivered at Niles Station. 

B. D. T. CLOUGH, 

(By Express) Wiles Station, Alameda Co., Cal. 

P. 0. Address, Centreville, Alameda Co.. Cal. 
1-lTG-tf 



ALMOND TREES. 

40,000 Brier's Languedoc Almond Trees, 

One year old from the bud— CHEAP FOR CASH. 

Liberal deductions to the trade and to those planting 
large numbers. The tree grows rapidly, bears young 
and constantly, blooms late, is hardy. The almond is 
large and sweet, with a soft shell. 

Send your orders for these and all kinds of fruit and 
nut trees, to 

W. W. BBIEB, 

24v6-2m Alvarado, Alameda Co., Cal. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

PETALUMA, CAL. 

Having increased our facilities for growing Trees and 
Plants, and permanently located our Greenhouses and 
Tree Depot corner Washington and Liberty streets, we 
are prepared to furnish Fruit and Shade Trees, Small 
Fruits, Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, Flowering Shrubs, 
Greenhouse and Bedding Plants, etc. Send for De- 
scriptive Catalogue and list of prices. 

Address, W. H. k Q. B. PEPPER, 

21v6-ly Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



HOP ROOTS FOR SALE. 

1 hare a lot of choice HOP ROOTS, and also healthy 
BLACKBERRY SETS, for sale at LOWEST BATES. 
Orders may be addressed through Dewey & Co., of tho 
Rural Press, San Francisco; Robt. Wn,iJAMSON, Capital 
Nurseries, Sacramento; or to me, 

CALVERT T. BIRD, 
25v6-3m San Joae, Cal. 

Brooklyn Nursery, 

13th avenue, opposite BROOKLYN P. O. 

This Nursery has for sale at low prices about 20 000 Cy- 
press, ($3 to $1.') per hundred), 10,000 Australian Blue Hums, 
and about 3,000 assorted Roses. Also a choice seleo ion of 
the various kinds of ornamental shrubbery, etc. Special 
attention given to the laying out ol landscape Gardens 
Orders received at tho Nursery, or at the offlco of J. P. 
SWEENY A CO. .Seedsmen, Nos. 409 and ill Davis St., S F 

24v6-3m JOHN CABEY, Proprietor. 



FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Small fruits, 

Evergreens, 

Shruha, 

Bosea, Etc., Etc. 
Dealers and Kurserjrmen supplied at Low Bates. 
Catalo^es furnished on application. 

JOHN BOOK, 
16T6.t( San Jose, Oal. 



I»JRYAL'S IVXJK,SEItIE». 



FRUIT, 

Ornamental and Evergreen Trees, 

SHBUBS AND PLANTS, 

VEGETABLE AND FLOWER SEEDS, GREENHOUSE 
AND BEDDING PLANTS, 

Embracing all of the most desirable kinds, 

A.re Tfo-w Ready and For Sale. 

BLUE GUM AND OTHER VARIETIES OF 

EUCALYPTUS. 

Boxwood Plants for Garden Walks. 

Roses of all the New and Old Varieties. 

Correspond with me, and, if possible, come and see 
my trees, etc. All orders will receive prompt attention. 
Address: 

A. D. PBYAL, 
Oakland, Alameda Co., Cal. 
DEPOT AND SEED STORE— Broadway, opposite the 
City Hall; Nursery and Greenhouse, 3^ miles north of 
Oakland, and one mile from Oakland Horse Railroad 
depot at Temescal. 

Botanical collectors in all parts of the world are re- 
quested to correspond. 25v6-tf 




My business is to supply what every fanner of expe- 
rience is most anxious to get, perfectly reliable Vegetable 
and Flower Seed. With this object in view, besides 
importing many varieties from reliable growers in 
France, England and Germany, I grow a hundred and 
fifty k-nds of vegetable seed on my four seed farms, 
right under my own eye. Around all of these I throw 
the protection of the three warrants of my Catalogue. 
Of new vegetables I make a apecialty, having been the 
first to introduce the Hubbard and Marblehead Squashes, 
the Marblehead Cabbages, and a score of others. My 
Catalogue containing numerous fine engravings, taken 
from photograxjhs, sent fhee to all. 

JAMES J. H. aREGORY, 

d62T-2t-eow Marblehead, Mass. 



TREES, TREES, TREES 




In any quantity from one tree to 10,000, both whole- 
sale and retail, at lowest market rates. Fruits guaran- 
teed true to name. I have many new varieties of fruit 
in my collection which are far superior to the old stand- 
ard varieties. , Among them is the celebrated Beatrice 
Peach, guaranteed true; this Peach is 20 days earlier 
than the Hale's Early, and in every respect a fine peach. 

My stock of Shade Trees and Grape Vines is the 
largest in the State, and a fine assortment. 

Send stamp for printed Catalogue, Price List and 
directions for planting and training, or come and see 
the stock, at the CAPITAL NURSERIES. Office and 
tree depot U street, between 15th and 16th streets, Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 

ROBT. WILLIAMSON, Prop'r. 

Special rates to Patrons of Husbandry. 24T6-3m 



THOS. A. GABEY'S 
Semi- Tropical ]Nu.i*se»*ies, 

San Pedro street, two miles below the Court House, 

LOS aNGELES, CAL. 

The Largest Stock of Semi-Tropical and Northern Fruit 

Trees in Southern California, 

Grafted Orange Trees a Specialty. 

l4vS-6m THOS. A. GAREY, Proprietor 

Priced catalogue sent free. Address P. O. Box 265. 




ElSTABIiISIIED 1850. 



PATRONIZE HOME INDUSTRY, 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO- 

Being the only Seed Growers on the Pacific Coast who 
raise 

Vegetable, Flower and Tree Seeds of 
all kinds. 



Long experience, extensive practice, and the abun- 
dant production of this year's seed crop, enables us to 
offer a selection of Superior Seeds for California and 
Foreign Soils, and also places us in a position to main- 
tain the lead in the market for Pure Seeds, and much 
cheaper than those sold by other seedsmen. 

A large assortment of Imported DUTCH BULBS and 
GLASSES just arrived. 

Alfalfa, Cloveb, Timothy, KEnrnoKT Blue Grass, 
Obchard Gbass, and all other varieties. 

Feuit Tbees, Shade Trees, Hardy Sununs, and a 
general assortment of all Muds of Veoetable Plants. 

Notice.— We will send, free of postage, on receipt of 
order, 25 varieties of garden seeds in small packages 
price, $1.25; or the larger size packages— price, $2.50. 

tsr Bend for Catalogue and Price List. 

SEVIN VINCENT k CO., 
18T6-4m 607 Saosome at., San Francisco. 



lS'r4. (Established in 1857.) 18'r4. 
W, R. STRONG'S SEED WAREHOUSE, 

SACRAMENTO. 

SEEDS ! (All Grown in 1873.) SEEDS 1 

THE PUREST, THE FINEST AND BEST OP 
EVERY VARIETY, 

And raised by the most experienced and reliable grow- 
ers of Europe, Eastern States and California. 
My stock is complete; quality unsurpassed; prices as 
low as from the best Eastern houses; embracing Vegeta- 
ble, Flower and Agricultural, Fruit, Shade, Ornamental 
and Fruit Tree 

BULBS, Flower and Bulb CHROMOS from Vlck, 
(Rochester) and Monnice & Co., (France.) 

NOW READY FOR THE TRADE, 100,000 POUNDS 
EXTRA QUALITY 

California Alfalfa, Kentucky Blue Grass, 
Bed Clover, White Clover, 

Musquit Grass, Timothy, 

Bedtop Grass, Orchard Grass, 

Bye Grass. Vernal Grass, 

And all other Grasses adapted to the climate of the 
Pacific States and the interior. 

All the better grades forwarded by mail (post-paid) , 
at catalogue rates. Money forwarded in postal orders, 
registered letters or express, at my risk. 

My Agricultural Almanac and Price Catalogue it 
ready for distribution — free on application. 

W. R. STRONG, 

8 and 10 J Street, SACRAMENTO. 



Flax Seed and Castor Beans. 

Pacific Oil and IL.ea<l "Works 

SAN FRANCISCO, are prepared to 

FURNISH SEED, AND CONTRACT 

For next year's crop of Flax Seed an d Castor Beans, a 
rates that, with proper cultivation on suitable land , 
will make them among the most profitable crops grown. 
For further particulars address 

PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

3 and 6 Front street, San Francisco. 
12v6-3m P. O. Box 1443. 

SUPERIOR CHILE ALFALFA SEED, 

EX " ETA" FROM TALPARAIBO, 
For Sale by 

CROSS & CO., 

316 California street San Francisco. 

19v6-tf 



SEEDS. 

Save Time and Money. Buy direct of the GROWER. 

Vegetable, Field and Flower, fresh and true to name. 

Catalogue for 1874 sent FREE, by 

GEO. 8. HASKELL k CO., Seed Growers, 

25v6-2m Rockford, 111. 



WHITE LEGHORN CHICKENS 

— AND— 

EGGS. 

CHOICE FOWLS AND FRESH EGGS AT 
REASONABLE RATES. 

ALSO A FEW GOOD 

DARK BRAHMAS AND BLACK SPANISH. 

F. 3V. WOODS «fc CO., 

de27-4t 67 California Market. 




NOTICE TO WOOL GROWERS. 

On the 28th day of January next we will sell at public 
auction, at our ranch, near Watsonville, Santa Cruz 
County, California, a choice lot of pure breed Angora 
Bnckfe, also a few pure breed Angora Ewls and high 
grade Angora Bucks if desired by the bidders. We will 
sell at least thirty bead of pure breeds without reserve. 
We have the stock. The breeders of this Coast are in 
need of it, and we wish them to come together and 
make their own prices. English breeders have followed 
this practice for centuries, and we will try it in Cali- 
fornia. It affords breeders an opportunity of getting 
stock to suit them both in quality and price. 

del3-lm LANDBTTM & BODGEBS. 



PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

SAN FRANCISCO, 

Manufacturers of 

Linseed and Castor OilM« 

OIL CAKES AND MEAL. 

Highest price paid for Flax Seed and Castor Beans de 
livered at our works. 
Office, 3 and 5 Front street. 
Works, King street, bet. Second and Third. fel5-eow 



Horse Clipping— Price, $6 per Horse. 

Our friends and patrons are hereby notified that we 
are prepared with the Best Hobse Clippino Maohimb 
in the country to do and guarantee flrst-class work. 

20T0-3m PRINCE «i CHANTRT, 

Norfolk Stables, Cor. Ellis and MasoD, S. F. 



CHINESE EMPLOYMENT COMPANY. 

We arc prepared to furnish at flhort notice. Domestic 
Servants Hotel (I oka. LRiiiidrymen, Walters, Common 
Laborers, Farm llaiidn. Gardeners. Mechanics, Factory 
Hands, Wood Choppers, etc. Special attention given to 
farniflhlDff Domestic Servants. 
larnisniua i^umo pjERCK A CO., 627 Sacramento St., 

de27-tt bet. Montgooiery and Kearny St8.,B. F, 



32 



ws^mwm 3awmjA ^hbbs. 



[January lo, 1874. 



Fourth Year of the Pacific Rural Press. 

Tlie publishers of this journal design making Its 
weekly 1881168 durlDK Uh fnurtU year (1874) still more 
acci-ptable and valuable thiin those ol the past. To 
accomplish this, wff propose to furnish 

More Editorial Lalxir; 

Better Prepared and Condensed EeadlnB; 

A Greater Variety of ContentB; 

Contributions from our More Experienced Writers; 

Uniformly Better Ink and Paper; 

Uniformly Bettor Press Work; 

A Choice Selection of Eunraviugs; 

A Complete, First-Class .lournal; 

A Journal Worthy of Its Field; 

A Paper Worthy ol Its Patrons. 
We shall strive to make it an ever welcome visitor to 
those who desire to constantly 

Improve the Heart and Sllnd, 
And shall give a larRer space to our Hume Oikcle de- 
partment, which from the first has been a popular fea- 
ture of the llURAL. 

Our aim is to gather iuforniatiou from all reliable 
Bonrces, in the varied forms in which it is to be obtain- 
ed. Our work is to divest our Rleaningeol all super- 
fluities; condense such Information as is of most im- 
portance to our special class of readers— Rive it to these 
In the plainest and fewest words possi ble,— saving 
l/teir time by our labnr. Thus wo will render well 
prepared and 

Seasonable Intelligence, 
Devoid of useless t rbiage. Our 

Ijeadine Departments 
Will be continued under the following heads: 
The Home Circle, Tlie Horse, 

Young Folk's Coluum, The Swine Yard, 

Short Stories, Sericulture, 

Home and Farm, The Vegetable Garden, 

Useful Information, The Flower Garden, 

Domestic Economy. The Vineyard, 

Good Health, The Orchard, 

The Dairy, Tropical Fruits, 

The Apiary, Small Fruits, 

Poultry Notes, The Cereals, 

Homed Stock, Pasturage, etc.. 

Sheep and Wool. Fertilizers, 

Goats, Miscellaneous. 

Practical Farmers 
Know how Important it is that the aboye subjects 
should be treated from a local standpoint— that gen- 
erally the farming tactics of tlie East will not do for 
this coast, that agriculture, in its infancy here, can de- 
rive greater benefits from an exchange of experience 
through the columns of the press than in older fields. 
Constantly observing and sluiiying developments in the 
special field we npreseut, we can be expected to give 
truer Information on agricultural subjects, than more 
general writers at home or abroad. 

Our Traveling: Correspondents 
WilldoniU'h service by gathering a large amount of 
interesting information from various parts of the Coast, 
which, but for their research and practiced observation 
might never be placed on record or reach the eye of the 
reading public. Of our many 

Local Correspondents 
We have particular reason to be proud. No paper on 
this Coast— old or new — has ever been so highly favored 
with volunteer contributions. They arc talented, reli- 
able, independent and generous representatives of an 
intelligent and enterprising people, noble types (^f good 
humor, unselfishness and true progress. 

Short Stories, 
Original and selected, will herejifter appear in each 
number. Their selection, we trust, will be such as to 
render them popular and unobjectionable to all. In 
addit ion to a largo numljcr of 

Fine En^ravin^s, 
Representing Choice Stock, Farm Products, Scenery, 
Remarkable Productions, Improvements in Farming 
Imolements and Machinery, Works of Art and the 
Beautlfnl In Nature, we shall from time to time present 
the modest 

Paces of Prominent Farmers 
Who, as pioneers in the development of ngricultnre on 
this Coast, or as active laborers In the "Farmers' 
Cause," are wortliy of the distinction thiy enjoy, and 
the wniir .Ntlith wiilch they are looked upon by our 
man^l^Bders at home and abroad. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 
We shall continue to give our weekly summary of 
matters connected with the interest and proaressof this 
growing and importaBt movement. We shall aim to 
give information as fresh as possible In this depart- 
ment. Its readers are aware that the Rubai. has been in 
the lead in calling farmers to organize. We shall con- 
tinue to work zealously with the Granges for the noble 
objeiits of the Order. 
The present Is an 

Important Period 
In the history of our Coast. The coming 12 mouths 
promise greater dnvelopmi-nts in its agricultural pro- 
gres** than has Ijeen exp'Tienced in any previous year. 
Agriculturists are alive to improvements in every direc- 
tion, and those who w<inld keep up with the spirit of 
the times should certainly read the IIiiral Press. 

The S. F. Market Beports 
Will receive greater attention in the department of 
DoMSSTic Pboddce than that of any other weekly jour- 
nal. We shall spare no pains to render the reixirts as 
reliable and complete as possible. By the employment 
of our special reporter we hope to make this very im- 
portant part of our paper one of its best and most satis- 
lactory features. 

Kind Words and Acts 
Have done much to build up in this isolated and 
sparsely settled coast so large and comp lete an agricul- 
tural journal as the Pacii'io Horai. Prbis. Wo com- 
mence the new year with a regular circulation of 

Over 5,000 Copies, 
A far greater Issue than that of any weekly on this 
Coast, independent of a daily publication. If our 
friends will continue to " help us help ourselves," we 
hope to rea*-h a circulation of 8.000 this year, and do a 
corrispondingly greater service of good. While we have 
the greatest advantages and can make by far the best 
weekly for 

Agriculturists on This Side of the Continent 
We cannot expect one-half so large a circulation as jour- 
nals in older and more populous districts. Cons4>(iuently 
readers cannot rightly expect such a paper here at East- 
em rates. 

No Premiums But a Good Paper 

Do we offer. A flashy chromo (or cheap map), 
with an ill suited paper, will hardly satisfy the farm- 
ers of this Coast, whose time is too precious for trifling. 
To many of you the benefit of a reliable and valuable 
paper should reach a hundred fold it'i cost, while to 
all a poor Journal would be dnar at any price. 

Sample Copies Furnishtsd Free 
On receipt of stamp for llo.^t ige. 

Agents are Wanted 
Who will do more or less active canvassing. To such 
we win furnish free saiuplcs and pay liberally for their 
services. 

Terms of Subscription: 

One year {payable in advance) $4.00 

Six months 2.25 

To Granges and Farmers' OIu'os, foniisbing club 
lists, $3 per annum. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 
Office, No, 338 Montgomery Ftreet, San Francisco. 



HIGHEST HONORS AWARDED TO THE WEED SEWING MACHINE! 



AT TUB 

Vienna. liSxposltion, '7 3. 

Grand Medal of Progress ! 

Grand Medil of Merit! 

AND TO CAP THE Cr.IMAX. 

Grand Medal of Honor. 

Mr. Ceo. A. FAIRrlELn, the Inventor and 
Suiieriiit40i()ent of the Conipanv's works, 
aa co-operator lor VALUABLE IMl'ROVE- 
MENIS. 




THE BEST 

Sewing Machine 

FOR ALL KINDS OF 
WOWlv 

THAT WAS KVKR I'lT BKFUR1-; TUK 

PUBLIC 

Stud for DeHfriptlvc Circulars and sam- 
ples of work. 



A. MEAD & CO., GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE PACIFIC COAST, 

152 New Montgomery Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 2v7 f.m 



Designing 

am 
Engraving 

at 
This Office. 

We are prepared to do fine Wood Engraving 
for illustrating Landscape Scenery, Buildings, 
Machinery, Works of Art, Manufactured Articles, 
Trade Marks, Seals, Etc. We have a first-class 

Machine for Engraving 

A portion of the work, which can be finished 
thereby lAore perfectly than by the eye and hand 
alone. Our patrons can depend upon first-class 
work always, and at reasonablt prices. Samples 
can be seen at our office. 

DEWEY cSc CO. 




Scientific Press 




BAY NURSERY, 

OAKLAND, CAL. (Established In 18.W.) 

JAMES HUTCHISON, Prop'r., 

HAS FOR SALE, WHOLESASE AND RETAIL, 
an ininiense stock of Ever;;reen Trees, Ornamental 
Shrubs and Flowering Planta, snitablefurthe conaet-va- 
tory, parlor window, flower garden, lawn, vaseB, rock- 
eries, hanging bapkets, ferneries, etc. Comprising in 
part, Cameliaa, Magnolias, Daphnes, Araucari»».Yuecas, 
Variegated Agavea, Rogcs, FuchEiaB, Caruatlons, Enca- 
lyptUB Acacias. Peppers, Cypress, Pines, Junipers, 
Cedar of Lebanon, ete. New and rare plants a special- 
ty. Dealers and nurserymen supplied at low rates. 
Hyacinths, Tube Boses, Tulips and other Bulbs. Choice 
Flower Seed, Garden and Lawn Seed, fresh and genuine. 
iiT-Zm 



METROPOLITAN NURSERY. 

MILLER & SIEVERS, Propr's. 

Wc can now offer for sale a floe assortment of 
NEW AND RAEE 

FLOWERING & ORNAMEMTAL PLANTS, 

SHBX7BS AND TR££S, 

IN GOOD AND HE.VLTHY CONDITION. ALSO A 
CHOICE COLLECTION OF 

FLOWEEING BULBS AND SEEDS, 

(Native and foreign.) 

Our catalogue is now ready, and is the mostCTtensiTe 
ever published on this Coast; we will forward it free to 
all applicants. 

Nurseries on Lombard and Chestnut streets, nea r 
Larkin street, at the teruiuus of the new Clay street 
railroad. Floral and seed depot, No. 27 Post street, San 
Francisco. 

Letters by Mail or expresss will reacb na. 



jalO 



DULLER & SIEVERS. 



ORNAMENTAL EVERGREEN TREES, 

FOR SALE AT 

THE OLD MAPLE LEAF NURSERY. 

I have now on hand the largest and best varieties of 
ornamental Evergreen Trees, Fruit Trees of all kinds, 
also a large lot of the Blue Onms, from Rix Inehea to 
I'i feet hl(;h, at from J4 to $100 per hundred. .^ large 
lot of Cypnsses, Vines and Junipers of every kind. 
(ireen House Plants and a large ijuantity of Roses. 
Maple and Laburnum Trees for street planting. I 
would call the attention of thetrade to a large quantity 
of Australian and African Timber Reeds, and especially 
Cedrous Peodare, or Peavine Cedar Reeds. 

L. M. NEW^SOM. 
East Oakland, nth St., near Tubb's Hotel. 
Send for Catalogue. JalO 



CyniN Jones, 



Gen. Giles A. Smith. 



L. H. Hicks. 



OUE D. 8. AND FoKEioN Patkst .^oknot presents 
many and important advantages as a Homo Agency over 
all others by reasons of long establishment, great expe- 
rience, thorough system, and lutimato acquaintance 
with the subjects of inventions in our own community. 
All worthy inventions j^atented through our Agency will 
have the benelit of an illustration or a description in the 
Mining kxd RoiKjrnrio Pbjess. We tranaact every 
branch of Patent ouslness, and obtain Patents in all 
civilized countries. The large majority of U. S. and 
Foreign Patents granted to inventors on the Pacific 
Coast have been obtained through our Agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the patenta- 
bility of new inventions. Advice and Ciuoulaiis free. 

DEWEY & CO., 

I'ablUhera, PatfRt Acenta, nnd Knem'rera. 

No. 338 Montgomery St., San Francisco. Cal. 



Dividencl Notice. 

SAN FRANCISCO SAVINGS UNION. 

No. 532 California Street, Cor. Webb. 

For the half year ending with the 31at of December, 
1873, a dividend has been declared, at the rate of nine 
(9) per cent, per annum on Term Deposits, and seven 
and one-half (7>i) per cent, per annnm on Ordinary 
Deposits — free of Federal Tax— payable on and after 
the twelfth of .Tanuary, 1874. By order, 

jalO-4w LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



OCULIST, 

A.TJIIIST, 



DR. ABORN, 

Catarrh, Throat and Lung Physician 

The Most Dif&cult Oa.scs are invited to call. 
OiUces and Laboratory, 213 Geary street. 
OfBce Hours— lOM A. m. to 3 p. v.; 6 to 7)4 P. M. 
21v6-3ni-l«p 



Pdbcbasebs plei^se sayadverUaed in Pacific Rural Press' 



CYRUS JONES & CO., 

BBEEDEBS AND DSAI.EII8 IN 

THOEOUGHBEED SHOET-HOEN OATTLE 

Of the most desiralile families: representing the Duch- 
esses. Rose of Kharons, Booths. Miss Wileys, Mazurkas 
and others. Having purchaseil the Avenue Ranch 
(formerly Shaw Ranch) Bve mill* east of Ban Jose, on 
Santa Clara avenue, and placed upon it three car li»a4ls 
of fine cattle, recently imported from the most note<l 
herds of the Htates, we invite all in want of line stock 
to call and see IIS. as we have a few choice Heifers f(»r 
sale. Send for Catalogue. Addn-sa: 

CYRUS JONES & CO., 
9TT-3m San Jose, Cal. 



NEW IMPORTATION. 

50 ALMOND TREES (soft shells, largest fniit.) 

an CHESTNHT TREES (grafted, largest fruit.) 

25 OLIVE TREES (largest fruit.) 

CO HAZELNCT TREES (three kinds, the bMt.) 

60 BLACK CI'RRANT TREES. 

Zr, .TUTIRE TREES. 

25 PIbTACHIO TREK8. 

25 CAPER TREES. 

Choice plants, adapted to this climate, and warranted, 

will arrive in San Francisco by th^Pacific Mailsteamer, 

due January 24, 1874, and are from the best nursery In 

France. For sale by E. OAUTHIER, 

jalO-lt 258 Third M^8.^^ 

McLAREN, JANES & CO., 

DEALERS, MANUFACTUBEXS AND INTBOSUCXBa OF 

IVEAV^ IIVVENTIOIVH 

FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 

AiRo, Oenoral Tluslnessi A-g^ncy, 

NO. 606 OI^Y STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, OAL. 
Jal0-bp-3m 



St 



AUSTRALIAN 
«. TJ M. X K. E E !S . 



2.TO,flOO on hand for this season, at rates to encxjuragc 
forest culture. Also, 50,000 Cypress, In shipping order. 

Nursery on 12th street, one block north of Tubba' 
Hotel, East Oakland. Cal. Or address. Box 80. Oak- 
land. BAILEY & CO., Proprietors. 

Beautiful fresh Cypress Seed, $3 per pound, sent by 
mail, warranted pure and of the finest quality. 
26v6'3m 



, SEEDS! 



SEEDS! 

CKOl? OF IS-ys. 

I am DOW receiving a choice collection of 

Vegetable, >'->.•,..:. 

Agricultural, ■) ' 

and Flower Seeds, 

Containing all the BEST varieties, tat selected with 

gr(«t care. 

ALFALFA! 

A choice quality of California gromtb. 

Grass and Clover Seed.' • 

Kenttcky BLrE Gbass, 
English Rye Gbass, 
Red Top, 

OrChibd Gbass, 

TmOTHY, 

MESQurr, 

Red Cix>veb, 

■Whitb Clovib. 
FOR SALE AT WHOLESALE OR RETAIU 

GEO E. SILVEWTER, 

No. 317 Waahlxtffton Street, 

6v2-lyl6p SAN FRANCISCO. 



(ESTABLISHED IN 18S2.I 

New York Seed Warehouse, 

R. J. TRUMBULL, 

427 Sansonie street San Francisco, 

Wholesale and Kktail Dealeb m 




Dutch Bulbous Roota, Flowering Plcmts, 

Ornamental Shrubs, Fruit and 

Shade Trees, etc. 

Keeps constantly on hand a large and fresh atock of 
Vegetable and Field Seed of all valnasle kinds. 

Chile and California Alfalfa, of best qnality, in 
quantities to suit, at the lowest market rates. 

Mesquit Grass. Kentucey Blue Oiuss, Oboiiabd 
Grass, Red Top Gbass, Rye Grass, Timothy Gbass, 
Fine Mixed Seed fob Lawns, WHrrE akd Red Clovcb 
Seed, etc. 

Agent for OABn'sSEMi-TBOPiCALrBdTTREES,whlch 
are olTered at Nursery prices, free of freight charges to 
San Krancisco. 

To parties desiring to purchase anything in the abore 
line, I will send any of my catalogues free of chabok. 

BCLB CiTALooUK now ready. Sf.mi-Tbopical Cata- 
LooUK ready Nov. Ist. iLLnTBATF.n Skkd Catalootje, 
embracing Seeds of all the valuat)le varieties. Flower- 
ing Plants, Ornamental Shrubs, Fruit and Shade Trees, 
etc.. ready Not. ISth. R. J. TRUMiilTLL, 

lSvS-6m-16p 427 Sauaome St., San Francisco. 



ALFALFA! 



WEW CROP. 



riT 



For Sale, choice lot of fine CALIPORNIA-QBOWN 
ALFALFA, lu lota to suit, for cash, at market ratea. 
Our Seed, nulike that Imported from Chile, Is fine and 
free from Mustard or other foreign seed. Vegetable, 
Flower and CVra«s Swd, etc. 

50,000 Ramie Plants; 100 000 Gum Trees. 

Fine Plants, Trees, Bulbs, and all articles in the 
line, fresh and good. Splendid Stock, at the old stand. 

E. E. MOORE, Seedsman & Florist, 

4«5 IV^uahlnEton St., - - NAN FBANCIBCO. 

»- SEND FOE CATALOGUE. ■«■ 
2lT6>tr 



Egrers ! Egrgrs ! 'E^sm i 

For hatching, from reliable breeding stock; one of the 

oldest and best yards of pure bred poultry in 

the United States. 

M. FALLON 

f-EVENTH AND OAK STS., OAKLAND. 

Offers for sale Eggs from the following varieties of fowls: 
l.ig'bt and Dark Brahmas, 
Buff. Partridire and 'White Cochins, 
Spangrled, Oolden and Silver Polish, 
Spangled, Oolden and Silver Hamburgh, 
Pure Whitefaced Black Spanish, 
Silkies, Qame, Legrhorns, "White & Brown, 
Silver Oray Dorkins and Houdans, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks, 
Bronze Turkeys, the larg'est in California- 

AL.TO, CHESTER COUNTY WUITE PIGS, CHINA PIGS. 
7Y6-tflCp2 



Eino Grade 

SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 



SSL 



26,000 hea<l are now owned by this association, and 
wc are In constant communication with parties all over 
this State, who buy and sell SHEEP and 8HEKP 
RANGES. Parties wishing to purchass or sell are In- 
vited to call at the office of the San Joaquin 
Valley Wool Growers' Association, 15 Steven- 
son's building, 331 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 
jalO-lm 



s. 



TO PLANTERS. |g| 

A large collection of ^Jm^ 

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs 

FOR SALE AT BELLE VIEW NURSERY, OAJCLAND. 
S. HOZJLN, Proprietor. StT-Sid 




Volume VII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY, 17, 1874. 



[Number 3. 



Alfileriila, 



or Filere, and 
Plants. 



Its Kindred 



Erodium Ckularium, and Erodium Moschaiam. 
Bt Ralph Rambler— Fob Eural Press. 

California is justly noted for the beauty and 
novelty of its native plants. IIk flora is no less 
remarltable for plants 'that are useful, rather 
than ornamental. Of the various members of 
the latter class, none are more widely distribu- 
ted, more generally known, and more justly 
celebrated, than the pasture plant here de- 
scribed and illustrated. 

Alfileriila, or Fil-e-re, as we really pronounce 
it, has been ranked in a previous paper as the 
"prince among onr pasture plants," and we 
think it richly merits this distinction. 

Bunch-grass, salt grass, from which stock 
running loose, get all the salt they need; tule 
' grass, burr clover, and many other species of 
clover, both native and introduced; the lupines 
and various other rich succulent plants, which 
are lavishly spread in spring over our moun- 
tain and hill sides, our valleys and our river 
bottoms, furnish the richest and most varied 
food for the hundreds of thousands of sheep, 
catth; and horses that are annually pastured in 
our State. 

Even when dry and crisp, as most of the 
plants are from .June till December, they are de- 
voured as eagerly and seem as nourishing as 
the best of hay. Indeed, in many localities, 
where this native growth is rankest, it is fre- 
quently mown and cured for hay. Entirely 
dried and lacking in substance, as it generally 
appears, stock feed upon it and are kept in the 
finest condition during our severest win- 
ters. 

Among all our flora, no plant is more valued 

for^ such purposes throughout the State, and 

more widely celebrated, than the plant of 

which our engraver has given us most excellent 

; likenesses from nature. 

r Botanically, our alfileriila, or, as we prefer 
I, to give it, fil-e-re, is an Erodium, as has been 
•[ frequently fatated in descriptive works on Cali- 
fornia. This generic name is from the Greek 
i: erodios, meaning a heron or crane, and is given 
J. on account of the close resemblance of its 
seed-pod and stem to the head, neck and 
breast of that bird, as can be readily seen by a 
moment's inspection. Hence, in works on 
1 Botany its common name is given as Herons- 
f: bill, and even Storksbill. 

Its California name, alfileriila, is a Spanish 
,, diminutive from filler, a pin, and literally 
. vaoana the liUte pin. It is given because the 
long, tapering seed-pod is like a piu. For this 
reason it is frequently called a pin-plant. Its 
long and musical Spanish name is reduced 
by usage to the more convenient iorm filere, in 
that practical, characteristic style, which Cali- 
foinians have for fiudiiig the quickest and 
shortest way for doing everything. 

This plant is frequently spoheu of as a na- 

. tive of the Pacific Coast. So long has it beea 

' known here, so universally is it distributed in 

our State, and so well does it thrive on its 

adopted soil, that we do not wonder at this 

common error. 

It is not, however, a native of America. 
More than forty species of Erodium are known 
and described by botanists, and a majority ot 
them are natives of the shores and islands of 
the Mediterranean. One species is described 
as a nitive of Siberia; another, of the Cape of 
Good Hope; one variety is from Niimidia; and 
the two which are so common in California, 
E. cicutariuiii and E. moHcJuitavi, are given as 
natives of Great Britain. 

So, our familiar and valued friend, the filere, 
is an exotic from the Old World. As a pioneer, 
it is even more venerable than a " '49-er." 
We do not know that history tells us when it 
first emigrated to its new home. It probably 
came with some of the first shipments of 
wheat, and barley, and other seed that were 
brought to our shores. But like the millions 
of Europeans who have sought homes in Amer- 
ica, it has found in California a soil and cli- 
mate so congenial that it has taken entire pos- 
session, and it seems so much at home, that 
we have come to look upon it as among our ab- 
origines. And does this seem strange, when 
we remember how similar onr climate is to 
that of portions of Southern Europe, Western 
Asia, and Northern Africa? 



Filere belongs to the geranium family, which, 
besides the sweet-scented and cultivated plants 
of that name, comprises also the wood-sorrels, 
the balsams or touch-me-nots, and the garden- 
nasturtium, or iropcuolum, one species of which 
(T. majus,) a native of Peru, is very remark- 
able for the following fact, which, we are told, 
was "first discovered by the daughter of Lin- 
naeus." At night, its large orange flowers, 
shaped like those of the lark spar, or snap- 
dragon, "emit spontaneously at certain inter- 
vals vivid sparks, like those of an electric ma- 
chine." 

When any of our lady friends are tendiog 



eoarse-leaved filere, by which our people most 
generally distinguish them. 

The excellent object-teaching of the engraver 
makes any attempt at a minute description of 
these plants unnecessary. We will, therefore, 
point out only a few of the different qualities 
which distingui-;h the species. A strong odor is 
a mark of these plants, as it is of other 
members of the geranium family. Mash the 
stem and leaves of fine-leaved filere, and they 
emit the odor of parsnips very decidedly. 
Coarse -leaved filere, besides having coarser and 
rather shorter stems, leaves closer together 
and rather smaller flowers, has also a very 




ALFILERILIiA, OR PILERE. 



their beautiful and valued pets, the rose geran- 
ium and its kindred, which beautify their 
windows, rooms and conservatories, do thty 
ever stop to think or have the time to learn, 
why this plant is called geranium. You know 
there is a reason for everything. This name 
and erodium are given for very similar reasons, 
as seems natural when we think of the close 
relationship of the plants to which they belong. 
Geranium is from the Greek word qeranos, a 
Crane, and the name is given, because the seed- 
pod bears some resemblance to a crane's bill. 
For this reason, cranesbill is a common name 
of the geranium among botanists. 

In the engraving. Fig. 1 represents an entire 
plant of E. ciculnrumi, very much reduced froni 
its natural size, in order to give those unfamil 
iar with it, a correct idea of the general appear- 
ance of this noted plant. Fig. 2 represents 
stem, leaves, flowers, seed-pods and seeds 
with their spirally twisted filaments, of this 
species in their natural size. Fig. 3 is a nat- 
ural sized leaf of E. moscJuitum. 

The striking difference between the leaves of 
the two species, gives to the former the common 
name of fine-leaved filere, and to the latter, 



strong odor of musk. Hence its specific name, 
moschaium, or musky. 

The name, clcularium, from cicuta, meaning 
hemlock, is said to be given to the first spe- 
cies, because its leaves are finely divided, like 
the leaves of that notorious plant. But we 
must confess, it is not altogether agreeable to 
associate in any way with so nutritious and 
attractive a plant as is this general favorite, 
an herb, like hemlock, so repulsive from its 
poisonous qualities, and with so black a historic 
record, if for no other reason than its belug 
made an instrument of death for one of the 
noblest of philosophers, by the sentence of his 
unjust and misguided accusers. 

The flowers of both of these species are of a 
delicate pink or rose-color. Each has a five- 
cleft calyx, five petals, five stamens, and 
produces five-barbed seeds, like the seeds of 
spear-grass. The appearance of these seed, 
when matured, and the manner in which they 
are attached to the stem supporting them, is 
well indicated by the engraver. 

The tendency to twist, especially when ex- 

Eosed to the heat of the hand or sun, seema to 
e a means which nature has provided to en- 



able the seed to force its sharp points into 
loose soil and plant itself. 

After a wet winter, filere grows very rank on 
soil of any strength. It sends out branches 
two and even three feet long, and form a very 
dense herbage which makes the best of wild 
hay. Its stems are full of mucilage, and In- 
dians are said to eat them with evident relish. 

These two are the only species of filere that 
the writer has been able to detect m San Joa- 
quin valley. 

Possibly we also have a variety of E. cieuiar- 
ium called hipinnatum, because its leaves are very 
finely divided. Loudon says the latter variety 
is a native of Numidia. We may also have in 
some portions of California the species known 
as E. romanum, so called because it is a na- 
tive of Italy. Some species may have been in- 
troduced into .California by the early Jesuit 
missionaries. Future research will show 
whether we have other species. The filere is 
one of our earliest plants to flower, and one of 
the latest to remain green. 

Let us try to make clear this bond of union 
among plants which would otherwise seem far 
removed from each other. We will not say, at 
variance with each other, for, in the world of 
flowers, almost a universal harmony prevails. 
To have this tie understood, we must again call 
attention to the stamens of flowers, which, as 
we have previously explained, are the male 
members of the vegetable kingdom. 

Look at the stamen of any flower, and you 
will find it consists of three parts, viz: a single 
thread or stem, called the filament; at the end 
of this a knob of various shapes, called the 
anther, and on this anther a fine dust, or pol- 
len, the fructifying power of plant life. 

Now in all this class of plants just enumera- 
ted, and the members of its families are counted 
by thousands, the filaments of the stamens are 
more or less closely united at their bases in one 
body, and they encircle in various ways the 
pistils, which, you know, are the female mem- 
bers in the world of flowers. 

All these plants, Linnoeus combined in his 
16th Class, and called it Monadelphia, from two 
Greek words meaning one brotherhood. 

In this brotherhood, is one of the most noted 
trees in the world, the baobab, or monkey- 
bread tree of Africa {Adansonia digilata). Its 
leaves and flowers are quite similar to those of 
some kinds of passion-flower. 

On the banks of the Senegal, specimens of 
this tree are now growing which many natu- 
ralists, believe to be the oldest trees in the 
world, certainly as old as our giant redwoods, 
perhaps older, they say. 

According to the best means of calculating 
known to botanists, the age of one is estimated 
to be over 6,000 years I 

Yet, they do not attain a great hight. About 
60 feet is their maximum. Their breadth is 
immense, in proportion to their hight. The 
estimated diameter of the largest is 25 feet. 
Some trunks are not more than 12 or 15 feet 
high, with a circumference of 60 or 70 feet. 
Their branches, like huge trees, are 40 or 50 
feet long, with their smaller branches touching 
the ground. Some of their roots exposed by 
the washing of the river banks, are more than 
100 feet long. Their fruit is gourd-shaped, from 
9 to 12 inches long, and 4 inches in diameter, 
of a pleasant acid taste. Hence a common 
name for this tree is Sour gourd. This tree fills 
in the household economy of the Africans of 
Senegal, almost as important a place, as the 
reindeer does for the Laplander and Esquimaux. 

While the fruit famishes a refreshing and 
nourishing article of diet when ripe, they also 
make of this gourd various vessels for domestic 
use. From its bark, they make thread and 
ropes, and cloth. From the latter, these dusky 
savages clothe themselves and families, and 
very economically too, on account of the small 
amount of material needed to meet the size of 
their patterns. When food is scarce, they eat 
the small leaves. With the large ones they 
cover their houses. With the ashes of the 
leaves they make a very fair soap. Both leaves 
and bark are used medicinally. 

Such is this great Linnroan brotherhood of 
plants to which our humble and beautiful 
filere belongs. This principle of oneness, dis- 
covered by Linmens, can then unite by a com- 
mon tie plants so remote in place and seeming- 
ly so unlike in nature, as to include in the 
same vast family onr simple pasture plant and 
the odd monkey-bread of Africa. 

San Joaquin Valley, Jan., 1874, 



34 



[January 17, 1874. 



t^ORRESPONDENCE. 



Silk Culture in California— Concluded. 

(By Feux GnxEi, of Nevada City.] 

I can tell your readers how much they can 
expect for a pound of cocoons, of the French - 
annual races. In the first place, as wages are 
higher here than iu Europe, the filature will 
have to buy cocoons at a price that will allow a 
reasonable profit for reeling them into grege, 
therefore, taking that into consideration, we 
would'ut probiibly have more than 75 cents a 
pound, and it may be only 65 cents, (that is of 
fresh cocoons while the chrysalis is yet alive; 
otherwise when it has been killed and dried up, 
cocoons weigh three times more and are worth 
accordingly) ; in Europe and elsewhere, filatures 
buy cocoons right after they are spun, kill- 
ing the chrysali."? themselves. A pound of 
dried cocoons would then at the above rates be 
worth between §1.75 to $2.25. It is easy with 
the above prices for silk-growers to find out 
how much they can get for their crop of cocoons, 
providing of course they would have a market 
for them. I can assure them that G5 to 75 
cents for a pound of fresh cocoons is the big- 
gest price ihey can get, so that they need not 
bother the Rural, or any other paper about the 
way of getting a market for their goods and 
the price they will get for them. 

As I intend in this essay to go before any 
obj"ction that can be made, or answer before- 
hand any questions that may be put to me di- 
rectly or through the press, I will tell your 
renders how many pounds of fresh cocoons can 
be raised with an ounce of eggs and how many 
worms a single person can take care of. On 
the average, from 25,0()O to 40,000 cocoons are 
obtained from an ounce of eggs; 25,000 cocoons 
will weigh about 85 pounds, which at 75 cents 
a pound would make trom $G0 to $64. I always 
mean French-annual cocoons, like the Biona 
races, and not Japanese, annual or Bivoltines. 
A person can easily take care of about 50,000 to 
75,000 worms, more so, people that have fami- 
lies. To rear that number of worms a room 
of 24 feet by 16 and eleven feet from floor to 
ceiling would be required; if smaller, a smaller 
number of worms, then, would have to be 
raised; it is now to be seen that cocoons at 75 
cents a pound would be remunerative enough. 

So far, people that have planted mulberry 
orchards did it in the expectation of making 
much money by it; for they were told that they 
could clear a thousand dollars an acre by turn- 
ing their cocoons into eggs for the European 
market. This wns a great mistake, for we can- 
not rely at all on this egg trade; and although 
some silkgrowers here can make considerable 
money with silkworm eggs, we will Bave most 
of UK to try to make the business pay in simply 
raising cocoons at so much a pound. We will 
make less, it is true, but we shall have every 
year a sale for our cocoons, which we might 
not have for oiir eggs. Any farmer or any 
pe.'son having a room for that use and leaves 
for feeding the worms, can clear in 40 days, 
easy, from 50 to 200 dollars in silkworm raising; 
and I challenge any man to show me any other 
product of the farm and garden that will i.et 
in so short a time, with so little labor, as much 
money. I say 40 days, for an education of 
silkworms from hatching time to the spinning 
of cocoons will take about that time; it is only 
the last two weeks that give much work, dur- 
ing the first three ages the worms being yet too 
small to require much food. Here are figures 
on the number of hards required to raise silk- 
worms on a large scale. In France and Italy, 
in an education of 250 gramms of eggs (nine 
onncts), that is of 300.000 to 400,000 worms in 
round numbers, one person is employed during 
the time of the iucubatiou; two in the first 
age; four in the secord; six in the third; eight 
in both the fourth and fifth. To make of Cali- 
fornia a silk-producing State, we must not, 
however, think that silkworms have to be 
raised on a large scale; on the contrary, for it 
is the small p/oducer multiplied by the thous- 
and that makes anywhere of any industry a 
national one. I always did look to our farmers 
to build up our silk industry, by having each 
of them rais from 25,000 to 100,000 worms. 
Here are on that subject some interesting sta- 
tistics on the number of people engaged in 
raising silkworms in France, and the quantity 
of cocoons produced by them, that ia, for the 
year 1872. 

All together 139,922 persons rai.sed silk- 
worms iu that country; 103,621 on a small 
scale, and 36,301 on a large scale. They 
hatched 711,209 ounces of eggs, that yielded 
9,207,008 kilogramm8(about20,000,000 pounds) 
of cocoons; (a small produce, caused by the 
epidemic still raging there). At the average 
price of $1.27 a kilogramm, the whole crop 
would amount to $12,000,000. With a full 
crop, it would double and triple that sum. 

So we see that three out of four persons 
raising silk worms do it on a small scale, though 
the number of persons that do it on a large 
scale is certainly larger that anybody, I believe, 
has any idea of. In Italy four times as much 
silk is raised. 

Another difficulty to tho.se existing already 
in raising silkworms on a large scale, is 
the scarcity of hands and the high rates of 



labor. But it is a mistaken idea to believe 
that because hired hands are dear, we canrot 
make the business pay; and I have seen it sug- 
gested in the Rubai. Fukss that we would have 
to employ Chiuamen,*to make it pay. Do not 
believe that, I mean as long as the latter will 
ask from $1 to a SI. 50 a day; b^ys and girls 
can be had at a cheaper price, and I would by 
far prefer the latter ui tL« same wnges to China- 
men. I hired a boy at $15 a month without 
board, and I kuow he did as much work as any 
of those lazy Celestials would.have done. If, 
of course, Chinese labor wonld come down to 
50 cents a day, there might be more profit to 
employ them. Silkworm raising is such an 
easy, light work, that boys and girls may be 
employed with as much advantage as men as 
far as the performing of the l.ibor is concerned, 
but certainly at cheaper wages. I have neter 
employed a Chinamen yet on my land, and I 
hope that I will not be compelled to employ 
any. Give first our boys and girls a chance, 
for in no other industry can they be worked 
with so much advantage as in that one of silk 
growing. 

Another incorrect idea is to believe that silk 
is raised in China at such low prices that 
it is impossible for us here to compete with 
them in raising silkworms. It is true that Chi- 
nese silk is cheap, half cheaper than the flue 
silks raised in Europe and California, but be- 
cause it is an inferior article and badly reeled, 
that China and Japan silk is used for common 
cloth, the other for the finest cloth. Taken to 
Europe, our >ilk from the beautiful races of 
silkworms which we succtssfiilly raise in Cali- 
fornia, like the Biona, Brianza, etc., will sell 
nearly double of what will bring those Asiatic 
silks. Therefore we must not care how cheap 
they will produce silk in China, as long as we 
are able to raise a superior article which has a 
ready sale, so great is the damand for the 
finest silk. It is the reason, too, why we can- 
not look to those San Francisco silk factories 
for a market, for they find their advantage to 
use the inferior but cheaper silk from A.sia; 
while in Europe to weave those splendid goods 
that make the admiration of the world, they 
do not have enough of this number one silk 
like ours. 

It is not so, neither, that in China and Eu- 
rope they can raise cocoons so much cheaper 
than here, taking into consideration the capi- 
tal invested. The only advantage they have 
on us is the cheapness of labor, while the other 
costs are the same, and some, like the materials 
for building a cocooucry, in our favor. In 
fact, in China and Europe, land is very high, a 
great deal higher than in California, so that we 
can raise leaves as cheaply here as they do there. 
In China, as well as in Europe leaves sell from 
one-hall a cent to two cent.s a pound, according 
to localities and years; but nearer two cents 
than one-half a cent. The main difference be- 
tween those countries and California lies then, 
in the higher wages we have to pay hands for 
cultivating our mulbirry orchards and raising 
ourjworms; and I ai.sert that this difference does 
not, after all, amount to as much as people may 
imagine at first glance. 

To resume , I will gay that silk culture 
may very well become in this State a settled 
regular industry; but people embarking into 
the business must not expect to make by it 
as much money as over-enthusiastic pioneers 
led them to believe. I have shown by the fore- 
going essay that our soil is favorably adapted 
to the culture of the mulberry tree; that silk- 
worms can be successfully raised, if properly 
taken care of; that we may get a market for our 
cocoons by establishing iu evers county where 
cocoons are raised, filatures for the manufacture 
of raw silk or grege; that the raisiug of co- 
coons can be made remuntralive. con- 
sidering the little labor and small capi- 
tal it requires, at G5 to 75 cents a pound for 
cocoons: and further, that to make the 
business pay still better, we must save labor 
as much as possible and plant none but large 
leaved varieties of the Morns Alba family. Fi- 
nally, that the only way to make of Cahfornia 
a silk-producing State, is to have farmers and 
everybody else so situated for doing it, to plant 
a few mulberry trees and raise silkworms on a 
small scale. At any rate it will take time to 
reach this end, and it is only by uniting our 
efforts that we shall be able to overcome obsta- 
cles and see our perseverance crowned with suc- 
cess. 

I do not believe that I am over-estimating 
the possibility of making silk culture prosper- 
ous in this State and as well settled an industry 
as any that we have already in our midst. 
Sooner or later, filatures will be established in 
California; till then, of course, silkgrowers 
cannot well expect to get rid of their cucoons; 
t)ut on the other hand they need'nt give it up, 
and had better wait patiently ; take good care 
of their trees, plant new varieties, keep on rais- 
ing silkworms at least for practice, and with 
the establishing of filatures iheir expectations 
may bo fully met. 

I will now give a few details on experiments 
made by mo last summer. As I have said in 
former letters, the two varieties of mulberry 
trees that I keep, and which I introduced my- 
self in this State, p.re two large-leaved varieties 
— the MorusJaponica and Grafted Rose-Leaved, 
Just to experiment, I fed one part of the worms 
with wild leaves, another part with half wild 
and half grafted (roso-leaved), and a third part 
with grafted leaves alone. The result was ex- 
actly the reverse of what it would have been in 
Europe, the finest, largest worms, and which 
were all of the same size, were those fed with 
the grafted leaves, next those fed with half 
grafted and half wild leaves, while those fed 
I only with wild leaves were very irregular in 



size and spun smaller and lighter cocoons. 
Otherwise they were all very healthy. I will 
certainly repeat the experiment and on a larger 
scale next year. My experiments would show 
any how that the grafted rose-leaved variety 
bears leaves which contain more nutriment 
tlian leaves from the wild varieties. In our 
dry soil and dry climate, it is probable that the 
wild leaves do not contain enough water to 
make of them a very substantial, although 
healthy food; while with the grafted rose- 
leaved, enough water is naturally contained in 
its thick leaves to constitute of it a food by ex- 
cellence for the worms. 

Before closing up this letter, I will add that 
I have just learned by two Italian gentlemen 
at San Francisco, and on their way back to 
Italy from Japan, with a load of silkworm 
eggs, that Japan will not be able this year to 
supply Europe with half the quantity of eggs 
netded there next spring. There would 
have been a good chance this winter for some 
of our silkgrowers to find a good market for 
their egi^s iu Europe where their supply will 
fall short of the demand. 

Nevada City, Dec. 27th, 1873. 

Winter Supply of Butter. 

EorroTts RtTBAi. Pkrss: — While many are ad- 
vocating a greater diversity of husbandry, peo- 
ple are slow to devise any other than the old, 
and often shiftless ways in trying new pursuits. 
Hence, people refuse to begin many new un- 
dertakings, that do.not appear to be remunera- 
tive. 

Last winter, car loads of fresh butter were 
brought from Massachusetts, and sold at very 
high prices in our city markets. Butter is 
constantly coming from the East, via the 
Isthmus, as well as from Oregon. Only last 
week, I notice the arrival of a ton of imitation 
butler to be sold in our little town. 

Butter can be made here — genuine fresh but- 
ter — from the cow's milk, at all seasons of the 
year and sold at remunerative prices, at a 
much lower figure than it now bears in the mar- 
ket, by a timely attention, first, to the time of 
the cows coming in; and secondly, by furnish- 
ing proper food in the dry season of the year. 

My own experience has been only with one 
cow, as my business is fruit-growing; but it 
will establish a rule. During the last twelve 
years, I have, as a rule, had a fresh milk "cow 
iate iu the fall; bave fed carrots and squashes 
freely iu addition to hay as well as the pastur- 
age, which I keep green by irrigation. 

It is surprising how small a spot will serve 
for the pasture — only a fractional part of an 
acre. I have a picket pin of iron, which I 
drive into the ground, and the cow is tied to 
it with a rope of suitable length. Having oc- 
casion to buy a new cow last June, I secured a 
young heifer, only two years old last March, of 
Alderney and Durham blood. She has now 
been milked nine months, and has kept up her 
flow of milk till the late storms set in; and my 
wife sells 2 ponuds of surplus butter a week. 

A trip East overland, a year ago, the latter 
part of last Nov., I saw at the Humboldt Sta- 
tion, (in a perfect desert-looking country, if 
there IS one on this route,) a plot of thrifty 
alfalfa in bloom, kept so from a reservoir and 
fountain. The water was brought from a moun- 
tain spring for station purposes and shows what 
may be done by means of irrigation. 

L A. W. 

Santa Clara. Jan. 3, 1874. 

If this kind and mode of feeding will pay, 
with one or two cows, would it not on a larger 
scale ? 



Scuppernong Grape. 

Eds. Pbess:— General Harrison, who is just 
here from New Orleans, tells me of a fruit 
quite extensively grown there, from which they 
manufacture perhaps, the choicest champagne; 
it is know there as the Skepernong or White 
Muscadine grape. My object in this, is to as- 
certain if such a vine is in any of your nur- 
series in or about San Francisco. I am 'anx- 
ious to get it. F. W. Gibson. 

El Monte, Los Angeles county, Jan. 1, 1874. 

The Scuppernong is a well known grape at 
the East, and donbtleas might prove an acqui- 
sition to our list of beat wine grapes, if it is 
not already here. We think we have seen 
and eaten the grape in California, but do not 
recolkct where. Perhaps some of our nursery- 
men who advertise with us, will give us light 
on the subject of the Scuppernong. 

Downing says: It is a very distinct Southern 
species, found growing wild from Virginia to 
Florida, and climbing the tops of the highest 
trees. It is easily known by the small size of 
its leaves, which are seldom over two or three 
inches in diameter, glossy and smooth on both 
the upper and under surfaces. It is found 
quite too tender for a northern climate, being 
killed to the ground by our winters. At the 
South it is a hard}-, productive and excellent 
wine grape. The White and Black Scupper- 
nong scarcely differ, except in the color of the 
fruit. 



GnEEN OB Dey FKKntNO. — A correspondent 
asks : In what manner can the most grazing be 
had from a field sowed with barley or other 
grain ? Whether to feed as it is growing, or 
the grain and straw when ripe ? 

If any of our readers ever made such exper- 
iment, we hope they will forward the result 
and their opinion to the Rubal. 



The Stock Starving Business. 

Editobb Rural Peess: — If I may judge from 
the reports in newspapers from all parts of the 
State, the losses of stock from starvation and 
cold have been unusually large this fall and 
winter, the stock men seeming to learn nothing 
from experience, but year after year continue 
to 

Trust fo Luck, 
Just as a large majority of the grain farmers 
do— but reprehensible as is the conduct of the 
latter, it is not half so bad as the utter want of 
judgment and foresight in the former. One 
trusts entirely to the rain to make and mature 
his crop; if it fails he has a diminished in- 
come, but still his family, and his animals do 
not lack for food ; but the other permits his 
stock to suffer and die, from his failure to pro- 
vide food, at a time when he must know, if he 
knows any thing, that they must, and will 
need it; in most cases this is simply caused by 
pure meanness, and if it was not for the suf- 
fering of the unfortunate animals, I, (or one, 
would rejoice at their loss. Men who will not 
take care of their stock deserve to lose. It is 
in the power of every stock man to provide 
food for his animals, against the time when he 
must know that food will be needed. In fact 
the time has come when the cattle and sheep 
raising business must be entirely reformed, the 
natural pastures are overstocked, and the feed 
even in a good grass year is consumed long 
before the advent of the rains, then the stub- 
bles form a temporary resource, but as plowing 
commences with the rains, they generally are 
obliged to subsist upon their fat like the bears 
during the time they are forced to wait for the 
growth of the new grass; if they are fat they 
may possibly worry through somehow, but if 
thin, as they generally are, then their sufferings 
soon end. It is no difficult or impossible 
thing to provide a stack of hay, or even 
threshed straw for such a contingency; the lat- 
ter costs nothing but hauling and stacking, for 
the farmers generally bum it to get rid of it, 
and would be glad if any one would haul it 
away and save them the trouble. 

This stock-starving business is a crime, and, 
as there is no law to punish it, the Granges 
should take measures to prevent it in future, by 
re'using to admit, or by expelling those who 
practice it. 

Alfalfa 
Is the great remedy for all this trouble, but 
here the difficulty occurs again; the miserable 
brute who ia too lazy, or too mean to provide 
hay or straw, is too lazy or too mean to secure 
suitable land, prepare and sow it with alfalfa. 
There is no hope either for these fellows or 
fur their unfortunate stock. The constantly in- 
crea.sing area of cultivated land and the natural 
increase of stock will soon settle this question. 
It is now 

Alfalfa or the Desert. 

Those who will not provide artificial pastures, 
or food, must move on before the advancing 
tide of cnltivatian. And this reminds me of 
Mr. Jewett'a admirable letter on alfalfa. Let 
the stockmen take heed to what he says; he 
gives them facts. With alfalfa, mesqnite and 
other cultivated grassseg ten times the stock 
can be kept, and well kept, and with double, 
treble, or quadruple the profit. There are in 
this State immense areas now available and 
suitable for the cultivation of these grasses, 
where there is abundance of waterfor irrigation. 
When these are occupied the completion of 
other irrigation works will have vastly increased 
the area. In fact, if our Legislature does its 
duty this winter, by passing a proper and suit- 
able irrigation law, the irrigable ares will likely 
increase faster than stock. But, unfortu- 
nately, so few men who know anything about 
irrigation get elected to the Legislature, that 
it is highly improbable any general law can be 
passed this session. This ia the most impor- 
tant measure that will come before that lK>dy, 
and a bill prepared in this county, where the 
subject ia better understood than in any other 
part of the State, will be presented, and is now 
iu the hands of the Los Angeles delegation, 
who will urge its passage, either as a general 
law for the whole State, or, if they think it 
impossible to pass one, as a special law for 
this county. Like the fence law, it may pos- 
sibly have to be tested on a small scale before 
being tried on a large. The only objection to 
this plan is the loss of two years. We know 
what we want, and, fortunately, onr delegation 
are a unit on this question. We are impatiently 
awaiting the passage of the bill, to enable 
us to go to work. It will add more than one 
million acres to the area of irrigable lands 
in this county, and provides an effectual rem- 
edy for extortion or favoritism on the part of 
monopolies, but otherwise presents no obstacle 
to the investment of private capital by com- 
panies. Wm. B. OtsaM. 

Anaheim, Dec. 30, 1874. 



Inquibt. — E»itobs Pbkss:— Some eighteen 
months ago I saw a notice, in a New York 
paper, of a French work on Uydroscojn/, the 
author's name not remembered. His theory 
was being successfully reduced to practice by 
his pupils. Do you or any of your readers 
know tne precise title of such a work? Please 
answer in your paper. 

John Hali., M. D. 

Riverside. 

Who will answer the above inquiry? 



January 17, 1874.] 



35 



^ 



Winter Feeding. 

Eds.KubaiPbess: The "Discontented Man" 
is here in our community also. Before the 
snow, Dec. 3d, many of our farmers wore long 
visages, for they saw all the signs of another 
year of drouth. With the snow, and the rain 
that followed, their countenances improved to 
a, smile of content. Dec. 29th, "everybody 
and hisboys," were going to begin plowing in 
earnest, by way of a good ready. The doubt- 
ful plow and the unwilling horse were_tested^a 
little on the Saturday previous. 

Monday came; rain all day. Tuesday, rain. 
Wednesday, rain in the forenoon. Then 
cleared off. Thursday and the New Year, rain 
all day, and now "is the winter of our discon- 
tent;" cows^standing about, spine arched— like 
a swine that has declared war. Barns getting 
empty. One ^farmer has turned his plow-team 
out on pasture for lack of hay. The Ark-en- 
saw traveler found a man whose house never 
leaked a drop in dry weather, and when it 
rained there was no time to fix it. So with 
our farmer about feed. Now the straw is all 
destroyed. He was not very busy when tons 
of straw could have been had for the;hauling. 
I have not fed any hay this season to my gang- 
plow team — five animals — and they have been 
thriving all winter at a cost of nine icents per 
day each. I stacked barley straw, covered it, 
laid in shorts, and use a straw cutter, and nine 
cts. per day (.keeps my team so saucy that I 
have to give them an extra corral for daily ex- 
ercise. Neighbors : Straw pays me better than 
hay. Geo. K. Miller. 

Hog Disease, Perhaps. 

Editors Press: — While helping Mr. Bo wen, 
of Tule river, dress hogs to-day, we found the 
small intestines covered with globular masses, 
filled with air, and upon pressure would 
burst like a bladder and having the same 
appearance. The air bladders were from the 
size of a grain of wheat to the size of a small 
marble, and impregnated with blood; between 
the air bladders were layers of fat apparently 
in a healthy condition, the intestines being of a 
dark hue, and in an apparently unhealthy- 
state. The hog fatted as well as three others in 
the same pen, weighed when dressed 320 fts. 
Now, can you or any readers of the Press, tell 
us the cause of the intestines being in such a 
condition. Let us hear from the medical fac- 
ulty on the subject; they, perhaps, as well as 
others might be profited by investigating the 
matter. Butcher. 

Piano, Jan. 7th, 1874. 



ISCELL4^iH< 



Potato Crop of 1873. 

A correspondent, B. W. C. P., writing from 
Table Bluff, Humboldt county, says: 

I would like some one to tell us why pota- 
toes are not doing better than they are. Last 
year there was not one surplus potato, and this 
year the crop is short all over the State; this 
county alone is over seventy-five thousand 
sacks short, and though Oregon shipped a 
great many to San Francisco last year, this 
year the demand at home will not justify them 
in shipping any, even at two cents per pound. 
I think there must be a screw loose somewhere. 

In all countries and climes in which the po- 
tato is grown, there seems to be occasional 
periods of two, three or more years in which 
there is not the usual yield, though no disease 
appears to cause the diminution. It is yet to 
be determined whether it is owing to climatic 
influence or other cause. 



Apparatus for Dbtino Grain. — M. Coignet 
has recently devised an apparatus for the pur- 
pose of drying grain and other substances at a 
cheap rate, and without destroying the germi- 
nating power of the seeds at the same time. 
For this purpose the articles to be dried are 
placed upon perforated stages, and traversed 
by a current of air from above, downward, 
heated to the proper temperature, from 104O 
to 1220 Fahrenheit, which he finds best to suit 
his purpose. A still higher temperature , name- 
ly, from 300O,to 310O, applied in the same ap- 
paratus, enables him to dry certain animal 
matters, intended as manures, without causing 
the loss of their nitrogenous material ; but as 
such a temperature of dry air would be apt to 
cause combustion, he replaces this by super- 
heated steam. In this way he has succeeded 
in preparing twenty cubic metres per day, and 
he is of the opinion that in this way we can 
best make use of animals which, in certain 
countries as Buenos Ayres, Australia, &c., are 
killed for their hides and tallow, and the de- 
composition of which in great quantities is so 
liable to produce pestilence. 

Increase in Population.— It is estimated 
that during the past year, the population of 
California has been increased upwards of 25,- 
000 by means of immigration alone. Placing 
the additions by birth at 15,000, which is a lafe 
estimate, as the proportion of births over 
deaths is very large, California being consid 
ered the healthiest Slate in the Union, and we 
have a total increase of 40,000 for the year. 
If this rate of increase continues, by the "time 
another year shall have rolled around, we will 
have a popitlation of over one million. 



Type-Setting Machines. 

The question is very often asked by pub- 
lishers, with a strong emphasis on the first 
word, "Is there a type-setting machine which 
will economise the labor of the printing office, 
or save us from some of the inconveniences 
attendant upon the illness, incompetency, or, 
as sometimes happens, the natural perversity 
of type-setters?" We must say that, for our 
part, we would rather deal with the crooked- 
ness of the compositor. No type-setter has 
yet been invented equal to Nature's own com- 
positor, and none will yet be invented equal to 
it until the principle upon which inventors 
proceed in working out the problem is radically 
changed. We are shown Kastenbeiu's machine, 
in the office of the Christian Union, and are 
told it "works admirably;" but we see one man 
with a pick and another with pincers, helping 
along the man who plays the machine, while 
another corrects and takes up the type, and 
yet another opens the apparatus and shakes up 
the "supply tubes" or forces open a gate. We 
find that the distributor does not work with 
half the rapidity, and is still more complicated. 
Yet we are told that "the London Times uses 
six of them." That should settle the matter, 
only it does not; and we feel that even if the 
London Times used fifty of the machines it 
would make them no better than they are. 

The truth is that no machine within the 
means of the printer has yet been invented 
which will do the necessary work. No such 
machine can or will be invented, as we have 
said, until the principle adopted is radically 
changed. 

Delcambre's Type-setting Machines differ 
but slightly from those above referred to. 
These are the only machines we know of in 
regular use in New York newspaper offices, yet 
we think that no one could observe the trouble 
they give, and their rather meager results, and 
believe that machine type-setting had become a 
fact. The capacity claimed fur the setting ma- 
chine is but 3,000 or 3,500 an hour. Deduct 
from that the fact that you must have a still 
more complicated distributor of half the capac- 
ity; that these machines are delicate, valuable, 
hard to sell, and requiring special operators, 
and the fact that "the London Times uses six 
like them," is but a meager recommendation. 

As in this brief notice, in reply to many ques- 
tions, we are confining ourselves solely to those 
machines which are most in use or seem likely 
to be, we will next consider the Westcott Type- 
setter. This is in many respects an important 
machine. In the first place it does away with 
a distributor, at best a rather absurd part of a 
type-setter, for it is hard to expect a machine 
built to set type, to be able to undo its work to 
advantage; it is a cheaper machine, less likely 
than some others to get out of order, and con- 
tains more real power for usefulness within it- 
self than any other. It is not likely that it is 
the last result that inventors will yet arrive at, 
but it certainly has high claims. It consists of 
a compact iron semi-cyliniler, containing ma- 
trices moved with keys. These matrices travel 
to a reservoir of melted type composition; the 
type is made, passed through its gauges and 
cutters and moved to its proper place finished 
and cold, more quickly than it could be taken 
from a box. 

We have seen this machine work, and find it 
lo be one of the most ingenious, as it is cer- 
tainly one of the most interesting machines we 
have ever seen. It is called, after its inventor, 
"The Westscott Type-Setting Machine," but it 
must occur to any thoughtful printer that type 
making is a very nice operation; that the in- 
spector in a foundry must be constantly at 
work with his glass and his gauges to discover 
the smallest changes and difierences; that type 
made as described must be subject to flaws, as 
indeed are all type; that the cutters and gauges 
must eventually wear out, etc., etc. Yet prac- 
tice will soon tell us about these things, and it 
is possible that experience will remedy them. 
If BO, the occupation of the type-founder, except 
for fancy type, is modified. Meanwhile we 
are told that the Harpers have ordered so many, 
and others so many, etc., facts which say little 
in favor of the machines, but show that they 
will be so well tried that printers will know 
soon enough whether they can use them to ad- 
vantage or not. The machine is apparently 
not very fast, but it must be borne in mind 
that there is no distribution to be done. 

Lastly, we must say a word for Orrin 
Brown's machine, which is, we learn, working 
to advantage at the present time in Boston. 
It is on book-work, however, and this is an im- 
portant fact. It is probable indeed that the 
first available type-setters will be used for this 
purpose. 

If any questions are answered in the above, 
the whole object of the article is gained, and 
we may say that few printers need trouble 
themselves for some time to come about any 
advantage they hope to derive from type-set- 
ting machines, especially if wanted for small 
offices. — Newspaper Reporter. 

New Cab Starter. — Amos Whittemore, of 
Cambridgeport, Mass., has obtained a patent 
for a device whereby the momentum of the car 
is made to lift one end of the car in stopping, 
and the weight so raised is made so to act as to 
help the car forward la starting. 



Recent Experiments With Diamonds. 

Diamonds are rather costly objects to sub- 
ject to destructive experiments on an extended 
scale, and not many investigators have been 
favored with the privilege of doing it. Thanks, 
however, to the liberality of the proprietor of 
a large diamond-cutting establishment in Am- 
sterdam, a certain M. von Baumhauerhas been 
permitted to make numerotis studies of the be- 
havior of these interesting gems when subjected 
to high temperature under various conditions, 
thus adding largely to our knowledge of the 
diamond's nature and properties. 

The combustibility of the diamond in oxygen 
was demonstrated long ago; what the pure heat 
upon it has remained a matter of doubt. Some 
experiments seemed to show that at extremely 
high temperatures the diamond is slowly con- 
verted into coke or graphite, an effect observed 
especially when the gem is subjected to the 
energetic action of a powerful galvanic battery. 
In certain experiments, in which Moren and 
Schrotter raised diamonds to the highest heat 
of a porcelain furnace, care being taken to pre- 
vent contact with air, a slight discoloration of 
the surface was observed, whether due to heat 
or imperfect protection against oxygen could 
not be decided positively. Inclosed is a bit of 
hard coke, and placed in a plumbago crucible 
packed with charcoal powder, diamonds oper- 
ated on by Siemens and Eose withstood, with- 
out the least change, the temperature at which 
cast iron melts. A cut diamond, under similar 
conditions, subjected to the heat of molten 
wrought iron for a considerable period of time, 
was superficially blackened, but otherwise un- 
affected. By some this experiment has been 
interpreted as implying the slow conversion of 
the diamond to graphite at the temperature at 
which wrought iron melts. It is possible, on 
the other hand, that the change was due to air 
in the crucible; indeed probable, in view of the 
experiments more recently made by M. von 
Baumhauer. 

By an ingenious device, the last named ex- 
perimenter was able to subject diamonds, sur- 
rounded by an atmosphere of dry hydrogen, to 
a temperature at which both diamond and 
platinum holder become invisible; but with un- 
colored diamonds, their transparency and bril- 
liancy were not in the least affected. Heated 
in contact with air, diamonds were not only 
blackened, but reduced in weight, showing 
positive combustion. In oxygen they burned 
with a vivid incandescence at a temperature 
below white heat. In a crucible which allowed 
the combustion to be observed through a sheet 
of mica, the burning diamond was seen to be 
surrounded by a white flame, less bright with- 
out and tinged with violet on the outer edge. 
Pure diamonds burned tranquilly, retaining 
their sharp edges even when so reduced as to 
be visible with difficulty. Impure specimens 
snapped and flew. 

Burned in an oxhydrogen flame, capable of 
melting platinum, diamonds emitted a bril- 
liant light and wasted rapidly, but did not 
blacken. Heated to a high temperature in an 
atmosphere of carbonic acid, they were slowly 
consumed, decomposing the carbonic acid, and 
combining with its oxygen with loss of weight. 
Similarly treated in superheated steam, no ef- 
fect was produced, showing that at white heat 
the diamond does not decompose water, as 
might be expected from its affinity for oxygen. 
In regard to the supposed transformation of 
the diamond into coke or graphite by means 
of pure heat, especially by that of a battery of 
100 Bunsen elements, M. von Baumhauer is 
very doubtful. It should not be admitted, he 
holds, until the effects observed are proved to 
be not the result of chemical action, produced 
by foreign matter, o. by the transformation of 
particles of carbon from the charcoal poles to 
the surface of the diamond. 

The eff'ect of heat on colored diamonds is 
more pronounced, with the exception, perhaps, 
of gray and yellow gems, which appear to re- 
sist such action, the same as the colorless ones. 
Green diamonds are variously affected. One 
of a dirty green tint was changed to pale yel- 
low, with a slight increase of its transparency; 
but its brightness remained the same. Another, 
so green as to be almost black, likewise re- 
tained its brilliancy, but gained in clearness, 
while its color was changed to violet. A light 
green gem lost its color entirely, but was other- 
wise unaffected. Brown diamonds lost most 
of their color, showing under the microscope a 
limpid fielil scattered with black spots. A dia- 
mond almost colorless assumed, unde: the in- 
fluence of heat (out of contact with air), a 
deep rose color, which it retained some time 
when kept in the dark. In the light its color 
faded, but always returned again with heating. 
A naturally rose colored diamond reversed the 
phenomena, losing its hue with heating, and 
afterwards gradually regaining it. — Scientific 
American. 

On the Preparation of Chloral Hydrate. 
— This article is made by pressing chlorine 
gas into alcohol of about 96 degrees, for about 
12 to 14 days, until it attains a gravity of 41" 
B. The product is then purified by mixture 
with an equal volume of sulphuric acid and 
distilling, a large amount of hydrochloric acid 
being thus driven off. The ohloral is then it- 
self distilled off, the product is again rectified 
by distillation, water is added to the distillate 
and it is set aside to crystallize. As by- 
product, ethylene and ethylidine chloride are 
produced, which are purified by fractional dis- 
tillation, and also used as anajsthetics. — 
Druggists' Circxdar, 



Frame Buildings. 

We in America, if we would secure ourselves 
from the repetition of wide and overwhelming 
conflagrations, must be governed by Old World 
examples, and abandon that extensive use of 
timber which has characterized American 
structures of all kinds. Whole cities of frame 
buildings are altogether too unsafe to be tolera- 
ted. Planks are entirely too perishable, too 
frail, too combustible, for houses; and their use, 
excepting for flooring or interior trimming, 
ought to be prohibited. Many of our towns of 
large size are composed entirely of frame build- 
ings; fires of frightful extent continually occur 
in them, and they rest ceaselessly under the 
danger of total extermination. 

It is surprising how largely timber is used in 
our architecture. Sometimes handsome and 
costly churches erect on their stone towers 
spires of timber. Brick and stone buildings 
have often wooden cornices, and a more effect- 
ive device than this for encouraging the pro- 
gress of a conflagration could hardly be con- 
ceived. In large cities like New York the 
erection of frame buildings is prohibited, and 
it has become a question whether a similar re- 
striction should not extend to all congregations 
of buildings, however small. It has become a 
fashion in this country to admire frame build- 
ings. Large, and even pretentious villas, in 
suburban places, are, by choice, constructed 
like big tinder-boxes, the perishable and the 
frail seeming to be preferred to the substantial 
and the lasting. The houses that are erected 
in such numbers in the villages and towns out- 
lying our great cities are built as if on purpose 
to supply, at some day, the material for a tre- 
mendous bonfire. A single match might ignite 
them. In no other country are the" rates of in- 
surance so heavy as in ours, in none others is 
the insurance business so extensive, and in 
none others is it rendered so precarious in con- 
sequence ef extensive conflagrations. We 
burn up in every decade enough property to 
enrich half the population. We spare no ex- 
pense in ornamenting and beautifying our 
structures, and yet seem to grudge the cost of 
rendering them stable and secure. What is 
needed in order to prevent disastrous confla- 
grations is far lees of ornamental trickery and 
very much more of substantial strength in the 
buildings than now mark any of our frail and 
dangerous commercial centers. — Am. Builder. 

Peofessge Agassiz.- — The doctors are puzzled 
to account for the symptoms of the disease by 
which Agassiz lest his life, and a careful 
autopsy has been made. The brain and all 
the vital organs, especially the heart, were 
examined with great care. The stomach and 
liver were free from disease; but in the heart 
were found evidences of the trouble with which 
the Professor suffered a few years ago. Special 
attention was paid to the brain, which was 
found to be very large and heavy, though its 
exact weight has not yet been dete'-mined. 
Careful examination was made of the base of 
the brain, and to insure success in this, it will 
be necessary to allow it time to harden. 

Steam to Australia. — J. 0. Merrill & Co., 
agents for the Australasian and American 
Steamship Company, report that the steamer 
MacOregor will arrive in San Francisco on or 
about the 19th proximo, and sail on Tuesday, 
the 27th. Clyde-built steamers specially ad- 
apted to this line have been built, and will 
therefore be dispatched on schedule time every 
twenty-eight days. Annexed are the rates of 
fare from San Francisco : To Honolulu, first- 
class, second-class and steerage, $75, $50, and 
$40, respectively. To Fiji Islands, $150, $125 
and $90. To Auckland, $1G0, $135 and $90, 
To Sydney, $200, $150 and $100, To Mel- 
bourne, $2 20, $160 and $110. 

Watch Spring ,— Hair-springs, says a writer 
in the Victoria Magazine, are made in the fac- 
tory, of finest Eugli-sh steel, which comes upon 
spools like thread. To the naked eye it is as 
round as a hair, but under the microscope it 
becomes a flat, steel ribbon. This ribbon is 
inserted between the jiws of a fine gauge, and 
the di.il-hand shows its diameter to be two 
twenty-five hundredths of an inch. A hair 
plucked from a man's head measures three 
twenty-five hundredths— one from the head of 
a little girl at a neighborint? bench — two 
twenty-five hundredths. Actually, however, 
the finest hair is twice as thick as the steel 
ribbon, for the hair compresses one-half be- 
tween the metallic jaws of the gauge. A hair- 
spring weighs one-fifteonth-thousandth of a 
pound tr oy. In straight line it is a f oot long. 

The SPKCTuoGiiArH.— The name is given to a 
simple little device for copying drawings, ex- 
hibited in the French department of the Vienna 
Exposition, It consists of a board, near the 
middle of which is a piece of window-glass 
fastened at right angles to it by means of two 
grooved wooden uprights. When placed near 
a window, with a drawing or copy on the end 
of the board nearer the window, its reflection 
in the glass causes it to appear upon a sheet 
of white on the opposide side of the glass. 
In this way quite an accurate tracing can be 
made by one who is no draftsman. 

Cement for Pipes, etc.— J. Spillar recom- 
mends a mixture of pulverized iron borings, 
kaolin, and sirupy siUcate of soda as a lute 
for fixing on the heads of stills which are re- 
quired to stand a high temperature. We 
should judge the same might be found useful 
in other situations, such as the joints of cast 
iron furnaces, for instance, 



36 



W&©WM 



[January 17, 1874. 



The California State Qrang:e Headanarters 

are at room 9, No. »'J0 Calitoruift street, S. F. General 
StiteAgeiit: I. <i. OAnnxER, (MLiub«r oJ the Execu- 
tive Committee). State Secretary: W. H. Baxtbr. 



List of New Granges. 

[Reported to the Pxririr Rl-bai. Press since our polili- 
cation of the full list of i-alii'oriiia Grange:* on the first 
Satorday of the montb. ) 

FBESXO COUNTY. 

ADAMS fiRAN'iJE. Big Dry Creek. Fresno Co.: T. P. 

Nelsos. Miisier; Thos. H. Wtatt. Soo'y. 
BQKDEN ORANiiK. Borden, Fresno Co.: J W. A. 

WBIQHT, Master: J. S. Pickens. Secy. 

KKRN COUNTY. 

BAKERSFIELD f;R*N(JE. Baker~fleld. Kern Co.: S. 

Jewett. Mant'T; .lF,ii«^ME Troy. Secret.ary. 
NKW RIVKR (iRANGK. P. O. Bakenifield. Kern Co.: 

John G. Dawes. M leter; Jas. Dixon, Secretary. 
PANAMA uRa.NGE. p. O. Baker«flelil. Kern Oo.:P. D. 

Ross, Master: J. F. Gordon, Secretary. 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 

• FRANKI.IN GRANGE. Gforectfwn. Sacramento Co.: 
Amos Adaus. Master: P. K. Beaklet, Secy. 

SAN JOAQriN COUNTY. 

LOCKEFORD GRANGE. Lockeforcl, San Joaquin Co.: 
(I.e. UoufAN, Master; Sol, S. Stewart, Secy. 

TULARE COUNTY. 

OHEXSTMAS GRANGE. Visalin, Tulare Co,: Wli.Er 
Watson, Matter; H. a. Hiobie, Secretary. 

YUBA COUNTY. 

MARYSVILLE GRANtiE. MarvsviUe. Vaba Co.: C. G. 
BocKiTTs, Master; Jas. M. ttrTs. Sec'y. 



The Grange and its Harvest Feasts. 

The concluding ceremony connected with (he 
conferring of the 4th degree,— the Harvest 
Feaot — is becoming decidedly popular and in- 
teresting, and every new Grange looks forward 
■with much interest to the time when it can 
celebrate it for the first time. And indeed the 
feast loses none of its interest even when 
reached for the third, fourth, or even a much 
greater number of times. The Harvest Feast 
is always a welcome occasion; not alone for 
the "fat things" and nature's many gifts, which 
come fresh and fiiir from the very home of the 
producer, but also from the genuine "feast of 
reason anl flow of soul" which always accom- 
panies them. 

It is desirable that due attention shonld al- 
ways be paid to making these occasions profit- 
able, for intellectual culture and improvement. 
In addition to the vsiluable information which 
may be communicated at such times by the 
older or more experienced members, capable 
of giving real instrnction, special efforts should 
also be made by the presiding Masters to draw 
out the younger members. Let them be en- 
couraged to say something, be it ever so little, 
as an exercise for intellectual improvement, if 
for no other purpose. Many can better speak 
thus, at a table, when everybody is free and 
easy, than in a formal meeting of the Grange, 
■where there is so much parliamentary or set 
show of persons and places. It should be re- 
membered that the Grange is the school where 
the farmer, and the farmer's son and daughter 
is to learn to do his or her own business, and 
his or her own talking. It is to take the place 
of the debating club, connected with the school 
or the village, where the young student or me- 
chanic has in times past laid the foundation of 
his future fame as a speaker. Debating clubs 
have heretofore been almost inaccessible to farm- 
ers from their isolation apart from populous 
communities and advanced schools. The 
Grange, however, is now a debating club of the 
farmer's own making, brought right to his very 
door. We have already got over ten thousand 
of them in full blast all over the land! If we 
don't hoar of them, bye and bye, giving the 
first impetus to some young orator who will 
eventually be heard and honored on the floors 
of some of our State Legislatures, or in the halls 
of Congress, yon may set ns down as a poor 
prophet. 

The farmers are going to be heard in such 
places soon, in their own proper persons and 
not by lawyer proxies; and the Grange is just 
the place for such young men to first show 
their aptitudes; or where they may acqaire 
studious habits and aspirations for public life. 
And we believe, too, that the Grange will send 
out better men— men of far better principles 
than a large majority of those who have gone 
out from either our academies, our workshops, 
our counting rooms, or our law schools. The 
Granges have undertaken a work of reform; 
they have started at the bed rock, and they pro- 
pose to make thorough work of it, in every de- 
)iartmentof business, education, and legislation. 
Those who don't belieTe this, will either live 
to see its accomplishments or die soon . 



One Hundred and Fifty Granges. 

We have now one hundred and fifty Granges 
organized and in full operation in California— 
a goodly number to count up in about eight 
months, in a State so sparsely settled as this, 
and still the work of organization is going on, 
if anything, more rapidly than ever. Granges 
have now been organized in nearly every farm- 
ing county in the state, and we shall not be 
surprised if by the next annual meeting in Oc- 
tober, that number should be fully doubled. 
In the mean time the membership is every- 
where increasing. la the spring the work will 
grow more rapidly than ever, as that is a season 
of comparative rest for California farmers, 
while their crops are maturing. The seed is 
sown — the leaven is working and we are al- 
ready reaping most satisfactory results. 

We hope soon to see the good work extend- 
ing into our mountain counties, wherever suf- 
ficient farming centers exist to form a nucleus 
for such organizations. We have have seen it 
stited that miners are being received into the 
Order in some of the mining regions in the 
east, but we think the policy a bad one, espe- 
cially since another and a sister organization 
is soon to be introduced here, to which miners 
and mechanics, and all other producers will 
have free access — the two org miz itious being 
based upon the same principles and managed 
in the same manner, will be almost identical 
in interest. United they will be a power in- 
deed, and if their work is restrained within 
bound-!, as we doubt not it will be, great good, 
and n iu:;ht but good will come of them to all 
parts of our common country. 



Speciai, Notick. — Patrons should bear in 
mind that one of the chief conditions on which 
the Grange Agency in this city is able to pur- 
chase for them at such low rates, is a strict ob- 
servance of the pledges given that all such 
transactions, prices, names of firms with whom 
the business is done, etc., shall be kept strictly 
secret. Serious trouble has arisen in several 
instanbes on account of the thoughtless impru- 
dence of members who have divulged the 
names of firms, amount of prices, etc. Patrons 
should remember that business men, as well as 
Granges, must have secrets which it is right 
and proper should be kept inviolate. A word 
to the wise, etc. 



Chanoe op Porchasino Aoe>jt. — We regret 
to State that Bro. G.P. Kellogg, our late eflicient 
purchasing agent, has been compelled, from 
private reasons of his own, to resign his posi- 
tion as State Agent. AVhile the Order will re- 
gret to part with so able and efiicient an agent. 
Patrons may rejoice that tne choice of the 
Executive Committee has fallen up )n so worthy 
a successor ns Bro. I. G. Gardiner, who has 
already had considerable experience in that 
office, in connection with Bro. Kellogg. From 
this date all communications to the State 
Purcha.sing Agency should be addressed tn I. 
G. Gardiner, 320 California street — Room 9, as 
heretofore. 

Granob Pcbchasino Agkncv. — We would 
suggest that Patrons should more generally 
avail themselves of the benefits of the Grange 
Purchasing Agency, in this city, in obtaining 
agricultural implements .and general house- 
hold supplies. A great saving may be made by 
so doing. All information in relation to the 
Agency and the means by which advantages 
may be derived therefrom, may be obtained by 
Patrons on application to the Masters of their 
several Granges. This system gives Patrons 
everywhere about all the ibenefits which are 
usually derivable from well managed co-opera- 
tive stores, and that without the employment 
of any local capital. 

CiRCULAB OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. — 

Particular attention is called to the circular 
of the Evecutive Committee, dated Jan. 10th. 
This circular has already been forwarded to the 
several subordinate Granges, in each of which 
it should be read at the first meeting held after 
its reception. But as many patrons are often 
absent at every meeting, it would be well for 
each individual to see to it, that he becomes 
personally cognisant of the circular of Jan. 
10th. Those who were not present at its read- 
ing can have the opportunity of learning its 
contents by applying to the Master of the 
Grange to which they may belong. 

Fbuit AoKNcr. — In answer to numerous en- 
quiries we would say that the Executive Com- 
mittee are maturing arrangements for the es- 
tablishment of a Grange Agency in this city 
for the sale of fruits. It will come in due time, 
and, it is hoped, in season for all but the very 
e.irliest fruit which may come in the present 
season. Due notice will be given in these 
columns, of the establishment of this Agency. 

Eden Gkanoe, — This Grange, at Haywoods, 
meets at 1 o'clock, Saturday, January 17th, 
for public installation of officers. 



From the Granges. 

Snelling Gkanqe. — W. Lee Hamlin, Secre- 
tary, writes under date of Jan. 12: I send to-day 
ten names for your welcome paper the Pacific 
RuRAT,, some old and some new subscribers, 
all Patrons of Husbandry. Suolling Grange, 
No. 105, was organized, Oct. 23d, 1873, by 
Bro. H. B. Jolley, of Merced, and member of 
State Executive Committee, with thirteen char- 
ter members. We have been increasing in 
members gradually, until we, on January lOih, 
at our last meeting numbered 35 names on our 
roll book, and "still they come," at the rate of 
from 12 to 15 per month, with their applica- 
tions. At our last meeting, our Grange adop- 
ted the constitution and by-laws recommended 
by State Grange, with one slight amendment, 
of Sec. 4, Article 5; inserting the word rtOiined 
in place of ref undcAl. I cannot afford, to close 
this item of news, without some reference to 
our Instalation, or the good time following it; 
and I know of no, better way, of describing it, 
than by quoting the closing portion of Secre- 
tary's report. "After the conclnsiou of the 
installation ceremonies, the members of our 
Orange, brothers and sisters of neighboring 
Granges, together with several spectators, re- 
pared to the hotel of our genial and most 
Worthy Lecturer, where a bounteous table 
awaited them. About 50 persons were seated 
around the joyous board, and the memory of 
that sumptuous feast, seasoned with the nerve 
iuvigoraliog wine, manufactured and concen- 
trated, by our Worthy Steward, will ever be 
cheri.shed as one of the most genial and social 
gatherings of our time. At the conclusion of 
said feast, the members of Snelling Grange re- 
turned to the Ilall, where after a few remarks, 
and some skirmishing, and vote of thanks to 
Committee on feast, adjourned to meet on 
Saturday, Jan. 10th, 1874. 

Davibville Granoe. — Editobs Pbbss: — I 
often notice in your paper that Yolo county is 
omitted in your notes, and as I know that if we 
are last we are not least, I will give you a few 
items of what is going on our lively burg of 
Davisville. You are aware that Davisville 
Grange was organized, September 23d, 1873, 
and that it is consequently quite young as yet. 
It was started with only 15 charter members, 
but we now number 40, with 12 applicants to 
be initiated at our next meeting. By spring 
we expect that every farmer in this part of the 
county will belong to it, and the prospects are 
that in a few months more we shall have a 
strong and active Grange, At our annual 
election, all the original officers, with but two 
or three exceptions, were re-elected for the en- 
suing year. Chas. E. Green was re-elected 
Master, and John Krimmer, Sec'y. 

The prospects for a crop in this neighbor- 
hood are good. All grain sowed before the 
rain looks very encouraging, and if the rains 
hold off for one month to give the farmers a 
chance to put in their crops, I believe Yolo 
will raise more wheat this year than she has 
ever before. When the ground is all seeded I 
will write you again. Yours fraternally, 
John Krimmer, Sec'y. 

Cambria Gr.anob. — May E. Ivens, Ceres of 
this Grange, writes that the birthday of the 
Order was duly celebrated by a feast in the 
afternoon, and a Terpsichorean entertainment 
in the evening. Onr correspondent speaks in 
glowing terms of the latter, and adds:— "Our 
Grange can produce more wide-a-wake mem- 
bers, and if we don't succeed in all undertakings, 
it will not be for lack of trying with all oar 
might. We hope to enlarge onr subscriptiouB 
to the Rubat., and would not do without it for 
twice the price asked. All Patrons should sup 
port it willingly and thereby add largely to its 
usefulness. A list of the officers of the Grange 
for the ensuing year accompanied the above, 
which will be found in its a;ipropriate place. 

Plaza Granob, located in Olimpo, Colusa 
county, is in a prosperous condition. Quite a 
number of new members have already been 
added, and several applications were before the 
Grange at the opening of the year. The bad 
weather during the month of December was a 
great draw back to the attendance; there having 
been about 18 inches of snow on the ground 
there at one time. 

Calistooa Grange, is progressing finely. 
All the members seem to take a deep interest 
in the cause, and are generally prompt and 
regular in attendance. The first accessions 
were made on the 27th ult., at which time 
eight persons took the first degree. There are 
several applications for membership. This, 
it will bo recollected is one of the recently or- 
ganized Granges; but it will soon give a good 
account of itself. 

Sonoma Gbanoe. — Alfred V. Lamottc, Seo'y., 
writes: — Our Grange has taken quite a lively 
start of late, and if applications for membership 
continue to come in as rapidly as they are do- 
ing at present, we shall nave our hands full 
with our initiations and advancements, and 
but little time for other business for some time 
to come. Please accept onr thanks for many 
attentions, in the way of papers and forms of 
B^-Laws, etc. 

"Santa Clara Obanor enjoyed its second 
Harvest Feast on the 27 ult., when the 4th de- 
gree was conferred on 16 new members. 



Cache Creek Gbanoe.— The officers elect of 
this Grange, for the ensuing year, were installed 
by Bro. Wm. Sims, Master of Buckeye Grange, 
on Jan, 3d. After the installation the Fourth 
Degree was conferred on eleven Brothers and 
seven Sisters. By invitation. Buckeye and 
Capay Granges were with us. Our spacious 
hall was filled, and onr Harvest Feast was a 
decided success. The utmost good feeling pre- 
vailed and all went home happy. 

There has been no plowing yet in this 
county. The rains have been so continuous 
since they began that the ground has not been 
dry enough to plow. The ground is thorough- 
ly wet, and all feel confident of a crop. Sum- 
mer fallow and volunteer grain is up and looks 
well. At the meeting of January 3d, the fol- 
lowing resolution was unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That each member be requested to 
report to this Grange at the first meeting in 
February. March and April, the number of 
acres each of wheat and barley they have sown, 
and what the promised yield is, and that onr 
delegates to the C. C. be requested to have 
steps taken at their next meeting to ascertain 
the amount of grain sown in the county. 

Is not this a move in the right direction ? 
Should we not, now that good crops nre a cer- 
tainty, begin to let the ship owners of the 
world know that we will have a large amount 
of freight to move ? And how can we commu- 
nicate this information better than for each 
Subordinate Grange to report either to the C. 
C, or direct to the Executive Committee of the 
State Grange, the number of acres and proba- 
ble yield, and let it be published to the world 
when all may know. It will also be an advan- 
tage to the members to know something near 
the amount of grain produced. 

Yours fraternally, L. D. Stephens, Sec. 

Cache Creek, Cal., Jan. 6th, 1874. 

Pajabo Gbanoe. — A correspondent of the 
Granger, under date of Jan. 2, speaking of this 
Grange, located at Watson ville, says: "The in- 
clemency of the weather has prevented our 
Grange from holding' its usual meetings. At 
our last meeting the fourth degree was con- 
ferred on eight members, and a bountiful har- 
vest feast was prepared by our sisters. We 
have several applications for membership to 
act on as soon as we commence work again. 
We are working slowly but snrely, and harmo- 
niously. The only obstacle is a hall to meet 
in, which we will no doubt remedy next spring 
by building one. 

The storm has somewhat retarded the far- 
mers from further plowing or seeding, although 
the farmers on the hills can commence plowing 
agaiu with two or three drys of dry weather. 

Before this year expires may the foundation 
of the Patrons of Husbandry be solid and sub- 
stantial. May onr enemies be subdued and 
conquered, and the farmer of our golden land 
proclaim freedom and liberty. 

AzusA Gbanoe. — At the last meeting of the 
Azuea Grange, Ko. 74, Los Angeles Co., Cal., 
held at the Azusa school house, on Thursday, 
first day of January, 1874, the Fourth degree 
was conferred on two members, at which time 
a bountiful Harvest Feast was spread by the 
ladies of the Order, which was heartily enjoyed 
by all. Several of the brothers and sisters of 
Alliance Grange were in attendance. After all 
had enjoyed the good things to their heart's 
content, each and all returned to their respec- 
tive homes, and met agaiu at early candle light 
and further enjoyed themselves in a social 
dance. We are in comparatively a new and 
thinly settled portion of the county, and con- 
sequently our Grange is growing slowly, but 
surely. This was our second Harvest Feast. 
Yours truly, J. C. Pbeston, Sec. 

Rustic Grange.— J. A. Shepherd, Master of 
Rustic Grange, in sending us the result of the 
election of officers, adds as follows:— This 
Grange was organized in October last with 28 
charter members. It now numbers aboat 60, 
all good material, and the Grange is getting 
along finely. We had an interesting celebra- 
tion on the Anniversary day of the Order, Dec. 
4th. Our officers were installed on the 3d of 
Jan. by J. W. A. Wright, State Lecturer, who 
gave an interesting and instructive address on 
the occasion. He spoke to the point and evi- 
dently meant business. After the completion 
of the ceremony the company was treated to a 
fine collation by the lady members, who] are 
laboring with earnestness to help along {the 
good work. 

YouNTviLLE Gbanob. — A. P. A. Trow writes: 
As Grangers we are moving slowly but surely, 
for our task is a hard one in this connty. Bro. 
Wright has kindly consented to preside at a 
public installation of officers, at a joint meeting 
of Napa and Yountville Granges and favor ns 
with one of his instructive lectures, at Grigs- 
bey's Hall, in Napa City, January 17th, at 1 
o'clock p. m. Also the same day at 9 o'clock, 
the Committee selected by the various Granges 
of this county, meet to organize a County 
Council. 

Dknvebton Gbanoe.— Secretary Arnold, of 
this Grange, in communicating the result of 
the annual election, assures us that the Orange 
is working admirably and steadily increasing 
in numbers. 



II 



January 17, 1874.] 



37 



Installation Address. 

[Address o( T. H. Merry, Past Master of Healdsburg 
OraDRe, No. 18, P. of H., at the inbtallation of officers, 
Jan. 3d, 1874.] 

Worthy Master, Sisters and Brothers:— The 
year 1873, with all its incidents has passed 
away, and all that transpired therein belongs to 
history. While in other States disasters and 
panics have brought ruin to many; and fell 
pestilence has left the silent mark of its sad 
work in the desolate homes of the South, where 
the wail of the widow and orphan is heard, and 
our heart-strings touched with sympathy for 
their sorrow; and more lately, where the firey 
fiend has swept over the farms of our brothers 
in Iowa and Kansas, destroying and laying 
waste in its path the labor of years, exposing 
thousands of women and children to the rigors 
of a Northern winter, and spreading such a 
desolation around, that there is not even — 
"The single rose left on the stock. 
To tell where once the garden had been." 
While these calamities have transpired in other 
States, the year 1873, has been one of» more 
than usual prosperity to the people of Califor- 
nia. Bountiful crops have rewarded the farm- 
er's labor, and these have commanded remun- 
erative prices. I need not detail the many 
blessings, which a kind Providence has lavish- 
ed upon us, but wish more particularly to 
remind you that the year just passed, will ever 
be gratefully remembered by the Patrons of 
Husbandry in California, since it witnessed the 
introduction of our loved Order here, and bound 
us to each other and to our Eastern brothers in 
bonds as lasting, as life itself. Eight months 
ago it was transplanted to our genial soil; like 
a bright star it crowned fair Napa's brow, 
and its rays of light radiated to every part of 
our State. Within this short space of time 150 
Granges have been organized in California, 
and many more are knocking at the door of our 
Order for admission. Here, in our own County 
of Sonoma, we have twelve Granges, composed 
of earnest men and women, devoted to the in- 
terests of the Order. 

That you may judge how rapid has been the 
prowth of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry. 
I will state that the total number of Granges 
organized duriug the year 1872, was 1,053; 
while during the first eleven mouths of 1873, 
no less than 7,447 Granges was organized and 
reported to the Secretary of the National 
Grange; December's work will bring the num- 
ber to more than 8,000 Granges organized 
during the past year. How quietly, how 
peacefully, has all this great work been accom- 
plished, without excitement, and without ap- 
pealing to the passions and prejudices of the 
people. And yet it has already become a 
mighty power in the land, extending a helping 
hand to our oppressed and tax-burdened peo- 
ple. 

In beholding this vast array, one is naturally 
led to ask himself, why this mighty host? 
Why this vast army of the tillers of the soil? 
What mighty power do they seek to overthrow? 
What is to be the result of this great revolution? 
Quiet your nerves, neighbor, this great revo- 
lution, as you are pleased to term it, is one of 
peace; agencies more powerful than arms will 
accomplish its purpose. The ballot in the 
hands of freemen, moved by united and con- 
certed action, will tend to remove some of the 
evils, of which we may very justly complain. 
While we positively disclaim being a political 
organization in any sense, and do not even 
tolerate political or partizan discussion within 
the Grange, yet as American citizens, as tax- 
payers, and as producers, upon whose should- 
ers rests the prosperity of the State and Nation, 
and who bear the burden of taxation, it is our 
duty to so cast our ballots, irrespective of 
party, as to elect men who will work to pro- 
mote the welfare of the State, men honest and 
faithful in the discharge of their duties, who, 
by economical administration will reduce taxa- 
tion, and thus lighten one of our burdens. 

We seek also to dispense with the vast army 
of middlemen, cormorants whose insatiate wants 
are only equalled by their rapacity and grasping 
ambition. Not satisfied with a fair compensa- 
tion for his labor or his capital he seizes the 
"lion's share" of the hard-earned fruits of 
our industry. In other words — we mean to 
sell our produce as near as possible, to the con- 
sumer, and thus save money to him as well as 
to ourselves. We mean to buy our necessaries 
for the home and the farm, where we can buy 
them the cheapest — from the manufacturer and 
the importer, bringing producer and consumer 
again within reach of each other. We only ask 
the privilege of doing our own business in our 
own way, without depriving any of our fellow- 
citizens of their just rights. The money thus 
saved will be spent in developing the resources 
of the country, in beautifying our homes, 
building better houses and barns, and improv- 
ing our farm ; thus giving employment to the 
mechanic and laborer, increasing the taxable 

Eroperty of the State, bringing prosperity and 
appiness to the masses of the people. 
Ours is also a social Order. Within the 
Grange all is harmony and good feeling. The 
Patrons meet each other as brothers and sisters 
united in one common cause. By an inter- 
change of view, we profit by each other's expe- 
rience. The sick and disstressed receive 
prompt relief from hands guided by fraternal 
love. The stranger, the visitor, ever meets with 
a cordial welcome at the hands of all true 
Patrons. 

In referring generally to some of the objects 
at which we aim, I cannot enter into the details 
thereof, but suffice it for me to state, that we 
aim only to protect ourselves from our oppress- 
ors; to promote the welfare of our members; 
to elevate aod educate the agricultural masses, 



uctil they shall reach the high position, which 
the God of the universe intended that they 
should occupy. To this end we ask all our 
brother farmers to unite with us in this good 
work, that they may receive their reward, and 
claim their share of the victory. 

One word in regard to our Grange. It was 
organized on the 29th of May, with full chatter 
list, composed of some of the leading farmers 
in the vicinity of Healdsburg. Our progress 
has not been as rapid as I would desire, but 
we have since then more than doubled our 
numbers, yet, it is a satisfaction to know that 
what we lack in numbers we more than make 
up in the intelligence, public spirit and zeal of 
our members. And it is with pride that I assert, 
that from the first day of our organization to 
this time, in all our discussions, not one single 
word of discord has ever been uttered to mar 
the perfect harmony and good feeling existing 
among onr members. Within our gates there 
is no strife; peace reigns supreme. 

Honored with the position of Master of this 
Grange, I have endeavored to discharge my 
duties faithfully, to preside over your delibera- 
tions without partiality, to promote the inter- 
ests of our loved Order in general, and of our 
own Grange in particular. How well I have 
succeeded in this, I will le ve with yourselves 
to determine. 

And now. Brother Alexander, I greet you 
as Worthy Master of Healdsburg Grange. May 
your intercourse with our members be as 
pleasant in the future as it has been in the 
past. We know that yon are worthy of the 
high position to which you have been assigned, 
and that you will honor it with your wisdom 
and experience. Therefore, we feel safe in 
entrusting to your hands the helm that shall 
guide our hopeful bark to a haven of success. 

New Granges. 

Marysville Gbanoe. — Bro. J. W. A. 
Wright writes as follows: "We have had a 
'good time' at Marysville and Yuba City. Marys- 
ville Grange was organized Jan. 9th. with 30 
Charter members of the best material — C. G. 
Boekius, M;L. P. Walker, O; H. Sewell, L; .1. 
Seward, S; S. Eaton, A. S; G. F. Kelser, C; H. 
S. Tavlor, T; Jas. M. Cutts. Sec'y; W. H. 
Drnmm, G. K; Mrs. L. D. Kelser, C; Mrs. M. 
E. Walker, P; Miss Mary E. Eaton, F; Miss 
Mollie Sewell, L. A. S; C. G. Boekius, Agent. 

This is evidently one of the best portions of 
the State for agriculture. They never have 
such failures of crops as we do in other portions 
of the State that are less favored with rain. I 
am informed that they have had already some 
13 inches of rain, about the same amount that 
has fallen at San Francisco. Crops are certain. 
Hence we see every evidence of that material 
prosperity which we hope irrigation will secure 
to those parts of our State less favored with 
rain. 

Franklin Grange was organized by W. S. 
Manlove, Master of Sacramento Grange, at 
Georgetown, Sacramento county, on the 10th 
inst., with the following list of Charter mem- 
bers: Amos Adams, Isaac F. Freeman, Wm. 
Johnston, Geo. Moore, P. K. Beekley, J. W. 
Moore, J. M. Stevenson, Troy Dye, Thos. An- 
derson, Fevelia Dye. Martha Miller, Sarah C. 
Beekley, Amanda Moore, Eber Owen. Amos 
Adams was chosen Master and P. K. Beekley, 
Sec'y. 

San Diego Countt. — Some of the papers 
have announced the organization of a Grange 
in San Diego — the first in that county. If 
such is the fact, the organization had not been 
reported by the State Secretary up to the time 
of our going to press. 

Letter From Brother Garretson. 

A. T. Dewey, Esq.: — My dear brother, not a 
day comes and goes, but when, in the brief re- 
spite from business that my mind does not re- 
cur to my pleasant field of labor in California, 
and my heart goes out to my many dear friends 
there. God bless the Patrons of California; I 
cannot tell you how I love them or with what 
pride I point to your success. It was my want 
and purpose to have corresponded frequently 
for the Press, and I hope to yet redeem my 
promise in that regard. My plea for derelection 
thus far is briefly this: On reading home I 
found work for me already mapped out by Mas- 
ter Smedly. I was hurried from the field to 
our State Grange at its 4th Annual Session, 
where the brotherhood thought It best to stop 
my wanderings by tying me down to the Secre- 
tary's office. It is a great sacrifice to me, and 
was averse to my feelings, but I shall labor to 
do my duty. I undertake to say, Bro. D., that 
the labors of this office now with its 1,850 Sub- 
Granges is more onerous than that of our Sec- 
retary of State. In addition to this I have been 
prevailed on to assume the editorial supervis- 
ion of the Patron's department of the Ilome- 
stead. This field of labor being entirely new 
to me you may well imagine that my head and 
hands are both full. I shall continue to wel- 
come the beautiful and inslruciive Rural Press. 
There is none on our exchange list, nor is there 
one that visits my family, that is more highly 
prized. 

My home is still at Winterset, two hours by 
rail from this city, where I keep my office. 
Please address me hereafter at this place, send- 
ing the Press here instead of to Winterset. 
Your brother constantly for reform. 

N. W. Gaebbtbon, 



Letter from Grayson. 

The following letter, written Dec. 6th, 1873, 
has'' been in some way delayed; but though 
somewhat out of date we nevertheless give it a 
place in our columns to-day. We have no 
personal knowledge, with regard to the grounds 
of complaint in the matter of the location of 
the several Granges alluded to ; but hope that 
whatever may have been the reasonable suppo- 
sitions at the date of this letter, time will even- 
tually show that a proper degree of discretion 
has been used. 

Editors Press: — Two Granges have recently 
been organized above Grayson, one at Cotton- 
wood, which is about ten miles from here, 
and one at Crow's Landing, about ten miles 
further up the valley. 

It was expected there would have been a 
grange at Hill's Ferry, (which is eighteen or 
twenty miles from here), before this; and the 
general opinion among members of the Order 
is that had there been one organized there, 
there would have been no necessity for the 
two others which have been established so near 
that place. 

Small country towns are the most desirable 
places for Granges, for the reason that people 
who live in the vicinity naturally congregate 
there, and would often be present at the meet- 
ing of the Grange when they would not go 
expressly for that purpose. 

There is some dissatisfaction expressed 
about these two new Granges being organized 
so near each other, and in the immediate vi- 
cinity of Hill's Ferry, which is a town of con- 
siderable size, being much larger than Crow's 
Landing, while Cottonwood is only a farming 
settlement. 

I am glad to see the question of locating 
Granges discussed. Much discretion should 
be used in the matter. 

East of the San Joaquin, between here and 
Modesto, there are two Granges within three 
miles ot each other. When established so 
near, they are weak themselves, and tend to 
weaken each other. 

Many present, who live in the neighborhood 
of Cottonwood and belong to the Grayson 
Grange, will attend here; and others, who live 
between this and Hill's Ferry, are still outside 
the Grange waiting to join at Hill's Ferry. 

We celebrated the Farmers' Fourth at this 
place on on Thursday evening, Dec. 4th, with 
a feast, which was followed by music and danc- 
ing. 'Though the weather was stormy and 
cold the attendance was good, and everything 
passed oflf pleasantly. All present regretted 
the absence of our Worthy Master and five 
other Charter members. And we would have 
been pleased to have seen a larger representa- 
tion from the neighboring Granges which had 
been invited to join in our festivity. 

The weather, which seldom suits everybody 
at the same time, has come as near giving gen- 
eral satisfaction for some weeks past as could 
be expected. 

There were certain reasons for wishing the 
rain to hold off last month, and it did hold off 
until the last spear of straw was stacked or in 
other ways disposed of, the stubble eaten bare 
by hungry sheep, until the last remaining flock 
was driven further up the valley for winter 
pasturage, and every acre of ground was pre- 
pared and ready for the rain, though it might 
come in a deluge. 

November passed bringing no rain, and some 
uneasiness was expressed by the farmers, be- 
cause it was so long in coming; but the hoped 
for storm set in at last and in good earnest. 

Tuesday, the 2d of Dec, was the coldest day 
of the season, and was followed by the storm 
of Wednesday which covered the valley with a 
mantle of snow, such as has never been seen 
here before by the oldest inhabitants. It has 
rained most of the time day and night ever 
since, with weather still cloudy, wind strong 
from the south, and prospects of a continued 
rain. H. 



Foolish Opposition. — It appears that the 
plow manufacturers of Chicago, recently held a 
meeting, and "resolved" to sell no plows to 
Farmers' Cluba or Granges, except at retail 
prices. Some fifteen companies took. part in 
this foolish proceeding. 

Of course the act was aimed directly at the 
business programme of the Grange organiza- 
tion, and one of the immediate results was a 
resolution introduced and passed by the Illinois 
State Grange at its late session, recommending 
its members and purchasing agents to stop all 
business with the firms consenting to the action 
of the manufacturers' meeting, or any of their 
agents. This resolution will no doubt be 
strictly carried out, and the " plow manufact- 
urers " will have to either run with a dimin- 
ished number of hands or shut down altogeth- 
er. The Chicago plow manufacturers are not 
the only ones in the country, although we 
should hope they were the oaly ones so foolish 
as to attempt to run such a tilt against the 
Granges. 

Patrons do not desire to cheapen labor ; on 
the contrary they endeavor to improve and 
elevate it. They believe in always paying fair 
rates for all they buy. They offered the manu- 
facturers the same prices at which they were 
selling to the jobbers. Their only aim was 
to save the useless and high commission 
charged for moving the plows from the manu- 
factory to the warehouse, when the farmers 
could just as easily receive them from the 
former place. 



Installation at Turlook. 

The annual installation at Turlock, took 
place on Friday, the 2d inst. The ceremonies 
were conducted with open doors, the public 
being freely admitted. Bro. J. W. A. Wright 
was present and conducted the installation 
ceremonies. He leaves us to labor as Master of 
a Grange in Fresno county. His departure 
called forth the following resolutions, which 
were unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That we, the members of Turlock Grange 
No. 295, extend to Bro. .J. W. A. WrlRht, worthy Past 
Master, our sincere thanks for the; fair and impartial 
manner in which he has acted durint; the brief time he 
filled the Worthy Master's chair. That we express to 
him personally our roRret at so near a partinK, and 
pledRfi that his name shall ever have a place in our 
grateful remembrance. That we believe him to be a 
prudent counsellor; and an unselfish and ardent worker 
in the great cauoe which he so ably represents as Worthy 
Lecturer of the State Grange. That as he goes from us 
wo follow him with our sympathies and prayers; com- 
mending him to the wise care and protection of the 
Great Master above. That we hereby extend to him our 
full confidence afC a raau and brother. That these reso- 
lutions be spread lu full on the minutes of this Grange. 

After the ceremonies were concluded, a Har. 
vest Feast was spread, and the Patrons attend- 
ed to the remainder by having a general good 
time. John A. Henderson. 

Turiock, Jan. 4th, 1874. 

Election of Officers. 

Cache Creek Grange. — The following are the 
officers elect for the ensuing year:— D. B. Hnrl- 
burt, M.; S. A. Howard, O.; R. G. Tadlock. S.; 
S. B. Halton, A. S.; J. H. Norton. L.; H. Sat- 
ing, C; D. Q. Adams. T.; L. D. Stephens, 
Sec. ; E. Seabold, G. K. ; Mrs. Ellen Halton, 
Ceres; Miss M. Fredericks, Pomona; Mrs. M. 
Hurlburt, Flora; Mrs. D. Mergal, L. A. S. 

Sonoma Grange.— Officers elect: Wm. M. 
P. Hill, M,; Alfred V. LaMott, O.; Leonard 
Goss, L.; O. B. Shaw, S.; A. S. Edwards, A. 
S.; Obed Chart, C; Maj. J. R. Snyder, T.; 
W. A. Berry, Sec; Geo. E. Watriss, G. K.: 
Mrs.S. T. Craig, Ceres; Mrs. A. M. Harding, 
Pomona; Mrs. Maria E. Young, Flora; Mrs. 
Phcebe Chart, L. A. S. Trustees. — Leonard 
Goss, Maj. J. R. Snyder and 0. W. Craig. 

Snellino Grange. — Officers elect: D. Teiser, 
M; G. C.Baker, O; A. B. Anderson, L;L. P. 
Fee, S; E. Kelsey, A. S; S. R. Spears, C; W. J. 
Hardwick, T; W. L. Hamlin, Sec'y; S. G. 
Burns, G. K; Miss M. E. Teiser, C; Mrs. M. 
Kelsey, P; Miss Martha Spears, F. and Mrs. 
H. C. Hamlin, L. A. S:, re-elected. 

Petaluma Grange. — The following officers 
elect for the ensuing year were installed on the 
3d inst.: L. W. Walker, M; G. D. Green, 0; 
A. Symonds, L; Stephen Payran, S; N. Wis- 
well, A. S; H. D. Sutton, C; Geo. Campbell, 
T; D. G. Heald, Sec'y; Wm, Comstock, G. K; 
Mrs. E. Heald, C;Mrs. L. W. Walker, P; Miss 
Louisa, Skillman, F; Mrs. R. C. Wiswell, L. 
A. S. 

Rustic Grange. — Officers elect: — J. A. Shep- 
herd, M.; G. W. Hains, O.; Samuel Boys, L.; 
L. W. Whitman, 0.; E. Kay, S.; O. At- 
wood, A. S.; H. Moore, S.; J. K. Meyers, T.; 
Dennis Vesher, G. K.; Mrs. S. Boys, Ceres; 
Mrs. D. Vesher, Pomona; Miss Nancy Hains, 
Flora; Miss E. Spann, L. A. S. 

Cambria Grange. ^Officers elect:0. H.Ivins- 
M.; M. Woods, O.; Wm. Leffingwell, L.; J. L. 
Leffingwell, S.; Wm. Skinner, C.; J. D. Camp- 
bell, T.;H. Olmstead, Sec'y; E. A. Everette, 
A. S.; J. Mullen, G. K.; M. E. Ivins, Ceres; 
G. M. Blunt, Flora; E. M. Utley, Pomona; A. 
Everette, L. A. 8. 

Denverton Grange.— Officers elect: J. B. 
Carrington, M.: Samuel Stewart, O.; S. H. 
DePue, L.; Wm. Spencer, S.; J. P.Jones, A. 
S.; R. H. Barkway, C; O. D.Arnold, T.; G. 
C. Arnold, S.; G. N. Daniels, G. K.; Mrs. J. 
P. Jones, Ceres; Miss M. E. Cook, Pomona; 
Mrs. J. B. Carrington, Flora; Mrs. G. 0. Ar- 
nold, L. A. S^ 

Dairy Produce. — The Grange Dairy Agency, 
heretofore alluded to, is now fully established 
at No. 414 Sansome street in this city, although 
Bro. Hegeler is not yet in actual attendance. 
He soon will be however, and we take 'pleasure 
in recommending him as a competent and re- 
liable man, with whom Patrons may safely en- 
trust their interests. Consignments of dairy 
produce may now be made as above, and all 
Patrons are requested to avail themselves of 
the advanta ges of this Agency. 

Windsor Grange — Installation Ceremon- 
ies. —J. M. McClelland, Secretary, writes us 
that this Grange will hold its installation cer- 
emonies on Saturday, Jan. 24th, at 11 o'clock 
A. M. A harvest feast will follow the ceremon- 
ies. Patrons from other Granges are invited 
to be pre sent. 

Meeting of the National Geangb. — Worthy 
Master, J. M. Hamilton, of the California 
State Grange will leave about the 27th inst. for 
the meeting of the National Grange at St. 
Louis, Mo., during the first week in February. 

LivEBMOEB Grange. — A public installation of 
officers of this Grange will take place on Sat- 
urday, January 3l8t, at 1 o'clock. Patrons 
from other Granges have been invited. 

Centebville Grange, Alameda Countt. — 
The officers of this Grange were duly installed, 
January 30th, by General Deputy John Hegler 
of Bodega, at the request of the Deputy of 
Alameda County. 




^sMtwm mirm^j^ m 



[January 17, 1874. 



Carrie's Economy. 

[Bt Mbs. EiAii. E. Anthont.] 
" Carrie Waring, do tell me how you manage 
to dress so stylishly on such a small sum o( 
money? You and I have the same allowance, and 
yet you look as if you had three times the 
amount, while I always look shabby; sit down 
and tell me, that's a darling?" coaxingly said 
Minnie Waterbury, as she took off her friends 
jaunty hat and basque, and drew her down on 
the crimson sofa, which was drawn up before 
a cheerful fire. 

Carry Waring was below the medium hijjht, 
all curves and dimples, with large gray eyes, 
which could flash as well as melt; silky brown 
hair, a tiny mouth, and small feet and hands. 
She wore a blue dress with ruffles of silvery 
gray; a gray overskirt with blue trimming, and 
a styhsh cloth basque, with a black velvet vest, 
fitted her trim form to perfection. Her hat, 
which Minnie was admiringly examining, was 
of silver gray velvet, trimmed with blue ribbon 
and a long blue plume. A snowy lace frill 
within a black velvet ruff, encircled 'her neck 
and was confined ;by] a gray and blue velvet 
bow. Altogether, she was a perfect picture of 
taste, style, and neatness. 

Minnie Waterbury was a complete contrast to 
her friend, both in* personal appearance and 
dress, having jetty hair, clear, though dark com- 
plexion, and rare contrast, eyes of_ soft blue, 
a large though well formed mouth, teeth like 
pearls, and her hands and feet, were ae' she 
said, always in the way. Her dress of pale, 
green cashmere, was much too large for her, and 
ruflled and puffed to the extreme of the fashion, 
was spotted here and torn there, and a lace 
ruffle over a plaid tie, completed her attire. 
She cast a dissatisfied look at herself in the 
mirror, as she continued: "Carrie, just look at 
my dress; I have only worn it a mouth, and it 
is fit for the rag-bag. I have spent all but ten 
dollars of my allowance, and that won't go far 
towards buying a new one. But, how did you 
manage to get that new suit; it is complete from 
head to foot? Ah, it was a present, wasit not?" 
Carrie Waring smiled as she answered. "Ko, 
but listen, and I will tell you the secret of my 
new attire to-day. First, my dress .whichj you 
admire so much, is made of two old ones; my 
blue dress and mother's gray one. I sponged 
and ironed them, and with the aid of my sew- 
ing machine made this suit in a short time, 
buying nothing but the lining, braid and cotton. 
Then, my basque, which I am proud of, is 
made out of brother Asa's broadcloth coat. I 
ripped it apart, sponged and turned it, and 
now I have a handsome basque, the pattern 
and buttons not costing much. 

My velvet vest, which is so fashionable now. 
Is also made of Asa's old vest, which he had 
thrown aside; and by raising the pile of the 
velvet with a hot iron, it is as good as new. I 
bought a hat frame for a mere nothing, and 
mother gave me a piece of velvet to cover it 
with; the ribbon is new, but the plume is my 
old black one dyed blue. Now my lace frills; 
I purchased some lace and net. and with a little 
trouble, made half a dozen ruffles, for the price 
you would have to pay for one. Pieces of 
Asa's vest made the ruff, and I bought the bow. 
So you see how little it costs to dress well, if 
you wish to be economical and are not afraid 
of the work. Now, Minnie, what are you going 
to buy with the ten dollars you have left? Let 
us see iT we cannot make that go as far as 
twenty ordinarily would." 

Minnie Waterburry who had listened to Carrie 
in open-eyed amazement, answered dolefully: 
" I don't know, Carrie, ton dollars won't buy 
a dress, and if I get a new hat, I will have to 
wear it with an old dress. Tell me what to buy 
please, and I will do just as you say." "Don't 
promise rashly." Carrie laughed; then added: 
" But I will tell you what you can do. 
Biplup that green dress yon are wearing, and 
by getting five yards of black, and mingling 
the two colors judiciously, you will have a new 
Boit; and that will take five dollars for the 
cashmere. Then, with the remaining five 
dollars, you can buy velvet and trimmings for 
a new hat, the frame of which, will not cost 
much; lace and velvet, for ruffles and frills, 
silk for a stylish tie. and a pair of gloves; and 
then you are dressed completely. 

Out of your old black silk dress, you can make 
a handsome redingote, trimmed with lace and 
bugles, as I have yards to spare. Now, are 
you satisfied with ray planning ? Am I not 
economical ?" Smilingly asked Carrie of 
Minnie, who answered. "You are a regular 
witch; I am so stupid, I never would have 
thought of such a thing; but many thanks for 
your advice, and I will take it. In exchange 
for your lace, here is an embroidered set; col- 
lar, caffs and handkerchief. Now don't refuse 



it, as I have more than I need, and a fair ex- 
change is no robbery, and Carrie, how true it 
is, that if people would calculate and plan 
more than they do, they might dress just as 
well, and with.far less outlay of money; and I 
for one, am always glad to hear of some new 
way to get along economically." 
San Jose, Jan. 5, 1874. 

Graham Gems, Etc. 

Eds. KuKAii Pbkss .—If Mr. Berwick likes 
his gems hot and hot (see "Mary Mountain's 
Farm House Chat," in the Pbess of Dec 20th), 
he has, at least, the satisfaction of knowing 
that they ara healthful as well as delicious. 

We are all Grangers and readers of the 
RuBAL Pbess, but have never seen any receipt 
in your valuable columns for making gems. 

If some of your numerous readers would 
like a perfect receipt, here is one that hun- 
dreds of gem-eaters will vouch for. 

In the first place, you must have a set of 
oast-iron gem pans, for in the baking lies the 
skill and mystery of the whole matter. 

Place the pans in a hot oven before begin- 
ning to make the gems, when they are smoking 
hot grease them, and then pour in the "raw 
material," which by this time must be. ready 
for baking, and is made thus: 

Put into a mixing pan one cup of graham 
and one of bolted lour (or two of graham if 
you prefer them a little more genuine), break 
in two fresh eggs, add a tablespoonfnl of su- 
gar, a pinch of salt and a cup of milk, or 
water, if milk is scarce. 

Stir together quickly and thoroughly and 
then add slowly another cup of milk (water 
will do this time also), and when well mixed 
put into the hot pans, with a large mixing 
spoon, if convenient. Two spoonfuls will be 
sufficient for one pan, and this receipt makes 
just one dozen. 

Have a quick fire, and bake until they are of 
a rich brown color, when they are ready for 
the table. 

It is safest to have a fire that will not^need 
replenishing while they are baking. 

Lovers of good, light, wholesome bread, and 
dyspeptics, will especially appreciate them. 
They may also be made of all flour, or half 
corn meal and half flour, observing the same 
rule otherwise. They are good hot or cold, 
and may be warmed over like other kinds of 
bread. Hannah. 

Nord, Butte Co., Jan. Ist, 1874. 

With pleasure we welcome to our columns 
our new correspondent. We place her name 
upon onr list of contributors, which has over it 
the heading — Good, and Short. 

The Weakness of Our Girls. 

We have in this city an army of dependent, 
unmarried women, who, if brought up indi- 
vidually, would, in reply to certain questions, 
answer as follows : 

"What can you do?" 

"Oh, most anything you please." 

"But tell me particularly?" 

"Why, I can do all sorts of work." 

"Well, there's dentistry, teaching, type-set- 
ting, watch-cleaning, engraving, and " 

"Oh, I don't mean such things, but I can do 
any common work." 

"Can you cook?" 

"Well, not much; and j then I don't like 
cooking." 

"Can you do fine needlework?" 

"No, but then I can do plain sewing." 

"Can you make men's shirts?" 

"Oh, no, I can't do that; but then I can sew 
on pillow cases and sheets, if you will show me 
just what you want me to do." 

"Can you do chamber-work?" 

"A little, but then I don't like going out to 
service." 

'•I don't see, then, that you can do anything 
but a little plain sewing, and for that you want 
a superintendent. There are at least five hun- 
dred occupations in this city which women 
could follow and earn an independent living 
thereby. You come seeking employment, and 
finally inform me that with superintendence 
you can do a little plain sewing, a thing which 
a young man can learn in three days." — i>io 
Lewis in To-Day. 

In 1836, when great reform was agitating 
the people. Dr. G. Holland, published a little 
poem which we herewith reproduce as one of 
the topics of this time of stress and strain. It 
is timely now as when written : 
God, give us men I a time like this demands 
Strong minds, great hearts, tniu faith, and ready hands; 
Men whom the luBt of oiiico does not kill; 
Men whom the spoils of office can not buy; 
Men who possess opinions and a will; 
Men who have honor; men who will not He; 
Men who stand before a demagogue. 
And damn his treacherous Hatteries wlthotit winking. 
Tall men, suu-crowuod, who live above the fog 
In public duty, ami in private thinking. 
For, while the rabble in their thumb-worn creeds 
Their largo prt-fessitms and their little deeds — 
Mingle in sellish strife, lo ! Freedom weeps. 
Wrong rnles the laud, and waiting Jostice 8leex)s. 

A PBOFEBSOB in physiology in explaining to a 
class of female students, the theory according 
to which the body is renewed every seven 
years, said: "You will in reality be no longer 
Miss B." I really hope I shan't, demurely re- 
sponded the young lady, casting down her eyes. 



The Christmas Gifts. 

(Written for the Uubai. Pbess. ] 
"Not often can such a cluster ofjlloving 
hearts be seen — faithful to each other, believ- 
ing in each other's goodness, and purity, in 
face of terrible adverse circumstances. There 
faithfulness is a proof of their own worth," 
Farjeon. 

A room dimly lighted, and cold for the sea- 
son, a group of young people around the bare 
embers of a fire, something in the whole aspect 
of place and persons, denoting refinement, and 
intelligence, but at the same time such sadness 
and perplexity upon the faces of the party ; 
this fearful time furnishes too many parallel 
cases. The one great topic of conversation to- 
night, was the same which is heard in many 
homes, but here it was discussed in tones of 
resignation, not of defiance, or censure. 
"What shall we do, and how shall we live this 
winter?" 

" George, what prospect have you of employ- 
ment? says the sister, who sits beside him." 
"None at present, none in the future I fear." 

Our working force has been reduced one-half; 
that half have only half the usual wages, and 
the employers fairly wild with efforts to meet 
the crisis. It's hard for us, it's bard for others 
too, but in this trial let us keep firm hold of 
the promise, ' ''As thy day, so shall thy strength 
be.' " 

"Ellen, what have you to tell?" "My report is 
much the same as your own, my pupils in 
music paid me for the half quarter and said 
they were obliged to give up their lessons un- 
til better times, but if nothing better offers, I 
will go out to service; I can do many things, 
but I cannot beg, and the money must be saved 
for darker hours." "We must keep together 
Ellen, that was mother's last request. If in 
dire poverty and living on a crust, still we must 
cling to each other." 

"Yes, George, but I can give a day's service 
in some bouse, and still come home at night to 
care for you. Charlie and Mary can go to 
school and that will save a fire six or seven 
hours in a day. "God will provide for the 
fatherless.'" "Oh, Ellen, you shame me by 
your courage, your trust, but what will that 
proud lover say, if you go out to service ?" 

" That must not enter into the settlement of 
our difficulties. My promise to a dying mother 
to watch ever her little ones, is the main point 
to remember and act upon. If he fails me in 
my hour of trial, that is all.I need to know of 
his character." 

"Come little ones, its bed-time, let us not 
forget our evening service," and so, with rev- 
erent faces they listened to Ellen as she read 
the beautiful words: "The Lord is my Shep- 
herd, I shall not want;" then the hymn, 
"Nearer to Thee," in which George with his 
manly bass, Ellen's grand soprano and the 
sweet tones of the } ounger ones were blended, 
and then the brother commended them to the 
guardianship of Our Father in heaven. 

The days rolled on; Ellen found a place in a 
house not far away, to do the work of a small 
family who knew her worth. George did any- 
thing he could find to do which was honorable, 
and kept bis brightest smiles, his fondest words 
for the hours at home. 

Christmas was coming, "Merry Christmas, " 
and the little ones thought of their many gifts 
in former years, but said nothing, for feur 
of troubling Ellen. It was coming to her, too, 
and she looked over things long laid aside, 
hoping to find material wherewith to fashion 
some dainty gift for the children. In eager 
haste she worked night after night, and George 
aided her with knife in carving wood and with 
dainty devices of pen and crayon. Often they 
went shivering to their beds, but never a word 
of despair or rebuke. 

Letters failed to reach Ellen; she had a sad 
heart, but worked on faithfully, and now 
Christmas eve had come. They took the chil- 
dren to church, and heard their voices chiming 
in Christmas carols, saw shops filled with lux- 
uries, people hurrying homeward with arms 
laden with gifts, and yet no word of desponden- 
cy reached the ears of the little ones. They 
were only comfortably seated at their fireside; 
there came a ringing of the bell, and when 
George opened the door there was a surprise 
for him; a load of coal, two monstrous ham- 
pers securely fastened, then a box which had 
come a long ways, paid in advance. No one to 
be seen, but it was all for them, marked "Geo. 
& £lleu Marston, Merry Christmas." 

Ohl Ellen, Charlie, Mimie. come! come! God 
has sent his angels with a gift for us. And the 
eager hands untied fastenings, ^and when the 
stores of rare and valuable things were revealed 
to sight, when every good and dainty provis- 
ion for Christmas appeared, and Ellen's box 
furnished its abundance of warm, rich clothing 
for each and all, then they knelt down, and 
amid sobs and tears, thanked Uim who "hears 
the young raven's cry," and remembers the 
lonely, and the desolate. And then there came 
another surprise better than all. In their haste 
they had forgotten to close the door securely, 
and before them stoodjtheir guardian angel, the 
lover of Ellen, prouder and fonder of her than 
ever. L. A. B. 



How to be Beautiful. 

A vacant look takes all the meaning out of 
the fairest face. A sensual disposition de- 
forms the handsomest features. A cold, sel- 
fish heart shrives and distorts the best looks. 
A mean groveling spirit takes the dignity out of 
the countenance. A cherished hatred trans- 
forms the most beautiful lineaments into an 
image of ugliness. It is as possible to preserve 
good looks with a brood of bad passions feed- 
ing on the blood, a sot of low loves tramping 
through the heart, and a selfish, disdainful 
spirit enthroned in the will, as to preserve the 
beauty of an elegant mansion with a litter of 
swine in the basement, a tribe of gipsies in the 
parlor, and owls and vultures in the upper 
part. Badness and beauty will no more keep 
company a great while than poison will consort 
with health, or an elegant carving survive the 
furnace fire. The experiment of putting them 
together has been tried for thousands of years, 
but with an unvarying result. 

Stand on one of the crowded streets and note 
the passers by, and any one can see how a 
thoughtless, aimless mind has made a vacant 
eye and robbed the features of expression ; how 
vanity has made everthing about its victim 
petty; how frivolity has faded the luster of the 
countenance; how baby thoughts have made 
baby faces; how pride has cut disdain into the 
features, and made the face a chronic sneer; 
how selfishness has shrivelled and wrinkled 
and withered up the personality; how hatred 
has deformed and demoralized those who yield 
to its power; how every bad passion has turned 
tell-tale, and published its disgraceful story in 
the lines of the face and the look of the eye; how 
the old man who has given himself up to every 
sort of wickedness is branded all over with de- 
formity and repulsiveness — and he will get a 
new idea of what retribution is. This may not 
be all, but it is terrible — this transformation of 
a face full of hope and loveliness into defor- 
mity and repulsiveness — then the rose blushing 
on its stalk, now ashes and a brand. 



A cuBioDs library may be seen at Cassel, 
Germany, made from 500 European trees. The 
back of each volume is formed of the bark; 
the sides, of the perfect wood; the top, of 
young wood; and the bottom, of old wood. 
When opened, the book is found to be a box, 
containing the flower, seed, fruit and leaves of 
the tree, either dried, or imitated in wax. 
/ 



Neatness. 

In its essence, and purely for its own sake, 
neatness is found in a few. Many a man is 
neat for appearance sake; there is an in- 
stinctive feeling that there is a power in it. 
When a man consults a physician or a lawyer 
for the first time, or comes to rent a house or 
borrow money, he will come in his best dress. 
A lady will call in her carriage. A man that 
means business and honesty comes as he is, 
just as you will find him in his store, his shop, 
his counting-house. The most accomplished 
gamblers dress well; the most enterprising 
swindlers are faultlessly clothed, but countless 
multitudes are but whitewashed sepulchres. 
Too many "don't care as long as it will not be 
seen." Washington Allston, the great artisf, 
the accomplished gentleman, suddenly left his 
friend standing at the door of a splendid Bos- 
ton mansion as they were about entering for a 
party, because he remembered he had a hole 
m his stocking. It could not be seen or 
known, but the very knowledge of its existence 
made him feel that he was less a man than be 
ought to be; gave him a feeling of inferiority. 

When you see a neat, tidy, cleanly and 
cheerful dwelling— there you will find a joyous, 
loving, happy family. But if filth and squalor 
and a disregard for refining delicacies of life 
prevail in any household, there will be found 
in the moral character of the inmates much 
that is low, degrading, unprincipled, vicious 
and disgusting. Therefore, as we grow in 
years, we ought to watch eagerly against neg- 
lect of cleanliness in person as well as tidiness 
in dress. — Hall's Journal of Health. 

The Etiquette of Bowing. 

This is so simple that one would scarcely 
suppose impoasible that difference of opinion 
could exist, and yet there are some who think 
it a breach of politeness if one neglects to bow, 
although meeting half a dozen times on a prom- 
enade or in driving. Custom has made it nec- 
essary to bow only the first time in passing; 
after that, exchange of solution is very proper- 
ly not expected. The difference between a 
courteous and a familiar bow should be remem- 
bered by gentlemen who wish to make a favor- 
able impression. A lady dislikes to receive 
from a man with whom she has but a slight 
acquaintance a bow accompanied by a broad 
smile, as though he were on the most familliar 
terms with her. It is far better to err on 
the other side and give one of those 
stiff, ungracious bows which some men in- 
dulge in. 'Those gentlemen who smile 
with their eyes instead of their mouths give 
the most charming bows. As for men who bow 
charmingly at one time, and with excessive 
hauteur at others, accordingly as they feel in 
good or bad humor, they need never be sur- 
prised if the person thus treated should cease 
speaking altogether. A man should also always 
lift his hat to a lady. 

Cpbious CAi/CtrLATioN, — According to a Swiss 
paper, the diplomas obtained at the Vienna Ex- 
hibition bear the following proportion to the 
population of the several European countries: 
Switzerland, one per 108, 0(X) inhabitants; Bel- 
gium, one per 200,000; Germany, one per 410,- 
000; Austria-Hungarv, one per 433,000; France, 
one per 462,000: Holland, one per 650,000; 
Sweden andNorway, one per 65.5,000; Denmark, 
one per 900,000; Great Britain, one per 1,222,- 
000; Italy, one per 1,405,000; finssift (in £a 
rope) one per 3,550,000. 



January 17, 1874] 



39 



QoQD H^^^TH' 



Physical Education. 



Perhaps not the least advantage which is de- 
rived from muscular, active exercise, as op- 
posed to passive exercise, — by which we refer 
to a ride in a carriage, or a sail in a vessel, in 
which latter cttse the abdominal muscles are 
the only ones actively exercised — is cleanliness. 
We mention this, as it has been little insisted 
on by the advocates of gymnastic training. It 
belongs rather, perhaps, to a treatise on medi- 
cinal than on athletic gymnastics; but the two 
are at the present day, as we have said, happily 
incorporated. A microscope will show the 
millions of drains with which the skin is per- 
forated, for the sake of voiding effete matter. 
This effete matter can only be thrown off by 
perspiration, produced by exercise. If it is 
not thrown off, it is absorbed into the system, 
and diseases, particularly consumption, and 
premature death, are the result. The result is 
produced by the canals of the skin becoming 
clogged, which not only prevents the refuse 
matter from coming out, but also prevents oxy- 
gen, which is essential to life, from coming in. 
We do not breathe with the lungs only, con- 
suming carbon and other matter, and renew- 
ing the blood with oxygen as it passes through 
them. The skin also is a respiratory organ; 
some animals havo no lungs, and breathe en- 
tirely with the skin; others with a portion of 
the akin modified into gills, or rudimentary 
lungs. In animals of a higher grade, through 
the lungs are the instruments principally de- 
voted to this function, the skin retains it still 
to such an extent that to interfere with its 
pores is highly dangerous; but to arrest their 
operation, fatal. The breathing of the skin 
may be easily proved by the simple experiment 
of placing the hand in a basiu of cold water, 
when it will be soon covered by minute bub- 
bles of carbonic acid. But a more complete 
and scientific proof is afforded by inserting it 
in a vessel of oxygen, when the gas will, after 
a short interval of time, be replaced by car- 
bonic acid. "We all know," says Dr. IJrere- 
ton, "from daily experience, the intimate sym- 
pathy which exists between the skin and lungs, 
and when we are walking fast, how much more 
easily we get along after having broken out in- 
to a persperation ; if we are riding, our horse 
freshens up under the same conditions." In 
these homely words he is indirectly proving 
the chief sanitary characteristic of medicinal 
gymnastics. 

We have most of )!us heard of the story of 
the unfortunate child who, to add solemnity 
and symbolic happiness to the inauguration of 
Leo X. as Pope of Rome, was gilded over at 
Florence, to represent the Golden Age. The 
o.ireer of that child so conditioned was brilliant, 
but brief. It, of course, died in a few hours. 
One of the reasons of the greater danger of ex- 
tensive burns or scalds compared with others, 
smaller though deeper, is the fact that the for- 
mer exclude a greater surface of skin from the 
oxygen of the air. M. Fourcault, a distin- 
guished French physiologist, whose admiration 
of science appears to have led bim to care little 
for the infliction of torture on other animals 
than himself, sacrificed a great number of 
Guinea pigs, rabbits and cats, by varnishing 
over the whole of their skin, contemplating 
with satisfaction the invariable result— death — 
as a demonstrative proof that the skin breathes. 
One word more. It has been imagined that 
gymnastic exercise is exclusively profitable to 
to the young. It is not so; it is of advantage, 
of great advantage, likewise to the old. Young 
persons — we include, of course, women, and 
wish that calisthenics, which we suppose to be 
a species of female gymnastics, were more sys- 
tematized and popular — need little exhortation 
to exercise, since, by nature, motion is their 
chief desire ; but they stand-in need of advice and 
moderation, since, as they do everything im- 
moderately, so they are accustomed to take 
too much exercise, and of an improper char- 
acter, a course of proceedings not without dan- 
ger. On the contrary, with older men, the in- 
creasing weight of the body, and the loss of the 
so-called "animal spirits," induces the desire 
of repose, and they need an increase of exer- 
cise beyond that which inclination enjoins 
on them. Thus they are brought within the 
province of the gymnastic code. — Comhill 
Magazine. 



other seasons are common. There was only 
oiie peal of thunder heard in his county be- 
tween the middle of September and the latter 
part of October. In 1855, at a school celebra- 
tion, a sufficient amount of electricity could 
not be generated to perform the simplest ex- 
periment with the electrical apparatus, and 
shortly thereafter the yellow fever broke out 
and raged terribly. 



Gltcehine and Castor Oil. — The Philadel- 
phia Medical Times has an article on this sub- 
ject. It is stated that if castor-oil be mixed 
with an equal part of glycerine and one or two 
drops of oil of cinnamon to the dose, it can 
scarcely be recognized. The writer aflSrunsthat 
he has used this mixture a great number of 
times, and can confirm all that has been said of 
it. Children take it out of the spoon without 
difficulty, and it has been given to doctors 
without their discovering that they were taking 
castor-oil. This hint may be well worth acting 
upon, considering the nauseous character of 
castor-oil to most persons. 

NUTEITIVE PbOPERTIES OF ApPLES. — It is 

stated that by a careful analysis it has been 
found that apples contain a larger amount of 
phosphorus, or brain food, than any other 
fruit or vegetable, and on this account they are 
very important to sedentary men who work 
their brains rather than their muscles. They 
also contain the acids which are needed espec- 
ially for sedentary men, the action of whose 
liver is sluggish, to eliminate effete matters, 
which, if retained in the system, produce in- 
action of the brain, and indeed of the whole 
system, causing jaundice, sleepiness, scurvy, 
and troublesome diseases of the skin. 



vening layer Of silken thread. By the use of 
flock, down, varnishes, &c., the leaves are made 
to present a glossy surface on one side and a 
velvety surface on the other. A singular mode 
of preparing films of unusual thinness is by 
the aid of a small wooden cylinder, like a com- 
mon cotton reel, or rather, ribbon-reel; this is 
dipped and rotated in melted wax until it takes 
up a thin layer, which layer, when cold, is cut 
and uncoiled; the difference of smoothnes 
which the two surfaces present fits them to 
represent the upper and lower surfaces of a 
leaf or petal. The combination of all these 
materials into a built-up flower is a kind of 
work not differing much from that exercised in 
regard to textile flowers. — British Trade Jour- 
nal. 



ESJIC EcOflQ^Y* 




Wax Flower Making. 



New Remedies for Cholera.— French phys- 
icians, as a rule, hold to the fungoid theory of 
cholera, and one of their number has been ex- 
perimenting with the carbolate of ammonia in 
cases of cholera, so far, we learn, with encour- 
aging success. One physician (Dr. Declat), 
looks upon carbolic acid as a prophylactic, to 
be used in the ordinary way of diet during 
epidemics. It is taken in the form of syrup. 
When a patient is attacked with cholera, the 
syrup should be administered, and a dilute so- 
lution of the acid injected. In severe cases, 
the doctor employs a syrup of carbolate of 
ammonia, with subcutaneous injections of the 
same; and he is so confident as to the efficacy 
of his remedy that, in cases where dissolution 
is impending, he injects a solution of the car- 
bolate of ammonia directly into the veins. 

Ei.ECTRiciTr AND Ykllow Fever. — A corres- 
pondent writing from Fayette, Mississippi, to 
the Scientific American, says, that prior to the 
breaking out of the fever, and during the prev- 
alence of the epidemic, the rains areuuacccom- 
panied by lightning and thunder, which in 



The best white wax is required for the art — 
pure, and free from granulation. The con- 
sistency may need to be modified, according to 
the state of the weather, and the part of the 
flower to be imitated; it may be made firmer 
and more translucent by the addition of a little 
spermaceti, while Venice turpentine will give 
it ductility. In preparing the wax for use, it 
is melted with Canada balsam, or some kind of 
fine turpentine, and poured into flat tin moulds ; 
these give it the form of quadrangular blocks 
or slabs about an inch thick. These blocks 
are cut into thin sheets or films, in one 
or other of several different ways — by fixing 
them down flat, with a screw and a stop, and 
slicing off layers with a kind of a spoke-shave; 
or holding a block in the hand, and passing it 
along a carpenter'sfplane, having the face up- 
permost; or causing the block to rise gradually 
over the edge of the mould, and cutting off 
successive slices with a smooth-edged knife. 

The coloring of the wax is an important 
matter, seeing that in some instances the tint 
must penetrate the hole substance; whereas in 
others it is better when laid on the surface as 
a kind of paint. The choice of colors is nearly 
the same as for other kinds of artificial flowers, 
but not in all instances. The white colors are 
produced by white lead, silver white and one 
or two other kinds; for red, Vermillion, minium, 
lake and carmine; for rose color, carmine, fol- 
lowing an applicition of dead white (to avert 
yellowish tints) ; for blue, ultramarine, cobalt, 
indigo, and Prussian blue; for yellow, chrome 
yellow, massicot, Naples yellow, orpiment, 
yellow ochre, and gamboge; for green, vedigris, 
Schweinfurth green, arsenic green, (the less of 
this the better), and various mixtures of blue 
and yellow. For violet, salmon, flesh, copper, 
lilac, and numerous intermediate tints, various 
mixtures of some or other of the colors already 
named. Most of these coloring substances are 
employed in the form of powder, worked up 
on a muUer and stone with essential oil of 
citron or lavender, and mixed with the wax in 
a melted state; the mixture is strained through 
muslin, and then cast into the flat moulds al- 
ready mentioned. Or else a muslin bag filled 
with colors is steeped for a time in the melted 
wax. The material dealers sell these slabs of 
wax ready dyed, to save the flower-maker from 
a kind of work which is chemical rather 
than manipulative. Some flowers require that 
the wax shall be used in a purely white bleach- 
ed state, colors being afterwards applied to the 
surface at selected spots. 

The wax is, of course, the chief material em- 
ployed in wax-flower making; but it is by no 
means the only one. Wire bound round with 
green silk, tinting brushes and pencils, shapes 
or stencil patterns, moulds and stampers, flock 



Copying Medals. 

Copies of medals or other similar articles 
may be readily made by a very simple piece of 
apparatus. A cast of the medal is first taken 
in wax. This is done by moistening the medal 
or coin slightly, and then pouring the melted 
wax over it. The object of the moistening is 
to prevent the wax sticking to the surface of 
the metal. While the wax is still warm, a 
piece of copper wire should be imbedded in it 
to serve as a support, and to connect with the 
zinc in the decomposing cell. After removing 
the medal from the mold, the surface of the 
mold is dusted over with fine plumbago until it 
appears quite black; all excess of the carbon is 
then carefully removed with a soft brush. If 
fine iron filings can be had, a few of them are 
sifted over the face of the mold, and a solution 
of sulphate of copper is poured on it. It is 
then carefully washed; this serves to give a 
very thin coating of copper, and facilitates fur- 
ther operations, but may be omitted if not con- 
venient. Care must be taken, in putting on 
the plumbago coating, that it comes in contact 
with the copper wire. A very convenient way 
of applying this wire is to bend it into a ring 
slightly larger than the medal to be copied, 
lay it on the table around the medal, and pour 
the wax over both at the same time. Scraping 
with a knife exposes it completely. The mold 
being prepared, take an ordinary glazed earth- 
enware basin four or five inches deep, and in it 
set a small flower pot, having previously plug- 
ged up the hole in the bottom of the pot with a 
piece of wood, a little wax, or other suitable 
material. The flower pot is to be filled with a 
weak solution of common salt. The outer ba- 
sin is then filled with a strong solution of sal- 
phate of copper, and a little bag holding crys- 
tals of sulphate of copper is hung in it to keep 
it saturated. Add a few drops of sulphuric 
acid to both solutions, place a piece of zinc in 
the flower pot, and connect it wilh the wire of 
the mold. The mold being now put in the 
outer solution, a coating of copper soon shows 
itself. The mold may be left in the sohition 
two or three days, if a thick coating is desired. 
— Boston Journal of Chemistry. 



Polishing Wood With Charcoal. 

We extract from the Cabinet-Maker the fol- 
lowing description of the method of polishing 
wood with charcoal, now much employed by 
French cabinet-makers: 

All the world knows of those articles of fur- 
niture of a beautiful dead black color, with 
sharp, clear cut edges, and a smooth surface, 
the wood of which seems to have the density 
of ebony; viewing them side by side with fur- 
niture rendered black by paint and varnish, 
the difference is so sensible that the considera- 
ble margin of price separating the two kinds 
explains itself without need of any commentary. 
The operations are much longer and much 
more minute in this mode of charcoal polish- 
ing, which respects every detail of the carving, 
while paint and varnish would clog up the 
holes and widen the ridges. In the first pro- 
cess they employ only carefully selected woods 
of a close and compact grain; they cover them 
with a coat of camphor dissolved in water, and 
almost immediately afterward with another 
coat composed chiefly of sulphate of iron and 
nut-gall. The two compositions in blending 
penetrate the wood and give it an indelible 
tinge, and at the same time render it impervi- 
ous to the attacks of insects. 

When these two coats are sufficiently dry, 
they rub the surface of the wood at first with a 
very hard brush of couch-grass {chiendent), and 
then with charcoal of substances as light and 
friable as possible, because if a single hard 
grain remaiuedin the charcoal this alone would 
scratch the surface, which they wish, on the 



contiary, to render perfectly smooth. The flat 
or ground-up woolen rag, and many other im- parts are rubbed with natural stick charcoal 



plements and materials, are needed. 

The building-up of a wax-flower is a work of 
patient detail. The patterns of leaves and 
petals are made of paper or of thin sheet-tin, 
copied from the natural object; and the wax 
sheets are cut out in conformity with them. 
Only the smaller and lighter leaves are, how- 
ever, made in this way ; those of firmer tex- 
ture and fixity of shape are made in plaster 
moulds. The patterns are laid on a flat, 
smooth service of dami^sand; a ring is built 
up round them, and liquid plaster is poured 
into the cell thus formed. Generally two such 
moulds are necessary, one for the upper and 
one for the lower surface of the leaf. Some- 
times wooden moulds are employed, into which 
(when moistened to prevent adhesion) the wax 
is poured in a melted but not very hot state. 
The stems are m-ide by working wax dexter- 
I ously around wires, with or without an inter- 



the indented portions and crevices with char 
coal powder. At once, almost simultaneously, 
and alternately with the charcoal, the work- 
man also rubs his piece of furniture with flan- 
nel soaked in linseed oil and the essence of tur- 
pentine. These pouncings, repeated several 
times, cause the charcoal powder and the oil to 
penetrate into the wood, giving the article of 
furniture a beautiful color and perfect polish, 
which has none of the flaws of ordinary var- 
nish. Black-wood, polished with charcoal, is 
coming day by day to be in greater demand; 
it is most serviceable; it does not tarnish like 
gilding, nor grow yellow 'ike white wood, and 
in furnishing a drawing-room it agrees very 
happily with gilt bronzes and rich stuffs. In 
the dining room, too, it is thoroughly in its 
place to show off the plate to the greatest advan- 
tage, and in the library it supplies a capital 
framework for handsomely bound books. 



Roast Turkey. 

After drawing the turkey, rinse out with 
several waters, and in next to the last mix a 
teaspoouful of soda. The inside of a fowl, 
especially if purchased in the market, is some- 
times very sour, 'and imparts an unpleasant 
taste to the stuffing, if not to the inner part of 
the legs and side bones. The soda will act as 
a corrective and is moreover very cleansing. 
Fill the body with this water, shake well, 
empty it out, and rinse with fair water. Then 
prepare a dressing of bread crumbs, mixed 
with butter, pepper, salt, thyme or sweet mar- 
joram, and wet with hot water or milk. You 
may, if you like, add the beaten yolks of two 
eggs. A little chopped sausage is esteemed an 
improvement when well incorporated with the 
other ingredients. Or, mince a dozen oystera 
and stir into the dressing; and, if you are par- 
tial to the .taste, wet the bread crumbs with 
oyster liquor. The effect upon the turkey- 
meat, particularly that of the breast, is very 
pleasant. 

Stuff the craw with this, and tie a string 
tightly about the neck, to prevent the escape 
of the stuffing. Then fill the body of the tur- 
key, and sew it up with strong thread. This 
and the neck-string are to be removed when 
the fowl is dished. In roasting, if your fire is 
brisk, allow about ten minutes to a pound; but 
it will depend very much upon the turkey's 
age whether this rule holds good. Dredge it 
with flour before roasting, and baste often; at 
first with butter and water, afterwards with the 
gravy in the dripping-pan. If you roast in an 
oven, and lay the turkey in the pan, put in 
with it a teacup of hot water. Many roast al- 
ways upon a grating placed on the top of the 
pan. In that case the boiling water steams 
the under part of the fowl, and prevents the 
skin from drying to fast, or cracking. Roast 
to a fine brown, and if it threaten to darken too 
rapidly, lay a sheet of white paper over it un- 
til the lower part is also done. 

Stew the chopped giblets in just enough 
water to cover them, and when the turkey ia 
lifted from the pan, add these, with the water 
in which they were boiled, to the drippings; 
thicken with a spoonful of browned flour, 
wet with cold water to prevent lumping, boil 
up once, and pour into the gravy-boat. If 
the turkey is very fat, skim the drippings well 
before putting in the giblets. 

Serve with cranberry sauce. Some lay fried 
oysters in the dish around the turkey, — Ex, 

Boiling Potatoes. 

The lady authoress of "Uncle Tom," and 
divers other popular publications, has been 
writing a homily on cooking potatoes. I should 
like to know if Mrs. Stowe does really boil po- 
tatoes herself? I do, and I have long since 
known better than to pare my potatoes raw and 
then douse them naked into water red hot — 
boiling at two hundred and ninety horse-power. 
That is one way to boil potatoes certainly, but 
not the proper one, by a very long way. Phil- 
osophy, common sense, and a month or two of 
practical experience over the dinner pot, teach 
us great deal better than that. 

My dear madam, don't you know fifteen 
sixteenths of all the starch that a potato affords 
is deposited so near the surface, that however 
carefully we may pare tbe tubers in a raw state, 
we are sure to throw away the greater portion 
of that very material that we eat potatoes for? 
Then, if we toss our potatoes into boiling 
water, unprotected by their overcoats, we have 
set in a second, and hopelessly incorporated 
with the mass, that semi-volatile principle 
which gives the ill-cooked potato its slightly 
acrid, something insipid, and always objection- 
able flavor. 

Any thoroughly potato-bred Irish woman 
would as soon think of committing regicide, as 
boiling her potatoes undressed, in the manner 
recommended by our literary lady cook. And 
there are no better potatoes, or potato cooks, 
any where in this world than there are in Ireland. 

I tell you, fellow-housekeepers everywhere, 
that the correct way to cook a potato in any 
country, provided boiling is the determination, 
is to wash it clean, first— let it lie in clean 
cold water two hours— ten is all the better — 
place it in cold water in the pot, without paring, 
boil moderately nntil the test fork goes smoothly 
through the potato without encountering a 
mite of core. Then drain off the water, set the 
pot over the fire uncovered, for five minutes, 
after which whip off Mr. Potato's jacket in a 
hurry, and send him to the table in a close 
cover,' piping hot— or if you are not over-fash- 
ionable and fastidious, it is preferable to servo 
"mnrphy" in his coat. 

Please follow this formula a few times, and 
if you shall find it a pernicious practice, you 
shall be at liberty to consider Madeline as 
competent to write a readable romance, as she 
is to cook a potato. — Saturday Evening Post, 

Bean Porridge. — Boil a fresh beef bone (I 
think salt beef would answer if sufficiently 
freshened, though I never tried it, ) in a large 
quantity of water, and use the meat for any- 
thing you choose. Let the liquor become cool, 
and remove all the grease. Boil a teacupful of 
beans in three quarts of this liquor until thor- 
oughly soft and in pieces; add a little rice, the 
necessary amount of salt, and just before taking 
from the stove, a little thickening of some kind 
of meal. We use it about the thickness of gru- 
el or gravies and add a little milk when we eat. 



40 



wM^mwrn mmus^ ^^m^ 



[Janilary 17, iB74- 




PUBUSHZD BT 

DSIATSIT <Sk CO. 

t. DKWET. W. B. KTTKB. O. H. STBONO. J. L. BOONI. 

RUCOITAL Eduob W. B. EWER. A.M. 

Oinoi;, No. 338 Montgomery street, 8. E. corner oj 
Oalltornia sttoet, where friends »nd patrons are invited 
to our Scientific Pbebs, Patent Agency, Engraving and 
Printing establisluueut. 

SUBSCRIPTION AND ADVERTISING RATES. 

SCBSOBIPTIONB payable in advance— For one year $4; 
six montliB, *2.25, three months, $1.25. Clnbs of ten 
names or more $3 each per annum. $5, in advance, will 
pay for 1 H year. Remittances by registered letters or 
P.O. orders at our risk 
AnvEBiisiKa Bates.— 1 week. 1 monft. 3 monOu. 1 year. 

Per line 25 .80 »2.00 $6.00 

One-halfinch $1.00 $3.00 7.S0 24.00 

One Inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
m extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
Inserted at special rates. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, Jan. 17, 1874. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GBNEB AI, EDITORIALS .— Alfllerilla . or Fllcro , 
and its Kindred Plants, 33. The Silk Worm Egg 
Trade; Dove-Tail Mode of Grafting the Graiio; Farm- 
ers' Hornet; Important, 40. Continental Corres- 
pondence, 41. Patents and Inventions, 44- 

ILLXrSTKATIONS. — Alfllertlla, or Filere, 33. 
Dove-Tail GrattioK, 40. SnowShoe Racing in the 
Mountains of Califoruia, 41. 

COBKESPONDENCE.— Silk Culture in Califor- 
nia— Coneluded; Winter Supply of Butter; Seupper- 
nonK Grape; Green or Dry Feeding; The Stock Starv- 
ing Business; Inquiry, 34. Winter Feeding; Hog 
Disease, Perhaps; Potato Crop of 1873, 35. Snow- 
Shoeing in the Sierras, 43. 

PATRONS OF HTJSBANBRY.— Progress of the 
P:.trnns in California; New Granges; Meetings; Etc., 

36-37. 

AtiRICTJLTTTRAI. NOTES from various coun- 
ties in California and Washington Territory, 44. 

HOME CIRCLE. — Carrie's Economy; Graham 
Gems, Etc.; The Weakness of Our Girls; The Christ- 
mas Gifts; How to be Beautiful; Neatness; The Eti- 
quette of Bowing: Curious' Calculation, 38. 

G-OOD HEALTH. -Physical Education; New Rem- 
edies for Cholera; Electricity and Yellow Fever; 
Glycerine and Cactor Oil; Natritivo Properties of 
Apples, 39. 

TTSEFTJL INFORMATION.— Wax Flower Mak- 
ing; Copying Medals; Polishing Wood With Charcoal, 
39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Roast Turkey; Boiling 
Potatoes; Bean Porridge, 39. 

POULTRY YARD. — Game Fowls; Management 
of Ducks; Buckwheat for Fowls; Late Chickens for 
Summer Eggs; Charcoal for Ponltrv, 42- 

THE SWINE YARD. — Fattening Pigs; Sugar 
Beet for Swine, 42. 

"WHEAT, ETC.— The Future Wheat Supply, 42. 

miSCELLANEOITS— Apparatus for Drying Grain; 
Increase in Population; Type-Setting Machines; New 
Car Starter; Recent Experiments with Diamonds; 
On the Preparation of Chloral Hydrate; Frame Build- 
ings; Professor Agassiz; Steam to Australia; Watch 
Springs; The Spectrograph; Cement for Pipes, Etc., 
36. Improved Fireplace; How to Treat Burns, 43. 



Moose's Rctkax. New Yobkeb. — This sterling 
agricultural journal, which for twenty-four 
years has been like a polar star to the agricnl- 
turalista of the United States, enters on its 
twenty fifth year under the most favorable au- 
spices, and on the part of its manager with a de- 
termination to make it for 1871 a brighter and 
better paper than ever. The office of Moore's 
Bural is at No. 5 Beekman street, New 
York. 

The annual advertisement of J. J. H. Greg- 
ory, the well known seedsman, will be found 
in our columns. The fact that Mr. Gregory 
was the original introducer of some of our most 
Taluable vegetables, that he grows a large pro- 
portion of the varieties of seed he sells, and 
warrants everything to be both fresh and true 
to name, will have its weight with shrewd 
farmers. 



A Teue Sentiment. — We welcome a new 
contributor, a matron, to the Rcbal, who gives 
the following paragraph in an oS-hand note to 
ns: "In my view too much cannot be done, 
to elevate the producing classes, and inspire 
them with a sense of their importance in the 
community, in order that they may learn and 
practice the principles of thrift, industry and 
economy." 

OnFile.— Peanut Raising; Notes by E. M. 
D.; Letter from Kalamazoo; Scenes in the High 
Sierras; A many sided question; Ideas; Birth- 
day Garlands, etc.; From Sherman Island; 
Eggs vs. Riches; Roots, Pumpkins and Brown- 
bread; Letter from Reno; Oakland Jottings. 
Graham Pie-crust; Irrigation and .Summer Fal- 
low by W. N. G.; Plum Growing by J. M. 



The Silk Worm Egg Trade. 

Several weeks since a car load of silk worm 
eggs, on the way from Japan to It»ly, left this 
city by the Pacific Railroad, showing that such 
freight may come Jby San Francisco ; and in 
this article we propose to consider the possi- 
bility of inducing the European purchasers of 
bombyx eggs to send them all this was, in- 
stead of by Suez. 

The cost, in Japan, of the eggs sent to En- 
rope, annually, is about $4,500,000, Italy tak- 
ing two-thirds of the amount. The weight may 
be 2,000,000 "ounces," according to the accep- 
ted phraseology, though the eggs are never 
weighed, nor are they ever separated from the 
pasteboard on which they are laid by the butter- 
fly and to which they are immediately glued fast. 
Counting the pasteboard and package, the en- 
tire freight, as prepared for shipment, proba- 
bly weighs 250 tons. This is a comparatively 
small matter in bulk, but in direct value and in 
indirect influence, it is not very small. 

The Suez route is at present preferred, be- 
cause the agents who accompany the freight 
can make the trip in the French steamers, on 
which they find themselves among people 
from southern Europe, with whom they can 
converse and have a pleasant time ; whereas on 
the American route they find people who do 
not speak any language known to them, and 
are, perhaps, less sociable than their own 
countrymen. Again, the time is fifteen days 
shorter to Italy by Suez than by San Francisco, 
even for the mail; and for ordinary freight 
several months shorter. By the Red Sea the 
freight goes as fast as the mail; but not this 
way. The freight is handled only once on the 
Suez route — at Hongkong; whereas on this route 
it is handled at San Francisco, Ogden, Omaha, 
Chicago, New York and Havre — six times; and 
the repeated handlings are injurious to the 
eggs. 

The charge differs but little by the two routes. 
By Suez, from Yokohama to Venice, it is $660 
per short ton; to Milan by San Francisco, it is 
$600, for fast freight. That was the price paid 
for the last shipment passiue this way, and it 
was to go through with the mail. A special 
agreement was, however, requisite for the 
avoidance of delay, by this route, but by Suez 
no special contract is needed. 

The San Francisco route has a decided advan- 
tage in the matter of temperature. Between 
Hongkong and Jidda, in the Red Sea, the 
steamers are in the torrid zone for 5,000 miles 
and fifteen days; and more than half the dis- 
tance is within ten degrees of the Equator. 
The temperature is uncomfortably hot at all 
seasons, but is not injurious to the eggs, if 
they be shipped in August, September or Oc- 
tober. 

It happens, however, that eggs are usually 
much cheaper in November and December, the 
decline being sometimes as much as 60 per 
cent., and we are assured by Mr. Agrati, now 
in this city, who is familiar with the business, 
that the average decline is not less than iO per 
cent.; so that the eggs bought for $4,500,000 
before November, could be bought about the 
beginning of December, for $2,700,000. The 
saving would be $1,800,000 annually — a 
nice little sum for one year's business. Half 
the amount might be struck off to allow for 
contingencies, and it would still deserve atten- 
tion. As our route from Yokohama to Milan 
in no place passes south of latitude 35->, the 
eggs can be safely shipped this way at any 
time between August and March, thus giving a 
much longer period for making the purchases, 
and managing the business in every way. 

It is desirable not only that the freight 
should come this way, but also that purchases 
should be made through San Francisco houses, 
who should have agencies in the cities of Italy. 
The enterprise might begin in a small way one 
year with the transmission of samples, to be 
sold at the various sericultural centers, and at 
the close of the season, the owners of mulberry 
plantations could receive notice to send in 
their orders. They select^a sample, order a 
certain cumber of ounces, and pay half the 
price in advance and the remainder on deliv- 
ery. By this method the amount of capital 
required is not very large, and the profit on 
the business, if properly conducted, may be 
considerable. 

The business of sending men from Italy to 
Japan to buy bombyi eggs began about ten 
years ago, when four agents made all the pur- 
chases, but in 1873 the number had increased 
to sixty-five Italians, besides Frenchmen, and 
there will be a considerable increase next fall. 
San Franciscans, however, would have decided 
advantages over any Europeans. They would 
find many Japanese who speak English; their 
proximity and connection with Japanese would 
give them more familiarity with the business 
of the islands; and the political influence of the 
American Embassador and Consuls might ob- 
tain permission for them to travel through the 
interior and get much belter bargains than can 
be had in the seaports. American merchants 
might likewise be better able to obtain greater 
facilities and lower freights from the transpor 
tation companies. Those of our business men 
who wish to examine the matter in detail are 
referred to Hon. C. E. DeLong and G. Agrati, 
Esq., both of whom are now in San Francisco. 
—Alta. 

Why not raise the eggs in California and re- 
ceive the millions of dollars paid to the people 
of Japan? Is it because our climate is unfa' 
vorable to their production, or do we lack_ eX' 



perience, or is it that we have not sufficient 
enterprise to find a market for what we do 
raise? There seems to have been a fatality at- 
tending our attempts at silk growing, and even 
the production of eggs for the European 
market, has not been attended with profit. 

Last week we commenced an excellent article 
on silk culture by Felix Gillet, which will be 
continued next week, and which we hope will 
enlighten us on the subject, and help to es- 
tablish the growing of silk and silk-worm eggs 
upon a permanent and profllable basis. 

Dove-Tail Mode of Grafting the Grape. 

Mr. Johnston, a zealous British cultivator 
of the vine, of long and extensive experi- 
ence, who has tried every method of grafting 
known, and has come to the conclusion that 
for vines there is no better method than that 
which he practiced for a number of years with 
every success, and which he has very properly 
termed "dove-tail grafting." It is simple, as 
well as sure, and fruit can be obtained from the 
first year after its insertion. The grafting is 
performed in the following manner, and before 
the sap is in motion: The stock may be of one 
year's growth, or more; but young wood, from 
one to four years' old, is preferable. The places 
selected for inserting the graft should be oppo- 
site a bud, or {spur, with one or more buds 
to draw the flow of sap to the scion, which 
also prevents bleeding. Having selected the 
stock, the wood should be cut out of it from 2 
to 2^9 inches in length, to a depth correspond- 
ing to the thickness of the scion, in the same 
manner as dove-tailing iu carpentry is per- 
formed. The scion is then prepared by being 





DOVE-TAIL aBAFTING. 

cut into the pith, leaving the bud in the mid- 
dle, and made to fit neatly into the stock, after 
which it is firmly tied with matting and clayed 
over, leaving a small hole opposite the bud, so 
as not to obstruct its growth. A little moss 
is then tied over all, and kept moist for some 
time till the bud begins to grow. After it has 
grown some length, the opposite shoots are 
shortened, and eventually taken off altogether. 
We clip the above from the Rural Carolinian, 
showing how the amateur grape-grower with a 
few choice vines, or those he would like to 
have choice, can have them grafted anywhere 
above ground on a branch of suitable size, with 
a fair assurance of success. But for grafting 
the grape on a large scale, expeditiously and in 
or near the root, we greatly prefer the methods 
illustrated and described in Vol. 5, pages 57 
and 89 of Rdeal Pbess. 



Teachings of the Aoes. — We have received 
from A. L. Bancroft & Company, a book of 
399 pages, bearing the above title. 

The work is of a religio-philosophical char- 
acter. Its plan is broad and comprehensive, 
embracing in its grand sweep of the ages, the 
past, present and future of humanity. In the 
treatment of the subject matter the author is 
suggestive rather than argumentative, and in- 
troduces the reader to vast unexplored fields 
of thought. Send for the work, that you may 
learn something from the "Teachings of the 
Ages." Price in Cloth Binding, Three Dol- 
lars, fsent ;by mail, postage paid, upon receipt 
of price. Published by A. L. Bancroft & Co., 
721 Market St., San Francisco. 

Inquibt FBOM Idaho. — "Will not the vine 
bleed too much if allowed to remain late iu the 
spring before being pruned?" 

Vines bleed freely from the first flow of sap 
in the spring, until the buds begin to start; 
after that time, but very little, and never to 
their injury. If they should bleed after that 
time, it serves only to retard the early develop- 
ment of the leaf, which is just what we want in 
a climate liable to late frosts. 



Bbonze Tubkess. — The advertisement of M. 
Eyre, in this week's Bubai., is well worthy of 
notice, as showing the variety of choice fancy 
stock, which at large cost he is introducing to 
our poultry fanciers. 



Farmers' Homes. oO 



We claim to know a good deal abont farmers' 
homes, we have been among them all our life ; 
we have seen and felt their comforts and 
discomforts, and we know well the sources 
from whence these conditions spring. And 
yet among all their innumerable diversity of 
causes, there is no one mor« fruitful of discon- 
tent to the household than a neglect to make 
home and its surroundings pleasant. 

There is nothing else that can secure content- 
ment to those of the family who must stay at 
home, equal to a neat and tasteful house in the 
midst of shade and ornamental trees. Of course, 
if the owner .has these, he has good sense, and 
that makes the garden a necessity. Who ever 
heard complaint from a family with these sur- 
roundings ? The boys take a pride in keeping 
everything tidy, from the lawn in front, back 
to and around all the farm buildings. They 
like to have their friends who call, observe the 
condition of their home, because they know it 
will bear scrutiny; in a word, they are proud 
of their home. 

Examples are peedful in all communities, 
and a beautiful, well kept homestead not only 
confers a pleasure on the passer-by, but is very 
certain to prompt a man of any spirit to try 
and improve his own grounds. Let children 
have books and papers, let them be surrounded 
with tasteful natural objects and they will as 
certainly become more refined iu thought from 
their early familiarity with the beautiful in art 
and nature. 

With such surroundings as we have named 
very few young men would be found eager to 
throw off the attachments of such a home, for 
the allurements of city life, its hollow gayities 
and dissipations. Farmers, try and make home 
pleasant, for he who does this, is a public 
benefactor. 

Important. 

Our heading would seem to indicate that we 
were about to present something of importance 
to our readers in what follows; but it is simply 
to direct their attention to an article in our 
columns this week under the head of "Conti- 
nental Correspondence." 

In that article will be found quite a differen 
view, from the general American opinion, on 
the subject of summer fallows.' We want our 
small farmers, who can or do adopt rotation, 
and have not so much land as to despair of 
manuring all that they till, at least once in 
the course of a rotation, to carefully digest the 
subject as presented, and then see if the fallow 
is in all cases, just what, in our own country ia 
claimed for it. 

Next, we want your attention to the wages 
paid for farm labor in France, and who 
of the people are willing to work, and who 
turn out on two special days of the year to be 
hired. And here we would remark that as the 
prices are given in francs, by simply allowing 
twenty cents to the franc and five francs to the 
dollar, there will be no difficulty in getting at 
the dollars and cents. 

Then we would particularly ask your atten- 
tion to the account given of one of the beet 
sugar factories in France; its enormous capacity 
of working up the tons of beets per day, viz: 
360 tons, and comparing it with our best fac- 
tory which only works 80 tons per day, with 
the strangest of all facts glaring at us, that 
even at 80 tons a day the company is not able 
to grow beets enough in all California to keep 
their sugarie in operation but fotu months out 
of six, the latter being the usual length of the 
sugar campaign in France. 

See also the yield of sugar, only 5 to 514 P^r 
cent, whilst ours yield 8 per cent. Notice what 
is said of the use of manure on beet land, the 
tons of beets per acre, rent of land, etc., and 
what is said about the use of salt on the farm 
and the raising of beef and mutton. Altogether 
it is an excellent article to set our farmers to 
thinking, not only as to what they had better 
try and produce, but also the best.way of do^ 
ing it. 

Novel Conoebt. — There is to be a promenade 
concert at Brayton Hall, Oakland, on the 22d 
inst., in aid of the First Baptist Church. A, 
$250 set of parlor furniture has been donated 
by Schreiber &, Co., and is now on exhibition 
in their window on Broadway, near Twelfth, 
street. It is to be presented to the clergyman 
who shall receive the largest number of votea 
at the entertainment. Ticket-holders may vote, 
fot any clergj-man on the coast. 



January 17, 1874.] 



Continental Correspondence. 

Park, Fbance, Nov. 29, 1873. 
It may seem strange to many to be informed 
that the agricultural world in France is organ- 
izing a crusade against the reprehensible prac- 
tice of allowing lands to lie in fallow. The 
evil is more general tbam might be supposed, 
and is limited to no particular district. If it 
does not progress, neither does it retrograde. 
Perhaps we are about where Young found us. 
This state of things is not creditable. The 
system does not enrish the soil, but impover- 
ishes the farmer, and yet it exists despite the 
lessons of science, conclusive examples, and 
against even the good sense of those who 
adopt it. In other respects the agriculture of 
France has made rapid strides in the way of 
progress. The obstinate adherence to the 
triennial rotation, two grain crops succeeding 
a year's fallow, is attributed to deficiency of 
capital, which does not allow of the farmer 
maintaining stock, that is, to have a supply of 
manure; to the proprietors who consider their 
interest to lie in the cultivator's not taking as 



farmers to practice economy, but rendering 
manufacturing operations so insecure that no 
work can be found in the towns. In the cen- 
ter of France, where the farm-laborer is best 
paid, his wages during the winter, or "short 
months," are about 46 francs, or equal to one 
and three-quarter francs per day. Supposing 
he has a wife and two children, the consump- 
tion of bread for the family may be estimated 
at six pounds daily, which, at the price of lone 
franc per four pounds, nearly absorbs all he 
earns. Farm servants in France are engaged 
at two seasons of the year — St. John's day and 
All Saints. The former is the more important, 
as the wages paid for the period of four months 
are about the same as are given for the re- 
maining eight. On the two holidays in ques- 
tion, the boys and girls assemble in the market 
squares of the various towns to be hired. The 
young women carry a bouquet in their corsage, 
and the lads a ribbon in the button-hole of 
their coats, to indicate that they are opeu to 
every eligible offer. Now, the first of this 
month the offers were exceptionally superior 
to the demands. Fathers, suspecting hard 
times to be coming, recommended those of 



of his estate to what are called as many "col- 
onies" or groupes of families. In this case 
each family consisted of four able-bodied intelli- 
gent men, their wives, and children. A deed 
was drawn up wherein he guaranteed fixed re- 
muneration in money or in kind, and a share 
in net profits. He supplied them with the 
capital to purchase their share of the stock, 
charging them five per cent, interest. The ad- 
vance has been rapid during the foui th year in 
cash, and the value of the live and dead stock 
enhanced for mutual benefit. Where formerly 
such families but vegetated, they now live. 
Having experienced the attraction of acquired 
property, the taste to add to it has been devel- 
oped. Where there was want, plenty now 
reigns, and if the families so desire, they can 
realize the wish of Henri IV, to see a fowl in 
the pot every Sunday. Instead of dreaming of 
immigration to the town, the families have be- 
come attached to the country. Marriages have 
been contracted as prosperity increased, and 
happiness was only augmented the more they 
became fruitful. 

One of the oldest and most important beet 
factories in France is that of Bourdon, at Mont- 



ornamental kind. The additional tax' on salt 
vexes farmers, who employ a good deal of it 
rather as an appetizer for stock than as a tonic 
for the soil, and although a philosopher con- 
siders salt detrimental to vegetation because 
it killed off some of his kidney beans in a 
flower pot, agriculturists accustomed to employ 
it as a stimulant will not be easily frightened 
nto giving it up.— Western Fai-m Journal. 

SQinBREi. Exterminator. — We do not know 
how many plans there are for killing squirrels, 
but there are a good icany, and the best one 
will be extensively adopted if the new "Squir- 
rel Law " is passed. The trouble with some 
of the poisons in use is that they are dangerous 
to handle, are apt to take fire, and, moreover, 
are pretty expensive. Mr. Jed. T. Hoythasset 
himself to work to remedy these defects and 
has been around the country for some little 
time experimenting with various kinds of poi- 
sons, under the direction of H. P. Wakelee, a 
well-known druggist of this city. The result 




SNOW-SHOE RACING IN THE MOUNTAINS OF CALIFORNIA. See Page 43 fob Descbiptive Abticle. 



much as he can judiciously from the soil, but 
in his not using out the land; to leases which 
stipulate that a follow shall be adopted. But 
perhaps the principal cause may be traced to 
routine. According to reliable calculations, 
the fallow system entails a loss of 75 francs 
per acre, and per contra, were this sum expend- 
ed on manures alone, there would be a net 
gain of 90 francs per acre instead of a loss. 
Market gardening is the essence of the rotation 
principle. Plants there are alternated with 
judgment, and are all well manured. What 
would such a cultivator think if he were ad- 
vised to leave a plot untilled for a twelve 
month? Naturally he would laugh, and why? 
Because he is aware manure repairs all 
breaches made in the fertility of his allotment. 
A copious feast secures more true repose from 
the soil than a year's sleep. However, since 
farmers feel that foreign competition excludes 
them from the wool and grain markets, and 
that the price of meat is chronically on the in- 
crease, the necessity of cultivating forage and 
root crops is producing converts, by that most 
eloquent and mildest of reasons to which we 
all submit — self-interest. 

The political agitations which ebb and flow 
with the tide, and unhappily nearly as regu- 
larly, are telling on the position of the agricul- 
tural laborers, not only by compelling the 



their children who were suitable, to relieve 
the hive by seeking employment. Unfortu- 
nately, on the other side, the farmer had made 
his calculations in a similar spirit. For simple 
John Hodge, the worst of governments is that 
under which he suffars from hunger and can 
get no work. Why cannot capital be as easily 
invested in working a farm as in carrying on 
a factory ? It is said the inability to clearly 
draft a deed of partnership, the impossibility 
of conducting a simple and intelligent system 
of book-keeping, by which the capitalist can 
comprehend at a glance how the money goes, 
are the chief obstacles. 

The success after six years' trial, obtained by 
M. de Saint Project, in his plan of applying 
the principle of co-operation to the mitaj/ai/e 
system, merits attentive consideration. In the 
south, the west, and the centre of France, is 
comprised the mitayage region; that is to say 
where the landed proprietor contributes more 
or less of the stock and shares the produce 
with the cultivator. For proprietors whose 
occupations or tastes prevent their living near 
their lands, the mitayage plan possesses serious 
drawbacks. To ameliorate it would include a 
social as well as an agricultural benefit. Co- 
operation, so far as farming is concerned, is 
but a new name for an old custom. M. de 
Saint Project allotted three different portions 



ferrand. It works up 360 tons of beets in the 
day, which are purchased at the rate of 16 francs 
per ton, the pulp being sold at 12 francs. The 
yield of sugar varies from 5 to 5% per cent. 
Upwards of 22 tons of molasses are daily dis- 
tilled, 200 pounds of which yield 25 quarts of 
alcohol, and the residue, when evaporated, pro. 
duces from 10 to 17 per cent, of potash. The 
country round is very rich, more fertile than 
the "black lands" of Kussia. Manure is rarely 
employed, the farmers alleging that it makes 
no difference in the yield. Wheat and beet is 
the rotation followed. The wheat is peculiar- 
ly rich in gluten, and is in request for making 
macoaroni. The return of beet is 20 tons to the 
acre, and the rent of the latter varies from 70 
to 120 francs. The factory only employs oxen 
for draft purposes, of which 500 are in request, 
half that number being annually fattened for 
the market. 

Much attention is being directed to guano 
and chemical manures, with the view of escap- 
ing imposition. Intermediary dealers in com- 
mercial manures are rapidly disappearing, as 
farmers are purchasing directly at the genuine 
depots. The feeling is spreading, that the pro- 
duction of beef and mutton must be the sheet 
anchors henceforth for French farmers. There 
is an increase in efforts for the breeding and 
rearing of horses of a useful, rather than of an 



is that ho has made a poisonous substance in 
the shape of small tablets which are eagerly' 
eaten by the squirrels. Mr. Hoyt tells us thai' 
there is no danger of fire in the use of this ma- 
terial, which is put up in tin cans with proper 
directions for use. He is now soliciting orders 
for the poison, as will be seen by advertise- 
ment in our columns. We wish those who test 
this poison to send us their experience with it 
for the benefit of many readers. 



Beoom Corn. — We have received a postal 
card from Ventura, asking the proper quantity 
of broom corn seed for an acre; also the price. 

From 15 to 18 pounds of seed to the acre; 
and will cost ten cents a pound in the city. We 
would have answered by card, but we could not 
make out the signature. 

Obanbebby Cultube.— We have received au 
interesting letter from "Sage Brusher," Keno, 
Nevada, which will appear next week. His 
inquiry in regard to cranberry culture, will also 
then receive attention. 



42 



[January 17, 1874. 



PodLjflY Y\f^o. 



Game Fowls. 

The Game fowl is generally conceded to 
bear the same relation to other fowls that 
the high-bred racer does to the equine 
species. It is the highest type of grace, 
beauty and courage of the race. For many 
years, during which other breeds have 
waxed and waned in popularity, the Games 
have held steadily on in public estimation, 
not in the least affected by the storms 
which have raged outside their own little 
world. Filling their own peculiar niche, 
they having numbered their fanciers 
among all classes, from the clergy down to 
the stable boy; and although no longer 
bred for the pit, as in days gone by, they 
seem to have lost none of the favor in 
which they have always been held by those 
who admire the graceful and beautiful in 
nature. 

Where they can have ample range, there 
are probably no fowls which rival them. 
They combine hardiness, eggs and flesh 
producing qualities, grace and beauty, 
combined with an ability to take care of 
themselves in a greater degree than any 
other. For the table they have long been 
considered without rival by those who 
wore familiar with their peculiar excel- 
lence, ailthough they have had to dispute 
the honors with the white, juicy-meated 
Dorkings and Houdans. 

The cocks are very handsomely colored, 
having bright red necks and backs, with 
black breasts and tails, bright red eyes, 
and clean shapely heads. The shanks are 
willow blue, yellow or white; willow be- 
ing the most popular with fanciers. 

The hen is of a rich brown, beautifully 
and delicately pencilled with black. She 
should be close and hard feathered, and 
shows the peculiar heart, or flat-iron 
shaped body characteristic of the breed. 
Her tail should be long and narrow when 
folded, but when expanded, large and fan- 
like. — National Live Stock Journal. 

Management of Ducks. 

A correspondent of the Ohio Farmer 
says: — Having raised nearly all the lead- 
ing varieties of ducks for the last six or 
eight years, and in every limited accom- 
modations, perhaps I can make plain my 
method to all interested. A great deal 
has been writen about the importance of 
a large pond or stream in raising ducks, 
and the folly of keeping them with such 
water. In my own case I have proved by 
experience that a tub or pail kept full is 
all that is necessary to roar ducks with 
perfect success. I have won numberless 
prizes upon ducks which have never been 
in the water since they were hatched. 
With regard to the duck house. Many 
standard works on poultry advise a ground 
or brick floor in preference to one of xilank. 
I have tried all three plans and find 
that the ground or a brick floor in a duck 
house will bring on paralysis, rheuma- 
tism and many other complaints. 

I have the floor of my house made of 
inch plank, raised a foot or more from 
the ground on stone piers, thus avoiding 
all dampness. This plan also enables a 
terrier to "clean out" the rats which 
would otherwise burrow under the build- 
ing. Large windows are placed on the 
south the doors opening under such win- 
dows opening to a small ,'run" or "wad- 
dle." In winter the floor is covered with 
a thin bedding of hay, in summer with 
saw-dust, which being an excellent absorb- 
ent renders the air at all times, sweet and 
pure. When the bedding becomes foul, 
it is swept out and the floor washed with 
hot water. I raise the Bouen, Crested 
Cuban, Musk and common breeds, each 
of course having a separate apartment, 
that of the Musk being provided with 
roosting poles. The best egg-producing 
food is another important point in raising 
any variety of ducks. After buying every 
kind of grain I have found that oats will 
produce Irrger numbers of eggs where all 
other food has failed. The best way to 
feed oats is in a pail of water, the exer- 
cise given the ducks by feeding in this 
way will keep them in perfect health. 
With this treatment my Musk ducks 
weigh when grown, viz., males, twelve and 
one-half to fourteen pounds, females nine 
pounds. My prize ducks at the Conn, 
show in 1869, 1870 and 1872, weighed a 
trirte over the above estimate. Diflerent 
breeds of ducks vary in the time of cuba- 
tion, liouen, Cayanga, Ayelsbury, and 
common duck eggs hatching in four weeks, 
while those of Musk (improperly called 
Muscova) take live weeks. Their eggs 
should generally be set under hens, and 
Brabmas are best for this purpose, being 



more steady setters and better mothers. 
The first food for ducklings when hatched 
should be the yolk of a hard boiled egg 
and when a week old, oatmeal is excellent 
for them. When young they should be 
cooped up until sun is up on account of 
the wet grass which chills and ruins 
more young fowls of all kinds than any 
other cause. When three or four weeks 
old they may be liberated with the moth- 
er and they will soon learn to go with the 
old ducks. Ducklings should never be 
housed at night with the old ducks as they 
are liable to persecution from them. 
With this care I have had great success, 
and doubt not that others will have the 



Buckwheat for Fowls. 

L. Wright has recently published the 
following on this topic: — I am quite puz- 
zled to tell why it is so constantly affirm- 
ed that it is not good food, and that the 
birds do not like it, for my experience is 
the direct contrary; and not only so, but 
I have during the last few years recom- 
mended it to many scores of persons, and 
in no one case have I found their exper- 
ience different from my own. I always 
find that fowls prefer it to any grain they 
can have, and if a mixture be thrown down 
containing all grains, the buckwheat will 
always be picked up first, maize next, and 
then other corn. Fowls that have never 
had it will sometime stare at it the first 
time, but they quickly begin to pick it up. 
I cannot see that it is at all a stimulating 
or forcing diet, and the mere fact that it 
is the common poultry food in France, 
and even here for pheasants, should be 
enough to dispel such an idea. It requires, 
however, to be given with common sense, 
not owing to its qualities, but simply on 
account of its color. If it is thrown upon 
grass the fowls cannot thrive, for the sim- 
ple reason that the buckwheat is so nearly 
the color of the ground that it can hardly 
be found by the birds, and they are real- 
ly starved. It has sometimes struck me 
that perhaps this may be the reason of 
our poultry editor's ill success with it. 
But if it be thrown on a bare place where 
it can be seem, there is no difficulty, and 
I have constantly given it to fowls which 
have never seen it before. Buckwheat is 
also capital food for chickens. They will 
eat it at three weeks old, when other grain 
must be cracked for them, and they, too, 
will eat more of it than any other grain 
except whole grits. Some years ago I fed 
on buckwheat meal ground up with husk 
and all for one season, and the chickens 
did well, and grew very large. I should 
have repeated the experiment but for the 
difficulty of getting the buckwheat ground. 
Of late, indeed, the grain itself has been 
very scarce and dear, owing, no doubt , to 
the late war;heDce it is not at present so 
relatively cheap a food as formerly, but 
even now I think it as cheap as barley be- 
ing a heavier grain. 



TJ|e Swif^E YaV- 



Late Chickens fob Sumsiek Eoas. — It 
is quite usual for many poultry raisers to 
sare the earliest broods for layers the next 
season. This is all right so far as lat« win- 
ter, and early spring eggs are concerned. 
One of the principal reasons, however, why 
farmers do not have a continuance of eggs 
during the summer is that they do not 
save late broods of chickens for successive 
laying of eggs. We always save some, 
both from the earliest clutches and also 
from the late ones, even so late as August, 
by which we have eggs all through the hot 
weather. Try it and note i\e results. 
You will not be disappointed. Young hens 
do not make so good mothers as older ones 
and we should not allow them to sit until 
they had laid eggs one season. If not al- 
lowed to sit, they will soon recommence 
laying, and by having some two year old 
pullets for sitting you will find your pro- 
fits largely increased thereby. — Western 
Rural. 



CuAKCOAL Foii PouLTBT.— The benefit 
which fowls derive from eating charcoal 
is, I believe, acknowledged. The method 
of i^utting it before them is, however, not 
well understood. Pounded charcoal is 
not in the shape in which fowls usually 
find their food, and consequently is not 
very enticing to them. I have found that 
corn burnt on the cob, and the refuse — 
which consists almost entirely of the 
grains reduced to charcoal, and still re- 
taining their perfect shape — placed before 
them, is greedily eaten by them, with a 
marked improvement in their health, as is 
shown by the brighter color of their combs, 
and their sooner producing a greater aver- 
age of eggs to the flock than before. — 
Poultry World. 



Fattening Pigs. 

The Michigan Farmer says: — One of the 
best pig breeders we know is W. Smith, 
the well-known master of the Marine Meat 
Market in Detroit. He has a taste for 
keeping the best hogs that are to be had. 
Few can excel him in the fineness of pure- 
bred Suffolks, Essex, Berkshires and Po- 
lands which he breeds. He has the faculty 
of making the most out of the pig that can 
be made. One of his points of fattening a 
pig is the use of the pen stock to wash it 
clean, and the curry-comb to keep its skiii 
in a perfectly healthy condition; he is also 
particular to have it fed regularly every 
day, always at the same time to a minute. 
He changes the food from time to time, 
and when once the pig has started to get 
fat it is never allowed to go back. 

One of the best kinds of food to start 
pigs with consists of peas or beans mixed 
with the offal of the dairy or the buttery, 
with a little fine corn-meal thrown in. 
Barley-meal is excellent, or crushed oats, 
but no food is equal to peas for a food to 
start on. Both peas and corn should be 
steeped in water, the hotter the better 
and allowed to stand and soak up all they 
will. We notice this is the treatment that 
makes Smith so successful. 

Some of his pigs when started will gain 
three pounds a day ; and we have seen in 
his stalls Essex and Suffolk crosses that 
would dress 330 pounds at ten or eleven 
months old. But one of the fattening 
processes was a bath, with a flexible hose, 
at least twice a week. The hogs get so 
used to this that they like it, and seem to 
know when they are to enjoy this luxury, 
for they will come out and lie down as 
quick as the water begins to^ play upon 
them. 

It is the quick fattening that pays, and 
hogs thus treated make as profitable a re- 
turn, oven with pork at 5 to 6 cent?, as 
any part of the farm produce. 

Then again a hog should have a dry 
place to lie; in fact a good, well sheltered 
pen, with a dry plank under him, where 
he can sleep without disturbance, some- 
what dark and shady, with no drafts of 
wind penetrating through it, rather low in 
the roof, so that the animal heat he gen- 
generates will surround him with a tem- 
perature that is pleasant; and when accus 
tomed to be fed regularly there is no ani 
mal more punctual in its appearance at 
the trough. Then he should be fed all he 
will eat — not an ounce more. No food 
should remain in the trough after he gets 
through, and then it should be thorough 
ly cleaned out. 

When put up to feed in this wise the 
hog does not need any excercise, nor does 
he require space for it. His whole com 
fort is in returning to his lair, and have a 
good opportunity, undisturbed by outside 
affairs, to increase in weight, and to make 
an ample return to hia owner for the food 
he has enjoyed. 



Sugar Beet fob Swine. — Jonathan Tal- 
cott gives a statement in the Boston Culti- 
vator of an experiment performed on a 
Suffolk pig where sugar beets were large- 
ly employed for fattening. The animal 
was about a year old, and the feeding on 
boiled sugar beets, tops and root, began 
on the 16th of August, and was continued 
three times a day until the 1st of October, 
after which ground feed was given, con- 
sisting of two parts of corn and one of 
oats, three times a day, until the animal 
was slaughtered, the meal being mixed 
with cold water. The result was, on 
August, IGth, when the sugar beet feeding 
was begun, that the weight was 3G0 lbs. ; 
September 1st, 390 lbs.; October Ist, 450 
lbs. ; November 1st, 520 lbs. This ia the 
substance of the statement given, by 
which we perceive that the increase the 
last of August, when fed on boiled sugar 
beets, was at the rate of two pounds per 
day; the same rate of increase on the same 
food continued through September. 
When fed on ground corn and oats, made 
into cold slop, the gain for the next fifty 
days was less than a pound and a half per 
day. 

The Stock Journal , after giving a num- 
ber of experiments in feeding corn to pigs, 
remarks that these experiments show that 
there is within a fraction of twenty-four 
pounds of pork in a bushel of corn; and 
the effort of every farmer should be to en- 
deavor to get out as much as ho can of it. 
And to do this he must have the right itind 
of hogs; they must be placed in the right 
condition, and fed in the right manner, 
with a view to profit. 



WHEAT; Etc. 



The Future Wheat Supply. 

The use of wheat bread is constantly 
increasing over the whole world. Rye 
and Indian, oatmeal, and rice are gradu- 
ally losing ground, and for the reason, aa 
has been stated, that there are great im- 
provements in the manufacture of flour. 
This reason is probably not the true one. 
Wealth is increasing, and people dress 
better and live in more comfortable 
houses than formerly. Wheat bread ia 
the food of a civilized man, while corn, 
oats and other coarse grain are deficient 
in qualities which make fine muscles, and 
which enter into the composition of a 
well organized brain. When Indians beg, 
they ask first for biscuit, "bisgit;" and 
when an Arab is given corn bread, he 
looks on it with contempt. The Chinese 
prefer wheat flour to rice, and the South 
American ranchman gladly exchanges 
wool for Baltimore flour. The people of 
the Southern States always pretended to 
like corn bread best, but on Sunday 
morning biscuits were on the table, and 
the negro, being now free, thinks so much 
of flour that he will pay out his last dime 
for it, even if he has to go without whisky. 
In the slavery days flour was a most ac- 
ceptable gift from a young colored man to 
his girl when he went to see her; it was 
more choice than candy, or "honey in the 
honeycomb." The demand for flour by 
the Asiatics and the Pacific Islanders is 
constantly increasing, notwithstanding 
they have trees which bear bread, milk 
and tallow, and so also is butter Coming 
into request. It is tolerably certain that 
neither ancient nor modern Asiatics ever 
made butter as an article of food, and it 
would seem that wheat bread and butter 
must go together. With this great de- 
maud for wheat, it is somewhat alarming 
to consider that the whole United States 
east of the Mississippi does not raise 
enough for the people, and that it is be- 
coming an important question how they 
are to be supplied in the near future, say- 
ing nothing about Europeans and Asiat- 
ics. At present, Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
Kansas, Iowa and Nebraska mainly fur- 
nish the surplus required, but if we are 
to judge by the past, the soil of these sec- 
tiuns will in a few years become so im- 
po/erished that wheat growing will cease 
to be profitable. The only regions re- 
maining are California and the interior 
embraced by the several Territories, and 
unless some new methods of cultivation 
shall be introduced, the surplus, if we 
have any, must come from, countries 
where rain seldom falls, and which most 
Eastern farmers think wholly unfit for 
habitation. The truth really is, these arid 
countries have an almost incalculable ca- 
pacity for wheat growing; and it is likely 
that Montana surpasses all others, though 
at present it is so remote and inaccessible 
that no more than what is needed at home 
is grown. The great Missouri and many 
large tributaries flow through Montana, 
giving vast volumes of water that can be 
used for irrigation, and with good farming 
the yield per acre is marvelous. Colo- 
rado can grow an immense surplus, so can 
New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Idaho and 
Nevada, while we all know that California 
bears the palm through all the world; nor 
is Oregon much behind. The future sur- 
plus of wheat then must, at a no distant 
day, come from the mountain regions in 
the heart of the continent; and it is worth 
while to add that the average quality is so 
high that Eastern farmers have no con- 
ception how high it is. 

If, then, the increased use of wheat 
bread is indicative of an advancing civil- 
ization, it is natural to conclude that the 
superior quality of the surplus for the fu- 
ture will be atill more favorable for the 
human race, and especially to the people 
living where this fine wheat is grown; 
and in addition, another important fact is 
to be mentioned — which is, the purity of 
the atmosphere of all this trans-Missouri 
region, where fevers, agues, and all mala- 
rious diseases are unknown. Everywhere 
snow-capped mountains are in sight, the 
streams are always cold and clear, and the 
sun shines with undiminished splendor 
300 days in the year. — N. Y. Tribune. 

The editor of Moore's Rural speaks of 
meadows which have not been plowed in 
20 years, and yet they yield not only heavy 
but first quality hay; they having always 
been pastured in early Fall, never fed close, 
and occasionally borrowed and top-dressed 
with fine, well-rotted manure. 



January 17, 1874.] 



Snow-Shoeing in the Sierras. 

[Written for the Pkess by 0. W. Hendbl.] 

Near the sammit of the Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains, on the borders of the counties of Sierra 
and Plumas, are the towns of La Porte, How- 
land Flat, St. Louis, noted during the "flush 
times" of California for their enormous yield 
of gold dust, and still retaining fixed charac- 
teristics of the typical honest miner of '49. 

The climate is very salubrious; most deaths 
occur from great intemperance, exposure, acci- 
dents and violence. The spring, summer and 
autumn months will compare favorably with 
the climate of northern Italy. The excessive 
heat prevailing in the valleys lasts for a, few 
days, and only for a few hours during each 
afternoon. The winter months are often very 
severe, but even during the prevalence of the 
great storms, the cold is not so severe as in 
the Eastern States in the same latitude at a less 
altitude, while the snow falls to a great 
depth in these high altitudes. It falls as much 
as 50 to 125 feet during one season in some 
places; though generally there is but little in 
the lower valleys. 

When the snow attains a considerable depth 
in the Sierras, locomotion can only be accom- 
plished by means of the celebrated "Nor- 
wegian snow-shoes," or "Norway skates," 
without which travel would be nearly imprac- 
ticable, and it becomes almost impossible to 
break roads or trails, where the snow often 
covers buildings even two stories high, so that 
people can only make their exit from their 
bouses through the upper windows. It some- 
time happens that a resident has to climb out 
through his chimney, after punching a hole 
through the snow above it. 

Snow-shoes for traveling are from 8 to 12 
feet long, 3% to 4 inches wide, and 1% inches 
thick in the center. They are tapered at the 
top from near the middle to one-fourth of an 
inch in thickness at the toes, and nearly flat. 
The toes are turned up like sleigh runners. 
They are nearly of uniform width from end to 
end — a little wider, if any, on the front — and a 
spring is worked in, so that without weights 
they rest on the heels and points; but when 
the rider stands on them, the weight is some- 
what evenly distributed, and a concave groove 
is made at the bottom, beginniug near the toes 
and running to the heels, similar to the bottom 
of the skates. The bottoms are highly polished, 
and tar is burned and rubbed in until a full, 
mahogany-like finish is obtained, which hard- 
ens the wood, makes a smooth surface, and at- 
tracts heat when exposed to the sun — the lat- 
ter being a desideratum in putting on the 
"dope" when traveling. 

Shoes made for racing are from 10% to 13% 
feet in length, from 3% to 4% inches in width, 
wider on the front part than on , the back. 
Where the turn commences to the heel, or back 
end of the shoe, there is a fluted or concave 
groove about % of an inch deep at the heel 
and tapering in depth from the turn at the 
point. This groove is about 1% inch wide, nar- 
rower at back end than in front. On top o' 
the shoes, a little back from the center, there 
is about 18 inches of wood left flat, and toward 
the front they are shaved and planed, tapering 
Buflaciently to leave the point springy. There is 
considerable wood left behind from the center 
to the end, which makes the proper balance- - 
little or no spring being required on the back 
part — the most essential being the front. The 
object of this is, that in running over rough 
places, there will be no sudden jerk endanger- 
ing the equilibrium of the rider, who often at- 
tains a speed of 60 to 80 miles an hour on 
these shoes. They have a tendency to "buck" 
when going over uneven snow, and the rider 
often finds that they are as uncertain as all 
other things are here below. So great have 
been the improvements made in racing shoes, 
during the past few years, from the original 
style, first introduced 20 years ago, that they 
now appear to have reached perfection. 

The rider stands a little back of the center, 
his feet being held by toe-straps of strong sole 
leather or india-rubber belting, fastened to 
either side of the shoe, and laced, where they 
meet over the foot. The toe of the foot is put 
into the straps back to the ball, and in the hol- 
low of the foot there is a small block inserted 
crosswise to prevent the foot slipping back; 
but this does not prevent the foot, when the 
heel is raised, from being slipped out of the 
straps. The bottom of the shoe resembles a 
skate with a groove, but instead of being con- 



vex, it is concave. This is necessary to bal- 
ance the weight of the rider as equally as 
possible from end to end. They are construct- 
ed on the principle of skates, and to some ex- 
tent the same evolutions are practicable, such 
as allowing the points and curves to describe a 
circle. Of course they cannot be turned so 
easily or quickly as skates, but still they are 
easily managed by experts. 

The sine qxui non of snow-shoe racing is 
" dope." This is the materia! used to lubricate 
the bottom of the shoes and cause them to 
glide swiftly over the snow, as an axle is lubri- 
cated, to cause the wheel to revolve easily, the 
object being to counteract friction as near as 
practicable. To such a perfection has the 
manufacture of this article attained that fric- 
tion has to a great extent been overcome. 

The temperature of the snow is as variable 
as that of the atmosphere, and for every tem- 
perature of snow a difi'erent kind of dope is 
required. Every racer has at least half a 
dozen recipes for compounding the "dope," 
sometimes termed "greased lightning" — one 
for cold snow and one for warm (?) or damp 
snow, as it is called by experts, as when the 
sno^ is heated by the rays of the sun; one for 
dry snow and one for wet, one for hard and 
one for soft; one for forenoon and one for after- 
noon ; for extreme cold or frozen snow ; and for 
new dry snow there is still another kind re- 
quired. Some go so far as to have a diS'erent 
kind for every hour of the day. For moist 
snow the dope is soft, and is made harder for 
increase of temperature, up to the frozen, when 
a hard dope is required. The manufacturer 
requires considerable skill and ingenuity. A 
great deal depends upon the boiling of the 
dope; some requires but a light simmer, enough 
to melt the parts together, while another re- 
quires a good deal of boiling— gum, beeswax, 
rosin, sperm candle, and some other materials 
make an inferior quality of dope, only used for 
traveling purposes, but modern "lightning 
dope" is manufactured from spermaceti, Bur- 
gundy pitch, Canada pitch, balsam of fir, 
spruce, cedar, Venice turpentine, oil of cedar, 
pine, hemlock, fir, spruce and tar, glycerine, 
Barbary tallow, camphor and castor oil and 
many costly drugs known only to those who 
make it a specialty, and its manufacture a 
secret. Oil, grease and such material one 
might naturally suppose would cause a shoe to 
slip easily over the snow; — varnish or any 
other polished material is useless — nothing but 
the scientific preparation will do. It may 
seem that a "snow-shoeist," who enters the 
arena for a hard contested race, to meet all the 
changes of snow must have a commissary and 
necessary varieties of dope, for it is a common 
saying amongst snow-shoers, that "Dope is 
King." 

The dope, in order to be good, must possess 
two qualities: First, it must be sticky, so that 
it will adhere to the shoo; second, slippery, so 
that it will glide over the snow. And, strange 
as it may seem, they have attained such a de- 
gree of perfection in making this compound, 
that a snow shoe prepared with it and placed 
by the side of one with the bottom finished 
with polished steel, would so far outrun it as to 
make it no race at all. In riding for the first 
time down a steep hill on shoes so prepared, 
the great requisite is confidence. Timidity is 
fatal, and for one, on starting down a hill to 
be afraid of falling, will never do; he might 
with as much success try to stem the current of 
the Niagara river as to keep from falling when 
he thinks he may, or has not confidence in 
himself. In racing it is advisable to ride very 
low upon the shoes, in what is called the 
"squatting" position, and to hold the pole in the 
right hand, and in going over any obstruction, 
occasioned at times by a tree lying across the 
track under the snow, or by the wind drifting 
and forming a depression and elevation, which 
will, when a snow-shoeist is going down very 
fast, make a considerable lift; both shoes and 
rider, and sometimes the shoes go on their 
course alone, while the rider is making a 
strange gyratory motion in the air, a thing not 
uncommon with beginners upon these quick 
and uncertain carriers. 

The following fast time has been made at 
different races, as per authentic record, kept 
by the different snow-shoe clubs: 

At La Porte, Plumas county — " Alturas 
Snowshoe Club " — 1,400 feet in 21 seconds, or 
one mile in 1 minute 19.2 seconds; 1,200 feet 
in 15 seconds, or one mile in 1 minute 6 sec- 
onds; 1,230 feet in 14 seconds, or a mile in 1 
minute .09 seconds. This last distance, of 1,230 
feet, was also made by a young Miss of 14 sum- 
mers in 21 seconds, or a mile in 1 minute 30.14 
seconds. 

At Port Wine, Sierra county — " Port Wine 
Snowshoe Club " — 1,030 feet in 12 seconds, or 
a mile in 1 minute 1.51 seconds; 1,025 feet ii> 
12 seconds, or a mile in 1 minute 1.75 seconds. 

At Howland Flat, Sierra county— " Table 
Rock Snowshoe Club — 1,400 feet in 22 seconds, 
or a mile in 1 minute 22.97 seconds; 1,250 feet 
in 21 seconds, or a mile in 1 minute 28.71 sec- 
onds; 1,265 feet in 25 seconds, or a mile in 1 
minute 44.34 seconds; 1,135 feet in 20 seconds, 
or a mile in 1 minute 33.04 seconds; 1,380 feet 
in 19 seconds, or a mile in 1 minute 12.69 sec- 
onds; 1,185 feet in 20 seconds, or a mile in 1 
minute 29.11 seconds. 

At St. Louis, Sierra county, a 9-year old 
girl went over snow drifts and holes, 300 feet 
distance, in 7 seconds, making her mile in 2 min- 
utes 3.2 seconds. 

Great steadiness is required in riding, and 
very perfect control over the shoes; but still 
with all, the best riders some times, plough 



the snow and bound in the air at a fearful 
rate. Serious injury is seldom sustained from 
falling. The greatest danger lies in other 
riders coming in contact with one falling. I 
will venture the assertion that in no place but 
in California can so many men meet, contest- 
ing for prizes and the reputation of so many 
towns, and part in the utmost friendship. 

If skating is healthy, graceful and delightful 
snow-shoeing is equally so, and viewed in a gym- 
nastic light it has everything to recommend it, 
especially in those portions where our long and 
tedious winters are met with, which are there- 
by made seasons of jollity and sport. Within 
a few years even our horses and mules have 
had to learn to travel on snow-shoes. The 
mail contractor on the mail route from La 
Porte invented some kind of a snow-shoe, by 
which his animals are enabled to travel over 
deep and soft snows, which they hardly could 
do before. It is made of heavy India rubber 
belting about three-fourths of an inch thick, 
flat, and in the shape of an octagon, about 
6 to 9 inches in diameter and fastened with 
screws by means of iron bands made to fit 
over their hoops. 

Note.— The illustration of the foregoing article will 
be found on pnge 41. 



Improved Fibeplace. — Fredrick Proudfoot, 
Toronto, Canada, has an invention which con- 
sists of a fireplace, provided with an open front 
and back and a single fuel or fire chamber to 
enable it to be inserted into partition walls of 
rooms for heating two adjacent compartments, 
and so arranged Ihat it can be readily converted 
into a single or one-front fireplace. The in- 
vention further consists in the provision of a 
suspended fire or fuel basket located in the 
chamber of the fireplace, and possessing a 
tubular shank adjustable on a stationary tubu- 
lar post, said basket being also provided with 
counter-balance weights to cause the same to 
be elevated into the chimney when the fuel is 
removed. The invention also consists in the 
use or combination with such a fireplace of a 
steam generating boiler or tank, and pipes to 
convey steam to the fire-basket for aiding the 
combustion of the fuel, while the surplus steam 
is conveyed to the dome of radiation, and final- 
ly to the chimney. 

How TO Treat Burns. — The less that simple 
cuts, bruises and burns are meddled with, the 
better. If they are kept clean and excluded 
from the air, nature will take care of the heal- 
ing process. The salves and lotions so com- 
monly used are generally irritating rather 
than beneficial, and hinder rather than hasten 
the cure. For cuts, a little court-plaster to 
keep the edges of the skin together; for bruises, 
wet cloths; for burns, a covering of dry wheaten 
flour are usually all the treatment, and the very 
best, that can be used. If from an unhealthy 
state of the body or from external irritation, 
inflammation is produced, something more 
may be required, the remedy varying with the 
special case. 



SANTA BARBARA COLLEGE, 

SANTA BARBARA, GAL. 

A Boarding School for Boys and Girl", offeringr all the 

advantages of a thorough modern education. French, 

German, Spaiiifih, Latin, Greek. DrawiuK, the Nuturiil 

Sciences, Gymnastics and Dancinc taught without extra 

charge Vocal and Instrumental Mu&ic receive particular 

attention. Pupils furnish mity a pair of heavy blankets. 

Next term opens January 6th, 1874, 

Writg for Catalogue to ELWOOD COOPER, 

22v6-lv President Board of Directors. 



New and Rare Plants for Spring of 1874. 

John Saul's catalogiie of new and beautiful plants 
will be ready in February, with a colored plate. Mailed 
free to all my customers; to others, price 10 cts. A 
plain copy to all applicants fbee. JOHN SAtIL, 

ja3-eow'-3t Washington City, D. C. 



IMPORTANT TO FARMERS! 
X Line to Liverpool. 

DIRECT. 
The A 1 Iron Ship 



Is intended to sail with dispatch. To bs fol- 
lowed by other vessels. 
Freight taken in lots to suit shippers. 

Apply to E. E. MORGAN'S SONS, 

320 California Street, 
San Francisco. 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 

U»nufacturerB of and Dealers In 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

421 Pine street, between Montgomery and f 

Keamy, San Fkakcisoo. 

21v2.1y 



OoB SpBCULTT : " BEYOND THE MISSISSIPPI." 

or GO WEST, YOUNG IVIAN 1 GO WEST ! 

Gold by tho Busliel I Silver by the Ton I 

Capital required: Nerve and Honest Industry, 
THE 3F'A.Il -WEST, 

The Great Treoiure Cltamhtr of Amfrtra. 
All aboat its Reaoiircei, Mines, Railroads, Lfinda, Indians, 
Climate, and Developments liluatruted and Descrltped in 

CROFUTT'S WESTERN WORLD, 

for ♦1.50 a year. With $''- premium Cliromo, 
'AJsaLTSTVLCAJ^ FKOa-RESS," 
free to each subseribur. 
i |3r Two Bamplo Wobldb sent for 19 Cflntl. Afontl wanted. 



Buyers' Directory. 



Under this head will be found tbe names and address of 
some of our most enterprising and reliable buatiiess men. 



T. R. Church, Z23 Montgomery Street, 

(Rass House Block,) San Francisco. Wholesale and re- 
tail dealer in Mens', Youths' and Boys' Fine Custom- 
made Clothing and Furnishing Goods; also Trunks, 
Valises, Bags, etc. 



Brittan, Holbrook & Co., Importers of 

stoves and Metals, Tinners' Goods, Tof Is and Machines, 
111 and 113 California, 17 and 19 Davis streets, San Fran- 
cisco, and 178 J street, Sacramento. 



San Francisco Wire Works 665 Mission 

St., 8. F. O. H. Gruenhagen i Co., Manufacturers of al 
kinds of Wire Work for Gardens. Cemeteries, Flower 
Stands, Baskets, Tree Boxes, Arches, Bordering and 
Railing. 



Saul & Co., 579 Market Street, San 

Francisco. Manufacturers of Carriages, Wagons and 
Stage Work, of the most improved and practical styles. 



Warner & Silsby Manufacture all kinds of 

Bed Springs, including ttie Obermann Self-Fa9tenins 
Spring, and the Westly Double Spiral, 147 New MonU 
gomery street. 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits; also for the sale of Butter, Eggs, 
Cheese. Hops. Green and Dried Fruits, etc., 75 Warrei 
street. New York. Refer to Anthony Halsey, Oashier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; LUwanger A Barry, 
Rochester, N. Y. ; <". W. Reed, Sacramento, Cal.: A. 
Lusk <t Co., Pacific Fruit Market. San Francisco, Cal. 



THE BEST 

SEWING MACHINE! 

THE NEW IMPROVED 

FLORENCE. 

BACK FEED AND SIDE FEED. 



The lightest running, most simple, and most easily 
operated Sewing Machine in the market. 

Always in order and ready for work. 

In the past ten years ELISVEN THOUSAND Florence 
Machines have been sold by nie on this Coast, and no 
purchaser has paid me anything for repairs If there 
is a Florence Machine within one thousand miles of 
San Francisco not working well I will fix it without 
any expense to the owner. 

SAMUEL. HILL., Agrent, 

NO. 19 NEW MONTGOMERY 8TKEET, 
25v6-4m Grand Hotel Building, B. F. 




The object of this school is to impart a thorough edii- 
cation in business affairs. It is open to persons of both 
sexes and of all ages. There is an English Department 
for those not sufficiently advanced for the Business 
Course. Sessions continue day and evening throughout 
the year. Students can enter at anytime. All wishing 
to be successful should secure a practical education at 
this College. Send for " Heald's College Journal," and 
learn full particulars. Sent free to all by addressing 
E. P. HEALD, Pres. Business College, San Francisco, 
Cal. 2v27-ly 

Don't Have Your Teeth Extracted, 




DR. BEERS' PATENT ENAMELED GOLD 

CROWNS, for Covering Teeth broken down by Decay, 
have been thoroughly tested, and when properly applied 
will surely restore them again to usefulness and beauty. 
Call and see them. Office, 2,10 Kearny street. 

Iv7-oow-bp-3m 

San Francisco Cordage Company. 

Established 1856. 

Wo have just added a large amount of new machinery of 
the latest and most improved kind, and are again prepared 
to fill orders for Rope of any Bpeclal lengths and sizes. Con- 
stantly on handalarge stock of Manila Rope, all sizes ; 
Tarred Manila Rope ; Hay Rope ; Whale I.ino, etc., etc, 
TXTBBS & CO., 

de20 fill and 613 Front street, San Francisco. 



Dividendl Notice. 

SAN FRANCISCO SAVINGS UNION. 

No. 532 California Street, Cor. "Webb. 

For tho half year ending with the aist o( December, 
187,'t, a dividend has been declared, at tho rate of nine 
(fl) per cent, per annum on Term Deposits, and Beven 
and one-half {lii) per cent, per annum on Ordinary 
Deposits— free of Federal Tax— payable on and after 
the twelfth of January, 1874. By order, 

jal0-4w LOVELL WHITE, Cashier. 



44 



i(^^><JL> JiT^ *t\j 4^ S/ «5 » 



[January 17, 1874. 



/^Qf^lcJLTilRA^ flojES. 



CALIFORNIA- 

AMADOR. 

Pbofitable Fabmiso.— ledger, Jan. 3: Wil- 
liam Avala has twenty-five acres iu cultivation, 
principally in vines and fruit trees, as foUovfs: 
17,000 grape vines, principally foreign varie- 
ties; 1,000 bearing peach trees, 500 apple trees, 
150 pear, 125 plum, 100 nectarine, apricot and 
quince trees. These vines and trees cover a 
space of twenty-two acres, the remaining three 
acres being cultivated in melons, corn, pump- 
kins and table vegetables. From the grapes 
Avala has realized anuunlly $2, 000; from the 
fruit trees, $4,000; and from the melons, vege- 
tables, etc., $350, amounting in the aggregate 
to an income of $C,350 per annum from the 
twenty-five acres of land, or at the rate of $254 
per acre. This is certainly a very satisfactory 
return from a small mountain ranch, and will 
compare favorably with the profits of fruit 
raising in any portion of the State. 
BUTTE. 

Record, Jan. 10: The late storm raised the 
waters of Bear river to a high stage, and the 
velocity of the stream was so great that large 
quantities of sand from the mines above are 
swept over valuable farming lauds. 
CAL.AVEBAS. 

Fhospects of the Season. — Chronicle, Jan. 
10: Without exception the present season bids 
fair to prove the most productive and prosper- 
ous one this county has seen for years. For 
each of the three leading industries of the 
county — agriculture, mining and stock raising 
— the outlook is most favorable, and the pros- 
pects for the successful prosecution of all those 
branches of business are flatteriug in the ex- 
treme. The season thus far has been unusu- 
ally propitious for the pursuance of agricultural 
pursuits, especially. Early rains — just enough 
moisture falling to render the earth susceptible 
of easy cultivation — gave farmers an opportunity 
for seeding their land early, a circumstance we 
are gratified to know has been generally taken 
advantage of. Since that time we have been 
favored with occasional showers, and the 
weather, with the exception of a few days, has 
been warm and pleasant. So far we have es- 
caped anything like a flood, although a plenty 
of rain has fallen, and we have not been visited 
by those withering northwest winds that absorb 
the moisture and bake the surface of the ground 
more quickly than the scorching rays of the 
sun. In fact, nothing could be added to the 
favorableness of the season, even if the wishes 
of the farmers governed such matters, and un- 
less the result greatly belies present indications 
double the quantity of cereals grown any pre- 
vious year will be produced this. 
EL DORADO. 

Republican, Jan. 10: The rains thus far have 
been so graduated that the ground has absorb- 
ed nearly the whole of it and left miners, gen- 
erally, with a very short supply. The ground 
must be pretty well soaked now, so that if the 
rains continue during the present as in the 
past month, the miners will have no cause for 
complaint. The only complaint we hear from 
farmers, is thut they would like a few days dry 
weather to finish plowing in. 

A Foot HiLi, ViNEyAHD. — Weekly Tid'uigs: 
One of the most successful vinicultnrists of 
California, is Robert Chalmers of Coloma, El 
Dorado county. His wines have an establish- 
ed reputation and are favorably known in al- 
most every town on this Coast. There is also 
a demand for several brands of bis wines in 
the Atlantic cities. Chalmers' vineyard con- 
sists of about 110 acres, and he has now iu 
bearing condition 100,000 vines. According to 
the Truckce Republican, he has made from this 
year's vintage, about 40,000 gallons of wine. 
His principal wines are Catawba, Isabella, Port, 
Angelica, Burgundy, Hungarian, and various 
lighter brands manufactured from the native 
grape. Mr. Chalmers adds to his vineyard an- 
nually from ten to twelve thousand vines. Be- 
sides the wine made this season, he has also 
sold from his vineyard about 70,000 pounds of 
choice grapes. 
MONTEREY. 

Fine Sheep. — Enterprise, Jan. 10: One hun- 
dred and forty fine blooded sheep arrived at the 
Depot Monday, the property of Flint, Bixby & 
Co. 

Hay Fob San Fbancisco. — The Hollister 
ranchers and dealers have been shipping for 
the past few days, large quantities of bay to 
San Francisco. Four car loads went out from 
Lathrop's warehouse yesterday. 

The Weatheb. — The weather during the 
past week, in day-time has been clear, bright 
and pleasant, but the nights have been unusu- 
ally cold, characterized by very heavy white 
frosts, which, strange to say, appear to 'affect 
vegetation but little. 

Los Pajabos. — Pajaroni'in, Jan. 8th : Years 
ago, before the hand of time had creased our 
physiognomy, and weight of care did not roost 
upon our shoulders, we frequently wondered to 
what beautiful place the birds went to pass the 
winter months. We have just discovered the 
locality — the Pajaro Valley. Early during these 
pleasant mornings, myriads of birds, — crows 
ba'wks,|blackbird8, California canaries and other 
varieties too numerous to mention, can be seen 
circling to or from the lakes, or ocean, and it i 
interesting to watch them in their erratic per^ 
formances. The crows especially seem en- 
dowed with reason. With a great deal of pre- 
pararation and noise they flock in to a certain 
point from all quarters, and seem to hold a 



convention for about fifteen mibutes, when 
they all rise gracefully into the air, and in an 
orderly manner follow their leader coastward 
or toward tha lakes for their morning drink. 
" Pajaro " or bird valley is a very appropriate 
name, for this beautiful spot. 
NAPA. 

A Steanoe Fkbak. — Reporter, Jan. 10 : Mr. 
Franklin Grigsby, of Wooden Valley, brought 
us in some young apples taken this week from a 
tree that is full of them, on the Crowey farm in 
Wooden Valley. These apples are of two sizes, 
one about half grown, and the others about the 
size of pigeon eggs. This tree has kept on blos- 
soming and bearing apples since last Summer, 
and were it not that the frost nipped the blos- 
soms, would now be forming fruit. As it is, 
the tree is laden with two different sizes of ap- 
ples which are perfectly fresh and green, and 
the largest sized apples are almost fit to eat. 
NEVADA. 

Favored Valley. — Union, Jan. 7th: Grass 
Valley is, of course, the most favored valley in 
the world. It has the gold bearing quartz 
veins, and produces gold all the time. But it 
snows here sometimes. An exchange gives an 
account of another valley which for climate 
alone rivals Grass Valley. The exchange says: 
" A valley, 5,000 feet above sea level, and north 
of latitude 40 degrees, where snow never falls, 
is in Montana. Indians, trappers and old set- 
tlers say snow was never yet seen on the 
ground in 'Valley Eden.' While snow falls to 
the depth of seven inches on the surrounding 
mountains and valley, never an inch falls on 
this favored spot." 
SACRAMENTO. 

Record, Jan. 5 : The receipts of grain and 
flour during the past six months are given in 
the annexed table, in which, for the sake of 
comparison, we have incorporated the receipts 
of the first six mouths of every year for the 
past nine years, from Juno 30th to December 
31st, inclusive, in each year: 



W'lieat, 

llUO-lbKks 



Barley 
lOO-lbBki 



186.5 

18fiC 

1887 

18ii8 

1869 

1870 

1871 

187i. 



1873 6,<W0.«40; 740,800 



l,25e,70.5| 6g-.'.i»(« 
•2,985,0.55 375,(397 
4,ma,9'.l2| 440,085 
4,770,8571 408,159 
5,12t!,Wi0! 610.703, 
3,997,607' 493,306 
l,509,'-'9ol 475,040 
7,142,02o: 685,910 



Oats, 
ino Ibsks 

^98,547 
235,334 
174,0'2'.' 
201,655 
236,992 
221,777 
274,870 
189,410 
175, .530 



Flour, 
bbls. 



i6,8i!6 
126,490 
tt3,:l87 
145,891 
103,876 
76,021 
76,403 
1.0,847 
259.912 



By this it appears that whereas onr receipts 
of wheat, as compared with those of 1872, 
shows a decline of over a million of centals, 
those of flour show a gain of 140,000 barrels, 
which, when reduced to wheat, show a total 
falling off of only 700,000 centals, certainly, 
considering the character of the two seasons, 
a most remarkable exhibit. Our exports dur- 
ing the same comparative periods show a fall- 
ing ofif (reducing in both cases flour to wheat) 
of only 40,000 centals; and as we have cer- 
tainly 2,500,000 centals left in the State avail- 
able for export, it is evident that the crop of 
1872-73 was much larger than was estimated, 
and that with the balance carried over from 
last season, and the amount received from 
Oregon, we had a surplus of certainly 400,000 
tons for export. 
MERCED. 

Crop Pbospects, — vlcyus-, Jan. 10: Thus far 
the season has been unusually favorable for 
the planting and growth of crops throughout 
the valley of the San Joaquin, and farmers 
everywhere are busily engaged in putting their 
lands in grain. During the summer and fall a 
large area of summer-fallow, dry-plowed and 
volunteer was put in, which sprung up with 
the first rain and now covers the ground with a 
beautiful coat of green, and the farmers have 
had some four weeks in which to plow and sow 
new lands. Though a large amount of rain has 
fallen, yet there has been suflScient open weather 
to permit farmers to work fully two-thirds of 
the time, and they have made the most of the 
advantages aS'ordod by the propitious season. 
The increased amount of land put in cultiva- 
tion in the cereals this year will be very great 
in all parts of the country. In addition to the 
large number of new settlers who have located 
in the valley, the farmers of preceding years 
have many of them doubled the amount of land 
heretofore cultivated by them and will still fur- 
ther increase the amount between now and the 
close of the planting season. 

A Cotton Enteepbise. — Tribune: Messrs. ] 
P. Carrol, I. H. Jacobs, James Morton, P. D. 
Wigginton, A. J. Meany, Chas. Peck, M. 
Goldman, H. S. Clay, and others, will next 
April plant 600 acres in cotton on land owned 
by Mr. P. Carrol, in the vicinity of the Rablar, 
about four miles from this place. Among the 
gentlemen above named are some of the most 
experienced cotton growers in the State, and 
the enterprise will beyond doubt prove a pay- 
ing investment and prove conclusively that our 
river bottom-lands are not alone adapted to the 
culture of cotton. The company have built a 
substantial dam on Bear Creek, which at the 
proper time will enable them to irrigate the 
land. Judging by what we learn from parties 
who are posted, a large area of land will be 
planted in cotton the coming season. 
KERN. 

Courier, Jan. 10: In this part of the country 
alfalfa will easily sustain twenty sheep to the 
acre by grazing, but many more if cut and fed 
to them. It seems to bear grazing by sheep as 
well as any grass known. 'The open ranges in 
Kern and Los Angeles counties are becoming 
overstocked with sheep, and for a time it was a 
question with many of the owners whether to 



try alfalfa or emigrate to New Mexico, but now 
the question has been pretty generally decided 
in favor of alfalfa. 
SOLANO. 

Chronicle, Ja,n. 10: The farmers are very ac- 
tive now, taking advantage of every minute of 
the present "spell" of fine weather. The 
crop prospects, so far, are very flattering. 

Faemino. — From what we can learn of farm- 
ing operations in various parts of the county, 
we are led to believe that a much greater area 
of land will be put under cultivation this year 
than ever before. We are informed that nearly 
theentire country in Denvertou and Montezuma 
townships has been summer-fallowed, and a 
few days of fair weather is all that is needed to 
enable farmers to do their seeding in better 
time than for several years past. 

An Old Snake. — A 'son of G. W. Thissell, of 
Pleasant Valley, while bunting in that neigh- 
borhood, a few days ago, came across a large 
rattlesnake which had been driven from his 
hole by the late heavy rains. He was dis- 
patched on the spot, and upon counting his 
rattles he was fonnd to be twenty-five years old 
— a small snake, two years old, when J. M. and 
W. J. Pleasants settled in the valley bearing 
their name. 

Calipobnia Wines in St. Louis. — We men- 
tioned in a former letter that J. B. Wolfskill 
had forwarded to St. Louis four hundred and 
fifty gallons of Angelica wine. He recently 
received a letter from his commission mer- 
chant, stating that it would sell readily at from 
$3 to $4 per gallon, but that he proposed hold- 
ing it a short time for a higher price. The 
same wine can be purchased here for thirty- 
five cents per gallon. It will thus be seen, 
that, notwithstanding the high freight, a hand- 
some profit will be realized upon the shipment. 
Geape Cuttinos fob Texas. — Milton Wolf- 
skin, who recently emigrated from this State 
to Texas, is experimenting with the grape vine 
in his new home. Yesterday the following va- 
rieties of cuttings were forwarded to him by ex- 
press: COO Muscat of Alexandra; GOO Tokays, 
200 Bl.ick Morroccos, '25 White Sweetwaters, 
25 Black Hamburgs, and 25 Black St. Peters. 
Mr. John R. Wolfskill has sent to that State 
for a few slips of the almond tree, which will 
be set out on his ranch near Putah Creek. A 
few trees planted there a short time ago are 
growing finely, but are not yet large enough to 
bear fruit. 

The soil of Yolo county is now receiving a 
turuing-up in many parts such as it has never 
before experienced. Every farmer who lives on 
the plains is busily engaged in plowing and 
preparing the ground for seeding, and if the 
weather will only keep dry for a week or two 
longer those living iu the lower lauds will be 
at it with full force. The wheat in Yolo al- 
ready sown is making its appearance, and the 
fear that much of it was rotting under the late 
rains has beeu dissipated. 
SONOMA. 

Democrat, Jan. 10: H. Weatherington sold on 
foot 100 hogs, on the 3d inst. The average 
weight of the 100 head was 235 pounds — the 
heaviest average on record for the same num- 
ber in this section. 

A GBAY wolf, which had been raiding on 
flocks and herd< in the vicinity of Duncan's 
Mill, was killed at Moore's ranch on Monday, 
by James McCowan, after a severe struggle 
with the dogs, which had brought it to bay. It 
whipped all that were bold enough to make 
the attack before yielding to the bullet of 
McCowan's rifle. 

A vKBT intelligent and practical farmer from 
Bnssian River Township made a suggestion in 
our office this week, which we commend to 
the consideration of persons who own land 
with timber on it. He says the cutting of trees 
should cease, and instead simply lop ofif the 
limbs, and in a few years the trees are again in 
foliage and new timber is made. In this way 
yon get now within one-third as much wood a.^ 
if you felled the tree, as there is always con- 
siderable loss on account of the difficulty of 
working up these low trees. We think the 
suggestion a most wise one, and on land which 
is valuable principally on account of the wood 
growing on it, is well deserving serious consid- 
errtion. 
SANTA CLARA. 

An old hunter informs us that deer are more 
plentiful this season in the vicinity of the Cal- 
averas valley, in this county, than they have 
been known for fifteen years. 

Completed. — Some time ago we noticed that 
Henry Miller, of the firm of Miller & Lux, 
was having constructed a large canal for the 
purpose of draining the water from Soap Lake 
into the Pajaro river. The Gilroy Advocate of 
Saturday says that the canal is now completed, 
and gives the following brief description of it: 
"The canal is nearly three miles in length, and 
reclaims some fi,000 or 7,000 acres of very fine 
land. At the bottom it is fourteen feet wide, 
at the top it is 26 feet wide, with a depth rang- 
ing from 3 to 7 feet There is at present 
about three feet of water in the ditch. It was 
quite an immense undertaking, but the work 
has been finely performed, and the benefit to 
be derived will doubtless justify the expendi- 
ture. 

The weather is now clear and the plows are 
running on the uplands with natural drainage. 
A few days more and much of the bottom land 
will be dry enough to plow. From present in- 
dications a larger area will be seeded than ever 
before in this county. 

We have some farmers in the vicinity of 
Santa Rosa who appreciate the benefits of un- 
derdrainage, and are availing themselves of its 
great advantages as fast as they can lay dovn 



the tile, which is a tedious and expensive oper- 
ation. Were the Santa Rosa bottom land un- 
derdrained, so that it could be seeded in good 
season, it would be difficult to estimate its pro- 
ductive capacity. It is claimed, and we believe 
it is true, that ten acres thoroughly under- 
drained will pay, in a single season, over and 
above the ordinary product, a sum sufficient to 
underdrain an equal amount of adjoining land. 
Sonoma Obanoes. — A twig containing six 
fine large oranges taken from a tree on the 
farm of Caleb Carriger, Sonoma valley, was 
brought to this office to-day. Mr. Carriger has 
three trees loaded with fruit, besides a large 
number of smaller ones recently planted. Now 
that the culture in Sonoma valley is no longer 
an experiment, many fatmers are planting 
trees, and in a few years that locality will fur- 
nish a considerable supply of oranges for the . 
San Francisco market, — Call. * 

WAHINGTON. 

Condition of Stock. — Walla Walla Union, 
Dec. 27: So far as we have heard, the stock in 
this section of the country is doing well. In 
most instances there is some feed prepared for 
them, and where this is done there is no loss. 
Horses have been able to make their living thus 
far without feed if there was none provided for 
them. But cattle that were not fed have not 
done well, and some have already died, and 
many others are liable to do so before spring 
unless the weather should turn out very favora- 
ble for the remainder of the winter. In some 
localities the loss thus for sustained may be 
attributed as much to a lack of water as for 
want of food, for in many places there is noth- 
ing but the creeks to depend on, and when 
they freeze up, the animals stand round theii 
( Id watering places and suffer, and in some in-. 
stances die. '' 

State Board of Aobicdltube. — The State 
Board of Agriculture met at 7 p. m. yesterday. 
President Cary in the chair. Present — Directors 
Chamberlain, Yoiinger, C. Green, Biggs, Cox, 
Hamilton, J J. Green, Boruck and ICoks. On 
motion, the Board proceeded to elect a Secre- 
tary. Boruck nominated Robert Beck, and he 
was unanimously elected. Bornck called the 
attention of the Board to the fact that the 
Treasurer ha 1 large amounts of money belong- 
ing to the society in his hands at one time — 
especially during the State Fair — and that in 
case of accident to that officer, death for in- 
stance, the money being deposited iu bank in 
his own name, and not directly {<> the credit of 
the society, the latter would have no redress 
and would be greatly embarrassed by reason of 
it . He moved that the TreaKurer give good 
and approved bonds iu the sum of $25,000, aa 
the law requires, and the motion prevailed 
unanimously. The Board proceeded to elect a 
Treasurer. Younger nominated R. T. Brown, 
and be was unanimously elected. 

On motion of Boruck, the lime tor the com- 
mencement of the State Fair for 1874 was 
fixed for Monday, September 21st, to continne 
to and including Saturday, Septtmber 26tb — 
being six days. Entries will be received on 
Thursday, September 17th, Friday, the 18th, 
Saturday, the 19th, and up to ten a. m. on 
Monday, the 21st, and no entries will be re- 
ceived thereafter in any case. On motion of 
Biggs, a committee of three were appointed on 
the matters pertaining to the new stand at the 
Park. The chair, appointed C. Green, Han il- 
tou and Cox. The committee were emiww- 
ered to have plans and specifications made for 
the stand. It -will be 420 feet long by 46 feet 
wide, and will be fitted up with committee 
rooms, retiring rooms for ladies, telegraph 
office, and all the modern conveniences. It 
will cost about $25,000. Adjourned till Tues- 
day, March 3d. — Union, Jan. 14. 



Patents & Inventions 



r> 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

(Fbom OrrioiAL RKi-nu're rou lUK Uinimo and Soien- 

Tiric Phf.89, DEWEY & CU., PoBLiaaEiui abd 

U. a. and Fobkion Pateht Aqcmts.] 

By Special Dispatch, Dated 'Washington, 
D. O., Jan. 13, 1874. 

Fob Week Kndino Deo. 30th, 1873." 

Combination Plane. — Andrew Johnson, S. F., 

Cal. 
Malt Dbiee.— John G. Schiflfer, S. F., Cal 
Filling fob Dbcatbd Tkxth. — Chas. E. Blake, 

S. P., Cal. 
RoTABY Winhoweb.— James H. Adamson, S. F., 

Cal. 

PbOCESS fob the RlCDnCTION OF COPPEB AND 

Otheb Obbs. — Henry Stull, lone City, Cal. 

Laddeb. — Anthony P. Smith, Sacramento, 
Cal. 

Wood Pavement. — Edwin W. Perrin, Portland, 
Oregon. 

Cab CotjPLiNO. — Thomas R. Laud, Grass Val- 
ley, Cal. 

Tbademabk. 

Gbodnd Coffee. — Hawley, Bowen *: Co., 8. 

F., Cal. 

^he patents »re not ready for dcllTerjr by tte 

Patent Office nntll some H days after thedatf^ of ISHue. 

Note.— Copies of U. 8. and Forelioi Patents furnished 
by Ukwet & Co., in the shortest time pousible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast loventors transacted with 
greater security and in much less time than by any other 
agency. 



January 17, 1874.] 



.5 



S. f, 



KEJ F\Ep@E\T. 



At wholesale when not otherwise Indicated. 



"SiO Weekly Market Review. 



DVi 



[By our own Eeporttj.] 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



DOMESTIC PUODTTCE. 

San Francisco, January 14, 1874. 
The general produce market in this city has been un- 
usually free from change for some time past. While 
no startling advances have been made, everything, with 
the exception of Dairy Produce and Eggs, has remained 
firm. From all sources the news is encouraging, not 
only to direct pr ducera, but to the State at large. 
That money is coming into the State is sufficiently 
shown by the large increase In real estate transactions, 
at better rates for holders, and by incroased activity in 
manufacturers. Money appears to be obtainable on 
comparatively easy terms, for California at least. Nat- 
urally at this time of the year, thoughts turn backward 
to the results of last year's harvests, and forward to the 
prospective yield, rather than to the present state of the 
markets. We have already given reviews of several ar- 
ticles of Produce for the past year, and nothing is more 
useful for future calculations than such records of the 
course of any article in the market; its receipts and ex- 
ports; its comparative quality, and the sources from 
whence it comes. 

Receipts 
Of Bay Produce for the week ending on the 10th, were 
as follows: Flour, 10,350 barrels; Wheat, 134,844 centals; 
Barley, 12,389 centals; Oats, 715 centals; Corn, 481 cen- 
tals; Rye, 370 centals; Buckwheat, 120 centals; Beans, 
1,143 sacks; Castor Beans, 19 sacks; Potatoes, 6,4)0 
sacks; Swaet Potatoes, 219 sacks; Onions, 589 sacks; 
Hides, l,89.t; Wool, 232 bales; Hops, 4 bales; Salt, 63 
tons; Hay, 611 tons; Straw, 68 tons; Wine, 8,055 gallons; 
Brandy, 560 gallons; Oranges, 92,500; Lemons, 5,500. 
Receipts from July Ist, 1873, to date, have been as fol- 
lows: Flour, 1,038,842 quirter sacks: Wheat, 6,280,039 
sacks; Barley, 716,277 sacks; Oats, 156,086; Potatoes, 
446,31)8 sacks; Com, 56,754 sacks; Bye, 11,420 sacks; 
Buckwheat, 699 sacks; Beans, 48.909 sacks; Bran, 57,421 
sacks; Hay, 30,725 tons; Salt, 4,577 tons; Wool, 50,3.';2 
bales; Hides, 60,070. In general a large increase is 
shown. In Wheat a falling off of 1,169,541 centals is 
shown; Potatoes, of 32,650 sacks; Buckwheat, of 2,824 
and Hay, of 1,139 tons. 

"Wheat. 
The committee appointed by the Exchange, to take 
stock of grain now In the State, find that there are still 
on hand 1.58,2.'>0 tons, or about 3,500,000 centals of 
Wheat, about equal in amount to what has already 
been forwarded. As prices can hardly be lower than 
now, until this v.ist (luantity has been disposed of, it is 
easy to understand how much our farmers will receive 
from this one staple Yesterday's telegraphic advices 
to the Associated Press from Liverpool, gave quota- 
tions as follows: Average. 13s. 10d.(§>148. Id., and Club, 
14s. 8d.@l5B. V* cental. Here $2.'27 J4 is perhaps as low 
as prime samples will sell for; $2.30 was the usual rate 
yesterday and this morning. 

Flour. 
There are some 54,000 barrels of Flour at present in 
the State, while our mills are steadily turning out lull 
supplies. The increased demand (or shipment renders 
this quantity variable. Trade with Eugland has by no 
means closed as yet, and cargoes go forward to Cen- 
tral America as usual. 

Wool. 
From Walter Brown, Son & Co.'s New York Wool cir- 
cular, we learn that the month of December opened in 
the Wool trade with the feeling that the great financial 
crisis has passed over, and that with the return of con- 
fidence a healthy demand (or the staple would be re-es- 
tablished. As the money market became easier, many 
of the mills which had been stopped during the panic, 
resumed operations. Some of them had been stopped 
for the reason that their supplies of Wool had become 
exhausted, and the manufacturers did notScare to enter 
the markets as buyers at a time when holders of Wool 
would accept no settlement but cash. When, therefore, 
they again started their machinery, they were obliged 
immediately to purchase stock, which with the demand 
coming from other large consumers, who appreciated 
the fact that the available supply of Fleeces was small, 
created quite an advance early in the month, and thus 
the values which prevailed be(ore the panic, recovered. 
As the holiday season drew near, the customary 'tak- 
ing" account of stock kept most manufacturers at 
home, and for the remainder of the month transactions 
were not so numerous nor so large, although sufficient 
to maintain fully the advanced prices, and to enhance 
still further the value of choice parcels. California, 
Texas and Foreign Wools have sympathised with the 
general improvement, and where they could bo advan- 
tageously used as a substitute for Fleeces, have com- 
manded proportionate prices. Good lots of these 
Wools are not plenty, and it is probable that full rates 
will be maintained throughout the season. This is 
especially the ease with Foreign Wools. During the 
summer they were neglected by manufacturers, and 
prices gradually settled to a point comparatively lower 
than the market prices for Domestic. At the beginning 
of the financial troubles, the importers, feeling that 
they had no good prospects in the American markets, 
gent many of their moat desirable Wools abroad, thus 
very considerably reducing our supplies. From pres- 
ent appearances it would seem that the amount of 
Wool which can be brought on the market from our 
home resources will be inadequate for the requirements 
of the machinery in operation, and that within the next 
few months this' deficiency will have to be supplied by 
importations. The European markets continue strong 
in tone, and it ia not likely that the Wools suitable 
for our manufactures can be brought into competition 
until Domestic Fleeces have obtained still higher 
prices. Our deductions from these facts and considera- 
tions are : that the prospects for the next few months 
favor a good demand, with a continuance of present 
•values and the possibility, if not probability, of some 
further improvement later in the season. ' 

From the same source we obtain the following list 
of average prices o( Domestic Fleece Wool ir. the Uni- 
ted States, from 1857 to 1861, viz: forflne, .50 8-lOc; for 
Medium, 42 8-lOc; and for Coarse, 35 5-lOc. Average 
prices for four years, from 1861 to 1866 (during the 
war), for Fleeces, 63c to 83c; for Pulled 6Cc to 61c. 
Range of prices for the jearl866: Fleeces, 45c to 72c; 
Pulled, 29c to 64c. Range of prices for the year 18';7; 
Fleeces, 40c to 70c: Pulled, 26c to 57c. Range of prices 
for the year 1868; Fleeces, 40c to 67c: Pulled 27o to 49c. 
Range of prices for the year 1869: Fleeces, 43c to 67c; 
Palled, 26c to 600. Range of prices for the year 1870; 
Fleeces, 39340 to 47Jic; Palled 2t}«oto il%c.. Ranee 
of prices for the year 1871: Fleeces, 44c to 77c; Pulled, 
27c to 70o. Range of prices (or the year 1872: Fleeces, 
48c to 90c; Pulled, 40c to 90c. Range of prices for the 
year 187?: Fleeces, 27c to 80c; Pulled, 34c to 68c. Tele- 
graphic quotations last night were; Spring, fine. 25'332: 
Burry, 18'^27c: Pulled. 37@45c;Fall, California, 20a;J6c; 
do, Barry, 16@'20o ?( lb., with the market quiet. A 
large amount of Wool recently changed handa in this 
city at private rates. Otherwise quotations here are 
almost nominal. But from all the Eastern cities the 
news is favorable. In Boston, the Wool center, the 
BM^ket ^ looUug up apd prices are stiffening. 




■■^7 00 
®7 00 

a7 (10 

@7 00 
97 00 
«7 W 
m OU 
W7 00 

§7 CO 
7 00 
@7 00 
@7 00 
%- 00 
00 



BEANS. 

Beans, sm'l wh. lb 3M^ 33^ 

do, butter 4 @ Ki 

do, large, do... — @ 4'^ 

do. biiyo 2?o@ 2>» 

uo. nink 2'4W 2?2 

do, pea — @ i 

do, Lima — I'oi 4 

IIROOM CORX. 

Per ton iWy<m^ 

DAIRY rKOOUCE 

Butter.Cal. (rsh.BiK, 
do, orUin'y roll 20 
do, new firkin. 25 
do, pickled — 
do, Western ... 

Cheese. Cal, new 
do. Eastern ... 

Eggs, Cal. fresh 

do. Oreeon 

do. Ea..;tem. . . . 

IFEEB. 

I{ran, per ton — 

Middlings 27 ,Wg)3U UO 

Hay 14 OO^in 50 

Straw 9 0«<S 

Oil cake meal... mi -V) 

Corn Meal 37 50«)39 Oi) 

FI..OlTK.-Snperflne Ai, 
Extra. 

Alviao Mills, bbl ..■) 50 

California 5 .50 

City .Mills 5 m 

Coinine'l Mills.. 5 .50 

OoldenGate 5 ,50 

Golden Age 5 .50 

National Mills.. .5 .50 

SantaClaiaMiUs .5 5i) 

Genesee Mills. ., .5 &0 

Oregon 5 .50 

Valleje Star ,5 50 

Venns, Oakland.. .5 .50 

Stecktoii City...S .50 

Lamhard. Shc. . -.5 .5t) . . 
FRESH MEJlT. 

Beef, frqaality..ll> 7 m 8 
do, second do.. 6 @ 7 
do, third do. ... 4 @ 5 

Veal 6 @ 8 

Mutton 6>iM 6 

Lamb 6>4@ 7 

Pork, undresaed. 5?^[g» 55^ 

do, dressed ... 7 (B 8 

ORAIIV, ETC. 

Wh'tCal. c'8t.cl.2 15 (|!2 25 
do, shipl^ing . .'i 25 <$2 30 
do, milfine i 2.5 ®2 30 

Barley, Feed 1 30 @1 45 

do. Brewine...! -55 (all fiO 

Oats, 0( aH,Feedl (iO :iUl 65 
do Choice Bay.l 65 m 80 
do Oreeon 1 70 @1 80 

Corn, White 1 35 ®1 .50 

do. Yellow 1 35 m 60 

Buckwheat — #2 00 

Rye 1 80 Si 85 

Hors. 

f:alifornia,1872. 40 @ 45 

EaHtern, lR7.'i, lb.. .55 la 60 

do New York.. — (o» 60 

MISt'EEEANEOUS. 

Beeswax. per lb. . 25 (ai iiH 

Honey choice... 17 fia 25 

doex. ch'iceMt — (ai 30 

do Lo« Ang... V\H& 2V4 

flo choice Nrihn 15 (S 20 

do Dark 8 W 12,'i. 

do Strained 8 @ 15 

Pulu 8 © 8: 

Onione XKifh 2 

JfrTB-aOBRIlVG. 

Oal. Walnuts .... 13 @ 14 
Peanuts per lb.. ^ i 'S 6 



Wednesdat m., Jan. 14, 1874. 




Chile Walnuts 

Pecan nuts 

Hickory do 

Brazil do 

Ooc'anuts.'S* lOn. . 
Alm'dsh'rd shell 

do, soft 

Fllherts , 

East'nChestnuts 

POTATOES, 
Sweet, per lOU lbs — @ -_ 
New t^uffee Gove — © ~ 
do H. M. Bay.. — g _ 
do Piircon Pi... 1 10 Cotl 20 
do Humboldt.. 1 10 @1 20 
do Puialuma .. 90 (gl 05 
do Tomales.... 91) ®l 10 

do Mission — fui — 

do Salinas 90 (di 1 0,5 

HOULTRlf «fc OAIUE. 
Live 'rurkiy< tb. 16 (ffi 17 
Hens, per dz.... 6 00 (a7 2.5 

Roosters 6(10 (§;7 00 

Spr'« (.'hioker-s. .4 00 @5 110 

Broilers 4 (10 ,S)5 5U 

Ducks, tame.dozS 00 @1o iifl 
Gee-e, per pair. 2 25 @.S 00 
Hare, per doz... 2 .^0 @S 50 
Snipe, Edit., dozl 25 fa)l .50 
Quail, per doz ...2 00 @2 25 
.Mallard Ducks.. 3 00 @Z .50 

do small 1 25 (nil 75 

Wild Geese, grayl 00 @1 ,50 

do white 2 (0 ®2 50 

Doves, per dozen .50 fa) 7-5 

Rabbits 1 00 @1 60 

Venison, peril).. 6 (a) 6 

PROT^ISIONS. 
^al.Bac.n.Linht - @ n'i 
do Medium .. .. — @ 11 

do Heavy ~ @ 9 

Eastern do 10 (d) 13 

Cal. Hams Vly,® U'i 

do Whitukcrs — (S IB 
do Duffield, ch 
do Plankton &. 

Harmtn — @ '** 

doHarm >dACo — @ 14 
Eastern Sbould's 10 {a^ — 

do new hams 16'ito IV/i 
Oal. Smoked Beef In ($ II 

Lard, Cal lO'^'o) 13 

do Eastern.... M^M IS 
SEtDS. 

Alfalfa 21 (ffi 22 

Canary 5^6 

Flaxseed 4 @ 5 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 40 @ .50 
Mustard, white. 2 @ 3 

, do. Krown 3 ® 4 

Italian Rye 25 (S 30 

Perennial do — to 35 

Timothy 14 @ 15 

Sweet V Grass.. 60 (Si 75 
Orchard do.... .10 {g. 35 
Bed Top do... 30 (a! 40 
Hungarian do - ((/i 12 

Lawn do 5U (li 60 

CInverRed - (a) 20 

do White 60 to 7.5 

Alsike 60 & 75 

Esparto Grass in 

Packets - m 00 

TV^OOI., ETC. 

Spring, short.m. 16 @ 18 

do cnoice Nort 32 mi 23 

Medium grades. . 15 @ 18 

liood to Choice.. 16 (u) 19 

Burrv 10 a 13'^ 

riidee, diy riH& 18!^ 

do wet saltcdS 60 ,a9 00 

Tallow, Crude.. 6>i® HM 

do Kedued... — ® 7 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 

Wednesday m,, Jan. 14, 1874. 
There are no important changes to note in the retai 
Fruit and Vegetable market. The range for Oranges is 
large, as the quality varies widely. 

00 Mission .... — @ — 
do Rose of Peru ~@ — 
do Toka' 



- (<S 



FRUIT MARKET. 

Tahail, Or. ?> luo (a 

Mexican do.... 2 00 (lil 3 ,50 

Cnl. do 1 mm 4 00 

Limes, it M 8 00(|lO 00 

Cal.Lemons, 100. 2 .50(i2 i 00 

Mesainu do 6 — (^ 7 — 

do per box 12 00^14 00 

Bananas,^ bnch- —igi 

Pineapples, ^&z 6 00 (g 3 00 

Apples,eat'g, bx.l 25 <a2 25 

do Common.... 60 (^ 1 00 

Cherries — (q^ — 

Blackberries.... — @ — 
Strawberriesiiilb — @ — 

Gooseberries @ — 

Raspberries — (a) — 

Currants — — 

Apricots — @ — 

Plums — @ — 

Peaches,^ n>. . — @ — 

Pears, Eating . . .2 00 ;o<3 00 

do t.:ooliing....l 00 @1 25 

do, Bartleit... — w) — 

(^rab Apples — @ — 

Nectarmes . — (g) — 
Wafrmel'slSlOO — S — 
Cantelo'sTjdOO... — @ — 
Pomegran's,^ dz — a — 

Figs 

Grape8,Brk Hg 
do Muscat., 
do Malavo'e.. 
do Sweetw'r. 



%- 



-no) - 

-^ - 

JIT. 

® a 

- 9 
9 




do Morocco 
DRIED FRtJ 

Apples. K D> 6 

fears, If* Ih . . . 
Peaches, % lb. 
Apricots, # B) 
Plums, ^ lb 
Pitted, do K* lb 

do Extra, f. lb 

Raisins,^ ft ,5 @15 

BlackFigs, * lb.... G ®8 

White, do 12Ji!®20 

Prunes 6 (S) 8 

do (ierman l2'-e(ai 16 

VEeETABlAS. 
Cabbage. * 100 lbs..— ®1 37 'i 

Darlic, 1* lb 8 alO 

Green Peas B @7 

Green Corn 1ft doz..— <^~ 
Sum'rSquash, bx. ..— @— 
Marro'iat So'sh.tn 12 00ia)1.500 
Artichokes, ^ lb.. . . — s.50 
StrinE Beans, ^ lb ..— @lu 

Lima Beans — (^ 3 

Shell Beans 2 ® I'i 

Peppers,^ hx,40B)S.,— %-. 

Okral? lb 4 ia 6 

Okra, Green — %— 

Cucumbers, bx --@— 

Tomatoes, per box..— iS) — 
EggPlantf»Ib — (a»— 



LEATHER. 



Wednesdat m., .Tan. 14, 1874. 
The locally produced Leathers are still depressed. No 
Eastern Wax Leather in market. Cornellian Females and 
Sheep Linings in fair request, and Findings generally 
meet with good sales. 

City Tanned Leather, ?( lb 2.5«129 

Santa Cruz Leather, ?* lb 25®29 

Country Leather, % lb 24(^-28 

Stockton Leather, ft B) 



2,ya)29 




San Franolsco Retail Market Rates. 

Wednsdaym., Jan, 14, 1874. 
POULTRY. GAME. FISH. MEATS. ETC. 

Turkeys have been in over supply and the price has fallen 
Eggs are plenty at 60 cts.TJil dozen. Fish are much lower, 
Salmon having fallen .again " to 20 cts. Pilchards. Halibut 
and Green Turtle are out of market at present. 

Salmon, H lb — ® 



Spring Chickens 62;^(§) 75 

Hens 75 iqjl 00 

— ^ .50 
I 65 
I 25 
_1 00 
®1 00 
C(!)2 00 
- ■ 00 



Smoked I'iJ^® 

Pickled,'^ ft.. - 

Siilmon bellies 30 

Rock Cod,* ft.. — 

Cod Fish, dry, .ft 

do fresh _ 

Perch, 8 water.ft 121^W) 



- @ 



63 00 
67 00 
74 00 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

Wednesday m., ,Tan. 14. 1874. 
Wool sacks are in request and slightly sbrongt-r. Coffees 
remain in the same buoyant condition as last noted: no 
cessation yet in the upward teniiency. Rice is weaker. 
Preserved Fish still weak. 

BAOS. 
Eng, stand. Wh't 12 @ 13 
Detriek'sMach e 




Sewed, 22 x 36, „ 

OilroyE 12 @ 

do, 22x36, do W ny,'a 
do. 22x40, do... 14'4ig) 
do, •23x40... . — 

do, 24x40 15 

Flour Sacks >^9.. U 

'• ?48. 

Stand. Gunnies,. 

" Wool Sacks. 

" Barley do... 

Hessian 4.5-in.gds 

do 60 
Burlaps, yard.... 

CAXjfED OOO 

Asst'dPie Fruits 

in 2*^ ft cans. 2 75 

do Table do... — 

Jams 4 Jellies 4 00 

Pickles ;4 gl.. — 

Sardines. qr brtx2 00 

do hf boxes.3 .50 

COAI.r-Jobl>lntr. 
Anstralian.Vtonll 00 ($12 00 

Coos Bay Ml 00 

Belllngham Bay. @ 8 60 

Seattle (fflll— 

Oumberl'd, ck3..25 0;i fd)28 00 
do bulk.. .21 00 (0)25 00 

Mt. Diablo 6 .50 "fs .50 

Lehigh 14 — <fu\i— 

Liverpool 11 00 (312— 

West Hartley... .12 00 @I4— 

Scotch 9 .50 @10 00 

Scran ton ..10 00 ® — 

Vancouver's IsL.U 00 @l4— 
Charcoal,f*sk. .. 75 ® — 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — 
Costa Kica per ft 26 

Guatemala 25 

Java 32 

Manilla '25 

Ground in cs — 18 

Chicory 10 (g) — 

FISH. 
Pac.Dry Cod, new 5,'^® 7 

cases 8 ® 8 

Eastern Cod 7 (ffi 9 

Salmon in bbls..8 ,50 @9 00 
do )i bblsS 00 (1716 50 

do 2'^lbcan8 — eft — 
do 2ft cana..2 80 <aiZ 00 
ao 1 lb cans .2 25 
Do Col. K. ;^b. . . - 
Pick. Ood. bbls.'ij 01) 
do H bhlsll 00 
Bos . Sm'k'dHer'g40 
Madb'l.No.l.'^blall- 

ISxtra — 

" in kits 2 75 

Ex mess. 3 .50 
Ex mess.4bs-®13 00 
Sm'k Herr'g. bx. 40 ® .50 

NAILS. 
Assorted size, ft. 6 (S) 7 

OILS. 
Pacific Glue Co. 
Neat F't No. I. — 

Pare 1 25 

Castor Oil, No.l,.l 40 
do do N0.2..I 25 

Oocoanot — ■ 

Olive Plagniol.S 00 
do Possel....4 76 

Palm 9 

do Bagicalupi — 
Linseed, raw.. .1 UO ®l 05 

do boiled 1 05 @1 10 

China nut in cs.. (m 80 

do bulk 70 (i 72 

Sperm, crude... — (qd 40 

do bleached.. — (g)2 20 

Coast Whales... 40 @ 45 

Polar, refined.. . . .55 @ 70 

Lard W> @ 95 

Coal, refined Pet i~i>i<m 4« 

Oleophine — Cq) 34 

Devoe's Bril't... 43 fai 45 

Long Island — (3 34 

Rnreka 37Hfa) 40 

Devoe's Petro m 37 (^ 39 
Barrel kerosene — ^30 
Downer Eeroae'e w 52.^ 



GasLiehtOil... — O 
PAINTS. 

Atlan. W. Lead. 

Whiting V,i(i 

Putty 

Chalk 

Paris White 2)^10 

Ochre 2>i(S 

Venetian Red... 3 

Red Lead 8 

jitbaree 10 % 



® 21 

ta 27 

i 27 

<a 35 

(g 26 

iS SO 




i\ 00 



Eng. Vermillion — @l ;t5 

RICE 
China No. 1, * ft ' B'^i 
do 2, do. b% 

Japan 6 

Siam Cleaned... 7 

Patna 7 

Hawaiian 6,'^ 

^arclina 10 

SALT. 

>1. Bav.per ton 10 00(814 00 

do Common . . 6 00 S?" 00 

vlexican 11 00(^13 00 

;armen Island.. 12 00la,'20 00- 
Liverpool fine... — @20 00 
do coarsel8 00 @19i00 
SOAP. 

Castile ^ ft W,i® 11 

Local brands 5^9 

SPICES. 
Allspice, per ft.. 15 @ 16 

Cloves 'iVA'9 40 

Csssia — {^ 24 

Nutmeg, I 07 @1 10 

Whole Pepper... 25 @ 26 

Pimento — S 15 

Gr'nd Allspprdz — @)1 00 

do Cassia do . . — @1 50 

do Ciovesdo.. — @1 25 

do Mustard do — @1 ,50 

do Ginger do.. — @1 OO 

do Pepper do.. — @l 25 

do Mace 1I0....I 2ii (3»1 30 

SCeAR, ETC. 

Oal. Cube per ft.. UH® — 

Circle A crushed lli^^ — 

PowJered — m WM 

Granulated — @ 11 

Dry granulated IV^'.m — 

Bxtra do — @ — 

Hawaiian 8 @ 10 

California Beet. 10)4® ll)i 

OoldenC V) (g) — 

doR.y'gnrade 7 
Cal. Syrupinbta. — 
do in )i bis. — 
do in kegs.. — 
do Hawaiian.. 20 
TEA. 
Oolong,Canton,lb 19 
do Amoy... 28 
do Formosa 40 
(m peri .il. Can ton 
do Pingsuey 
do Moyune . 
Gunpo'der.Cant, 
do Pingsuey 
do Moyune. 
Y'ng Hy., Canton 
do Pingsuey 
do Movune.. 
Japan, % chests, 

bulk 

Japan, lacquered 

bX8,4;-^ and 5 fts 4S (SI 67 
Japan do,3 lb bis 45 (i! i)0 
do prnbx,4'2lb 36 (g* 65 
do .'^Al lb paper 30 @ 55 
TOBAC« O— Jobhinit. 
BriKht Navys.. 
Dark do ... 
Dwaif Twist... 
12 inch do ... 
Light Pressed. 
Hard do 
Conn. Wrap'r.., 
Penn. Wrapper 
Ohio do 
Vrigi'aSmok'g 
Fine ct ohe'g,«r..8 50 
Fine cut chew- 
ing, buc'ts.^ ft.. 75 
Banner fine cut.. 8 75 

Eureka Gala 8 00 

TURPENTINE. 
E&stern 60 l&ei>i\ 



Jodot.S Kil., per doz $50 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil., per doz 66 00( 

Jodot, second choice, ll to 16 Kil. ^ doz 55 OOi 

Oornellian, 12 to 16 Ko 57 00( 

Cornellian Females, 12 to IS 60 OOi 

Cornellian Females. 14 to- 16 Kil 66 iiO( 

Beaumcrville, 16 Kil 60 00( 

Simon, 18 Kil.,* doz 61 00( 

Simon, 'iO Kil. * doz ■ 65 OOl 

Simon. 24 Kil. |l doz 12 00(_ 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00<<?) 40 00 

French Kips, ^ ft 1 (I0(* 135 

OaUfomiaKip, «doz 40 00®! 60 00 

B'rench Sheep, all colors, %* doz 8 00(g/ 15 00 

EasternCalf (orBacks,!* ft I OOig 126 

Sheep Roana for Topping, all colors, * doz 9 00® 13 00 

Shee,; Roans for Linings,^ doz 5 50® 10 56 

California Russett Sheep Linings 17-5^ 4.50 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs, V pair 6 00® 5 26 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, |» pair 4 00,'a) 4 75 

French Calf Boot Legs.l* pair 4 00® 

Harness Leather, V ft 30(ai 37H 

Kair Bridle Leather, W doz 48 00® 72 00 

Skirting Leather, ^ ft Wq) 37H 

Welt Leather,* doz 30 00a 60 00 

Boff Leather, « foot 19® 22 

Wax Side Leather, T» foot Hia 19 

Eastern Wax T,p*th«r — ®— — 

SAN FRANCISCO METAL MARKET. 

Wednesday m., Jan. 14,1874. 
No change to report in the Metals. Quicksilver does not 
manifest any downward tendency. 

Scotch Pig Iron.l* ton $.52 00 

White Pig. *Hon .52 00 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, ^ft 

Refined Bar. good assortment, ^ ft 

Boiler, No. lto4 — 05^ 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 — 06'^ 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 

Sheet, No. 24 to '27 

Horse Shoes, per keg 

Nail Rod 

Norway Iron — » 

Rolled Iron — 6 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. — 5 

OOPPEB.— 

Braziers 

Copper Tin'd — 60 

O.Niel'sPat —55 

Sheathing, »ft 

Sheathing, Yellow 

Sheathing, Old Yellow 

Composition Nails — 25 

Composition Bolts — 25 

Tin Platps ~~ 

Plates, Charcoal, IX * box 14 00 ® 14 50 

Plates, 10 Charcoal 13 00 @ 13 .50 

Roofing Plates 13 00 @ 13 .50 

BancaTin, Slabs, ^ ft — 40 ® - HH 

Steel.— English Cast, * ft — 18 @ — 22 

Drill - 18 m -22 

FlatBar -18 @ — '22 

Plough Points — 16 (a) — 17 

ZiNO ,. - 9^l® - 10 

Zinc. Sheet — 9 S - 10 

Natls— Aasorted aizes ......i — 854®— 8 

(juiCKsiLVEB, per ft — ® I 20 



Ekk 

do Ducks' 60 

Turkeys, ^ ft.. 22 
Ducks, CanBk.pr — 

do Mai lard ,pr — 

Tame, do I 50 

Teal, * doz.... — 
Geese, wild, pair. — 

Tame, ^ pair.. 3 60 
Snipe, % doz.... 2 .50 
Quail, per dozen2 00 
Pigeons, dom. do ^- 

Wild, do — @2 

Hares, each ... 37'^^ 

Rabbits, tame. ,50 ® 75 

Wild,do,*dz.2 00 § - 

Squirrels do 10 @ 16 

Beef, tend,^ ft. - (g» 20 

Corned, « ft.. 6 @ 8 

Smoked,* ft.. — @ 12! 

PorterHouscSt'k — (31 20 

Sirloin do 12 m 15 

Round do 8 ® 10 

Pork, rib, etc.. ft — ® 15 

Chops, do, 1* ft 15 @ 

Veal,^ ft 10 @ 16 

Cutlet, do 10 ® 16 

Mutton — chops.* 12 @ 15 

LegMutnn, T^ ft 8 ® 12 

Lamb, * lb 10 ® 15 

Venison 10 @ 15 

Tongues, beef, . . 75 (^ — 

do, do, smoked — (Si 00 

Tongues, pig, ft 10 ® — 

Bacon, Cal.. Tfe ft - @ 18 

Hams, Cal, lift, 16 ® — 

Hams, Cross' s c — ® — 

Choice D'ffield 18 ® — 

Whittaker's.. 18 a 20 

Flounder, ?< ft... - ® 30 

FRUITS. VEOETABLES. ETC. 

Oranges, Lemons, Limes , Apples and Pears make up the 

bulk of the supplies, and were they not of fair quality and 

in good supply, the market would indeed be dull. No 

change in Dried Fruits. Vegetables very scarce. 



Fresh water.ft 
Lake Big. Trout* 
Smelts. large^ft 

Small Smells 

Herring, Sm'kd. 

do fresh 

Pilchards,^ ft.. 
Tomcod, ^ lb — 
Terrapin, |* doz. 
Mackerel, p'k.ea 

Fresh, do ft ... 
Sea Bass, 1^ ft... 

Halibut - 

Sturgeon,* ft.. — 
Oysters, W 100... I 00 

Chesp. W doz., 75 

Clams * KlO — 

Mussels do — 

Turbot — 

Crabs «» doz....l 00 
Soft Shell 

Shnmps n\^i1ii 

Sardines 8 a — 

Anchovies ® — 

•Soles 50 (0) 60 

YoungTrout,bav 76 (a»l 00 
Young Salmon.. 1 26 <$1 .50 
Salmon Trout ea 

Skate, each 

rt'hitebait,^;* lb.. 
Crawfish -# tb... 
Green Turtle... 

do * lb 



15 
40 
18 

75 I l^J' 

- ® 15 

- I - 

- a 30 



m 50 
(a 25 
1^1 00 



— a 60 




07 

— 6 

— 08 
7 50 

— 9'A< 




Lady Apples f, lb- 
Apples, pr lb. ... 4 

Pears, per lb 5 

Apricots, ft — 

Peaches, ft — 

Plums — 

PineApple8,each 
Crab Apples — 

Grapes 

Bananas, It doz.. 

Canteleups 

Watermelons. . . 
Blackberries — 
Cal. Walnuts, ft. 
Green Almonds. 
Cranber'es, Or.,g 

do Eastern 
Huckleberries.. 
Strawberries, ft 
Raspberries, ft.. 
Gooseberries*... 
Currants. ., 

do Black 

Cherries, * ft,.. 

Nectarines 

Oranges,* doz.. 

trainees — i 

Lemons 75 ( 

Limes, per doz . . 25 i 
Figs, dried Cal. * i2!i( 

Figs, fresh 

Figs, Smyrna, ft 
Asparagus, ft.* 
Artichokes, doz. 

do Jerusalem. . 

Beets, *i1oz 

Potatoes, *».., 
Potatoes, sweet,* 
Broccoli, each.. 



60 



75 



.50 



25 




12;^ Cauliflower, t .. 
8 Cabbage, each... 
10 OystorPJant.bch 
Carrots, * doz. . . 
Celery.* doz... 
Cucumbers, dz.. 
Tomatoes, *ft.. 

Green Peas 

String Beans... 
;l 00 Egg Plant, ft.... — 
Cress, * doz bun 20 

Omons 3 

'furnips. ^ doz 

bunches 20 @ 25 

Brussels Sprouts » toi 10 

g) 75 Eschalots 20 ® 25 

®1 00 Dried Herba.doz 25 (al 36 

(^ — Garlic* lb 12)<i@ 15 

© — Green Com, doz, — @ — 
Lettuce, * doz. . 20 ^ 3.5 
Mushrooms, * lb 26 
Horse radi5h,*ft 20 
Okra, dried,* ft — 
do fresh, * ft. — 
Pumpkins. * ft . — 
Parsnips, doz — 15 

Parsley 15 

Pickle8,frsh.*ft 
Radishes, doz.. 
Summer Squash 
Marrowfat, do* 
Hubbard, do 
Dry Lima, sh..'r- 
Spinage, * bskt. 

Rhubarb 

Green Chillies.. 

Dry do 

Peppers, dry.... 
Butter Beans ... 



20 




f«D - 

® *Ti 

M 50 

® 55 





90 
59 25 
(oM 60 



LUMBER MARKET. 

Wednesday m.. Jan. 14, 1874. 
We quote the following: Cargo prices for Oregon 
Pine are $16® 18 for rough and $26^a)'28 for dressed ; Laths, 
$:)@3.25. Sugar Pine is quiet at 35®J6; Cedar, $)'2..50, 1|132.,50 
and $22..50 for the three qualities. 
CAROO PRICES OF PU«ET SOUND PINE 

npimtroon I —Retail Price. 

KEUWUUU. Rough,* M '2600 

Rough, * M $20 OOlHencinKandSteppinK.M 37 ,50 

Rough refuse,* M 16 00 Fencing, 2cl qualiiy,* M 30 00 

Rough clear, * M 32 .50 Fencini-', * lineal loot.. lo 

RoURh clear refuse, M . . 22 60 Flooring and Step, * M 30 00 

Rustic, * M 3500 Flooring, narrow, * M.. 32 .50 

Rustic, refuse, * M 24 OOiFlooring, 'Jd quality. M. .-'5 00 

Surfaced, *M 32 .50 Laths, * M 3 ,50 

Surfaced refuse,* M... '22 .50 Furring, * lineal ft.... % 

Flooring, * M 30 00 RED WOOD— RetHlL 

Floorinu. refuse, *M.. 20 00 Bongh,* .vi 25 00 

Beaded flooring, * M... 32 .50 Rough refuse, * M '20 00 

Beaded floor, retnse, M. '22 501 Rough Pickets.* M.... 18 00 

Half inch Siding. M '22 60iRough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 00 

Half-inch siding, ref, M. 16 00| Fancy Pickets, * M 30 00 



iJ 



Half-inch, Surl'acpd,M 
Half-inch Surf. ret.. .VI 
Half-inch Battens, M.. 
Pickets, roug h , * M .. . 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd.. 
Pickets, fancy, p'ntd... 
Shingles, *M 



26 00 



Siding, *M '27 60 



18 00 Tongued and Grooved, 

22.50 surfaced, * M 35 00 

14 00 Do do refuse, * M '27 .50 

16 0(1 Halt-inch surlaoed.M.. 40 00 

■25 00 Rustic,* M 42 .50 

3 OOi Battens. * lineal foot. . . 10 
Ishinglea * M 3 6 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

(RETAIL.) 

[Corrected weekly by B. Sbakboro & Beo,, Grocers, No. 535 

Washington street, San Francisco. I 

Dairy Produce is weaker, as arc also Oils. A very good 

article of Butter may be had, at .55 cts., and poor samplcH 

will bring only 20 cts. 



Butter,Cal.cli'ice .50 i® .55 

do eoranioD 37^® 40 

Cheese, I'al.. ft.. 15 «s '20 
Lard. Cal.. ft.... 12"^® 15 
Flour, ei.fam, bl 6 75 («7 OO 
Corn .Veal. ft.... 2;4(S 3 
Sugar, wii.crsh'd 11 (^ 12 
do It.browo.ft 10 (.q) II 
Coffee, Sb;i rboro's 

family gr'nd, ft — @ 36 
Cotfee, green, ft.. 25 (S 30 
Tea, flue blk,. 50, 65,76 ®1 „il 
Tea,finst.Iiip,5.5,7.5, 90 iwl 00 
Oandles,Admant'en @ 26 
Soap, Cal , ft.... @ 10 

OanMOystor8,dz.2 60 



-* Per ft' tPer dozen. 1 Per gallon. 



Syrup.S F.Gol'n, 

Dried Apples 

Dr'd Ger.Prunos 
Di'd Figs, Ciil... 
Dr'd Pouches.... 8 
Oils, Kerosene .. 35 

Eggs — 

do Eastern 35 

Wines, Old Port 3 ,50 

do Fr. claret..l 00 

do (^al .ilz.bot 3 00 

Whisky,0.B,gal.3 .50 



.50 ® fO 

10 ® 12s 
10 ® \i% 

9 (0) IV 
8 W 10 

35 m 10 
— ■a 60 
35 a 40 

'a)5oo 

®1 25 
®4 .50 
- 6 00 



Designing 

ana 
Engraving 

ai 
This Office. 

We are prepared to do fine Wood Engraving 
for illustrating Landscape Scenery, Buildings, 
Machinery, WorlvS of Art, Manufactured Articles, 
Trade Marks, Seals, Etc, We have a first-class 

Machine for Engraving 

A portion of the work, which can be finished 
thereby more perfectly than by the eye and hand 
alone. Our patrons can depend upon first-class 
work always, and at reasonable prices. Samples 
can be seen at our office. 

DEWEY & CO. 



Kr. Brandy 4 00 @I0 00 

Rice, ft 10 @ 12X 

Yeast Powders, dz.l 50@2 00 



A Good Binder for $1.50. 

Subscribers for this journal can obtain our Patent 
Elastic Newspaper File Holder and Binder for $1.60— 
containing gilt title of the paper on the cover. It pre- 
serves the papers completely and in such shape that 
they may be quickly fastened and retained in book form 
at the end of the volume, and the binder (which Is very 
durable) used continuously for subsequent volumes. 
Post paid, 25 cts. extra. It can be used for Harper's 
Weekly and other papers of similar size. If not entirely 
pleased, purchasers may return thoni within 30 iLays, 
Just the thing for libraries and reading rooms, and all 
who wish to file the Pkksb. lambp 

The MiNiHO and Scikntific Pbkss has closed its 
twenty-sevei.th volume, and the fourteenth year of its 
(Xistinee. The PiiEss is a moi-t valuable Incentive to 
out<rpriHe, inasmuch as it sets forth weekly the hidden 
reccurces, advantages, mining, scientific, mechanical, 
etc of the P.icificStatosandTerrltories, besides a large 
amount of valuable reading matter. As the paper is a 
specialty in its line it should be filed lor reference by 
every subscriber.— T mlumve I ndependent. 

Photoobaph Paintino done In the most satisfactory 
manner at 426 Kearny street, from the smallest card to 
full life size, on very moderate terms by Emilv B. East 
MAN, Artist, 426 Kearny street, San Francisco. • 




[January 17, 1874. 




Pure Blooded French Merino Rams and 
Ewes, 

For B&le by ROBERT BLACOW, of Centrevilte, Alameda 
County, Cal., near Nlles Station, on the Western and 
Southern Paiiftc Railroad. 

These Sheep are gnarantepd of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Rambouillet. 

Also a few vfell-bred young Bulls of the Durham 
blood. l!iT6-8m 



;qilmoi\e 

UIPOBTE^, BREED Eh 




»>Vr.TA!V SECOXU. 

See description in Pacific Rural Press January -t, 1873. 

Address N. GILUOItE, 

eow El Dorado, El Dorado County, Cal. 



THOS. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

Breeders and Importers of the 
Ootawold, liincoln, Xieicester, Tezel and 
^^^m South Down 

WgF S H £1 £: P . 

TIB. 



THE 



— ALSO— 



GOA.T. 



17ow offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
VTe have a good lot of Bucks of crosses between the 
Ootswold and South Down, between the Lincoln and 
Leicester, and the Lincoln and Merino. 

THOS. BUTTERFIELD i SON, 

19yi-tf HoUister, Monterey County, Cal. 



OxBuaJoMEB. Gen. Giles A. Smith. L. H. Hicks. 

CYRUS JONES & CO., 

BREEDEBS AXD DEALERS IS 

THOEOTIGHBKED SHOET-HOEN OATTLE 

Of the most dosirable faniilies; representing the Duch- 
esses, Rose of Sharons, Booths, Miss Wlleys, Mazurkas 
and others. Having purchased the Avenue Ranch 
(formerly Shaw Ranch) live miles east of Ban Jose, on 
Santa Clara avenue, and placed upon it three car loads 
of fine cattle, recently imported from the most noted 
herds of the States, we invite all in want of line stock 
to call and see us, as we have a few choice Heifers for 
sale. Send for Catalogue. Address: 

CYRUS JONES & CO., 
2v7-3m San Jose, Cal. 



Fine Oracle 

SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 






25,000 head are now owned by this assooiatinn, and 
we are in constant commanication with parties all over 
this State, who buy and sell SHEKP and SHEEP 
RANGES. Parties wishing to purohass or sell are in- 
vited to call at the office of the San Joaquin 
Valley Wool Urowers' Association, is Steven- 
sou's buildiug, 331 Montgomery street, San I'raniisco. 
jalO Im 



H. K. ouMMmoa. 
1868. 



H. B. RALSTON. 
1878. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholeaala Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1888. 

BemoTed to 424 Battery street, southeast comer of 
Washington, San Francisco. 

Onr buslnsss being exclusively Commission, we have 

IntareBtalhat will conflict with those of the producer 

4vl8.1y 

CHINESE EMPLOYMENT COMPANY. 

"We arc prepared to furnish at short notice, Domestic 
Servants, Hotel C oks, J,auiidrymen. Wtiltrrs, (Jomiiinii 
I.abo ers. Farm HaniU, Gardenont. Meclianica, Factory 
Hands, \V'o<k1 Chopiieni, etc. Special attention Kiven to 
furnishing Dumestlc S'-rvanU. 

PIERCE k CO., 627 Sacramento .St., 

de2T-If bet. MontKomcry and Kearuy Sis..S. F. 



The attention of Wool Growers is continually invited to the 

Thoroughbred Stock Bred and Kept upon the 

M.ER,irVO KA.1NCH 



fti 



100 AGENTS -WANTED. 

$S to 125 per day, selling the attractive little "C °1- 
by's Washers." Great inducements offered. B^nd 
for Circulars. Address, 

20T6-3m O. S. CODDINO, Petklnma, Oal. 



Situated at Nlles, Alameda County, Cal., only five minutes walk 
from the station. Junction of San Jose and C. P. R. R. Parties 
desiring to visit our ranch can leave San Francisco at 3 o'clock , „_ 

p. M., and have an hour at the ranch, returning on Overland train at 6 p. m. Or coming out in morning, 

return to city at 11 o'clock a. u. The i^roprietors make the 

THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINO SHEEP A SPECIALTY, 

Bslieving them to be the BEST SHEEP IN THE WORLD, and are constantly receiving fresh Importations from 

Addison County, Vermont. 
Our flock are all Imported Sheep, and have no superiors in the United States. We always have on hand 
choice young RAMS and EWES, of all ages, for sale at Reasonable Prices, giving time. If required, to responsible 
parties. City Office— 315 California Street, San Francisco. 

SKVEriAivcii: isc i»eet, 

9vC-3m Importers and Breeders of Spanish Merino Bheep. 



HIGHEST HONORS AWARDED TO THE WEED SEWING MACHINE ! 



Vienna Exposition, '73. 

Grand Medal of Progress ! 

Grand Medal of Merit! 

AND TO CAP TUK CLIMA.X, 

Grand Medal of Honor. 

Mr. Oeo. A. FAiRriELD. the Invcntnr and 
Superintendent of the Compan\'8 works, 
as eo-ooerator for VALUABLE IMPROVE- 
MENTS. 




THE BEST 

Sewing Machine 

for all kinds of 
"work: 

THAT WAS EVER PUT BEFORE THE 

PUBLIC 

Send fur Descriptive Circulars and sam- 
ples of work. 



A. MEAD & CO., GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE PACIFIC COAST, 

152 New Montgomery Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 2v7 fim 




MOUNTAIN RANCH FOR SALE. 

A valiiable and i)roductive ranch Is offered for sale, 
located on the public road, between Grass Valley and 
Colfax. The ranch contains 560 acres of land — 320 paid 
for, and patent received for 160 — containing all the best 
meadow land, and 400 apple trees 18 and 18 years old. 
There are six lots of 40 acres each, s^llroad land,which 
will make the title good to any buyer. The dwelling 
house is not furnished yet; it contains ten rooms, 
lathed and plastered; G on the upper ffoor and 4 on tha 
lower, with hall; a good stone cellar and one good barn. 
Last year 1.000 boxes of winter apples were shipped. 
There are 20U pear trees, and plums and peaches enough 
for family use. The owner cuts from 30 to 40 tons of 
meadow hay per year. There are from 5,000 to 7.000 
cords of wood, worth $1 per cord, now standing upon 
the ranch. Terms liberal. Apply to 

P. H. SUMNEB, 
No. 311 Montgomery St., San Frsnoisoo. 

September, 15, 1873. 



Valuable Farm for Sale or Exchange. 

1,000 ACRES OF THE BEST FARM LAND IN THE 
STATE OF MICHIGAN, a portion of which is well 
timbered. Rapidly increasing in value. Title perfect. 
Win be sold or exchai ged, in lots to suit, for REAL 
ESTATE IN CALIFORNIA. 

Apply to G. D. CBOCKEB, Room IG, No. 316 
California street, San Francisco. lSv6-Sm 



Valuable Dairy and Grain Ranch 

FOR. HA.I^i:, 

In San Mateo County, comprising 900 acres, 400 acres 
under cultivation, and all well watered and substan- 
tially improved. Inquire of 
20vG-3m JOS. W. JORDAN, 

N. E. cor. Clay and Front sts., San Francisco. 



BIBBINS & CO., 

LAND EXCMAJCVGK, 

402 Eeamy street San Francisco. 

(8UCCESSOB8 TO BRANDON k BIBBUfS.) 

Deal extensively in Country Property. 

WANTED— FARMS TO SELL AND LEASE. 

FOR fiiALiE : 

Farms, Orazing' Lands and Tule IiandB 

Sv.l-ly Throughout the Coast. 



TO RENT. 

An improved Farm— including a Vineyard— about one 
mile from Napa City. Address 

P. H. SUMNER, 
311 Montgomery street. San Francisco, 
Or Pacific Rural Press Office. 



CALIFORNIA LAND AGENCY. 

Will attend to the Location, Purchase and Sale of 
Lands and Farms, the Examination of Titles, and 
the Payment of Taxt-s. 

1,000,000 Acres of well selected Lands in Cali- 
fornia. Oregon, and Washington Territory for sale. 
Also, buy and sell property in the city anil vicinity. 



20vC-ly-lCp 



W. M. BRANDON, 

535 California street, San Francisco. 



Buy Real Estate while at Low Rates. 

KINE WATER-FRONT LOTS, CHEAP, 
On Oift Map 4, 
Forming about half of a block fronting on the broad 
ship channel of Islais Creek; will be sold so low as to 
make it an inducement to the buyer. Inquire for the 
owner. Room 18, No. 33S Montgomery St., 8. F. bptf 



A RANCH OF 160 ACRES, 

With Barn and House, thirty or forty tons ol hay, and with 
all the neerK>arv farming implcnieiite, to be let for a term 
of yearly, either 1>\ ihe acre or on shares; situated between 
Medwa>' Station and Moore's Landmtf. '^'t iinlesf rum either 
place. For particulura, enquire of (JIIAS. ALI'ERS. 223 
bush street, at i t*. m. lT7-2m 



PROTECT YOUR BUILDINGS, 

Which may be done for one-fourth the nstul expense 

BY i:SING 

QLINE'S PATENT 

SLATE ROOFING PAINT- 

Agentta Wanted in Every Town. 

A roof may be covered with a very cheap shingle, and 
by application of this Slate be made to last Irom 20 
to 25 years. Old Roofs can be patched and coated, look- 
ing mueh better and lasting longer than New Shingles 
without the Slate, for 

One-Third the Cost of Re-Shingling. 

The expense of .Slating New Shingles Is only aliotit 
the cost of simply laying them. The Slato Is Fire- 
Proof against Sparks or Flying Embers, as may be 
easily tested by any one, and appears from the fact that 
Instirauce Companies Moke the Same Tariff as for Slated 
Roofs. For Tin and Iron it has no equal, as it expands 
by heat and contracts by cold, and never cracks or 
scales. For Cemetcrj- Fejices it is particularly adapted, 
as it Will Not Cornxle in the Most Exposed Places. 
Roofs covered with Tar Sheatliing Felt Can be Made 
Water-Tight at a Small Expense. 

The ilate Paint is EILTRKMELY CHEAP. Two Gal- 
lons will Cover a Hundred Square Feet of Shingle Roof, 
or over 400 of Tin or Iron. Price on this Coast, lieady 
for tJse, is $4 per Gallon, with a Liberal Discount to 
the Trade. 

No Tar is Used in this Composition; therefore it does 
not affect the Water from the Hoof, if turned off from 
the Cistern for the first one or two Rains. The Paint 
has a very heavy body, but Is easily applied with a 
four or six-inch Paste Brush. 

On Decayed Shingles it fills up the holes and pores, 
hardens them and gives a New and Substantial Hoof 
that will last for years. Curled or Warped Shingles It 
brings to their places and keeps them there; it fills up 
all holes in Tin or Felt Roofs, and stops the Leaks, 
One Coat being Equal to Five of Ordinary Paiut. The 
Color of the Slate when first applied is Dark Purple, 
changing in about a mouth to a light Dhiform Slate 
Color, and is 

To all Intents and Purposes, Slate. 

Although a Slow Dryer. Rain will not uffuct in the 
lei>stonc hour after applying. 

Packages sent to any part of the country by F.xpress, 
C. O. D., at the following Prices. If less than five gal- 
lons, or if ordered to be sent as freight, the Money 
Must Accompany the Order: 

Ten pounds Cement for Large Holes or Cracks, $3; 
One gnlltm and can, $4; two gallons and can, $7.75; 
five gallons and can, $18.75; ten gallons and keg, $36,50: 
fifteen gallons and keg, $.'>2..''i0; twenty gallons, one-half 
barrel, $li5; one barrel, $123. 

Roofs Examined, Estimates Given, and When Re- 
quired will be Thoroughly Repaired and Warranted. 
Orders Respectfully Solicited for full Information, 
Recommendations from Insurance Companies, and 
other Editorials from the leailing Newspapers, or • 
Sample Shingle Coated with Slate. 

Address for this Coast for the Present, 

A. W. JENKINS, 
General Agent for the Pacific Coast, Care of Brooklyn 
Hotel, Box •XiTl Post OflBcc, San Francisco, Cal. 

New York Slate Roofing: Co., 

GEORGE E. 6LINES, Proprietor, 



HO. 6 OEDAR STREET, 



2v28-eow-bp-ff 



NEW YORK CITY. 



Pioneer Screen Works, 
John W. Quick, Manufacturer, 

203 FREMONT ST., (near Howard) SAN FRANCISCO. 

Screen Punching of all kinds and qualities for 
QUARTZ AND FLOUR MILLS, 

AT EASTERN RATES. 

I would call spf ciol attention to my slot cut and slot 
punched screens, which are attracting much attention 
and giving univerBnl satisfaction. 1 was the first maun 
facturer who introduced those Screens to the Millmen 
on this Coast. This is the only establishment on tho 
Coast devoted entirely to the manufacture of Screens. 

Mill Owners using battery Screens extensively can 
contract for large supplies at favorable rates. 

■^Orders solicited and promptly attended to. 
v47n!)-eow-ly 



^iieBittBipi, i|RWi»w. 



PI 



THE 



m% 



VICTOR" 
GANG 



BEST. 



Huie'R Patent, with all improvements to '73. and with 
"JONES" Plow Bottoms, the •'VICTOR- is the 
best CiA.N<i I'l^OW in the world. It is 
simple, strong: and durable, and does its work 
effectually. Don't fail to see it iM'fore buying. Price, 
$78. Sold only by TREAD"WEI.L & CO., San 
Francisco. *^ Sen<l for circulars. We have also s 
large stock of Single Plows, including the " JONES," 
COLLINS, Boston Clipper, Peoria, etc., etc. Cultivators, 
Harrows, Seed Sowers, Drills, etc., etc. 

*r Said far our nna lUuttraitd Price IM. TREAD- 
WFLL & CO., San Francisco. 16vC-3m 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premlam over all at the great Plowing 
Uatcb In Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is r<v 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. SuflScient play Is given ho that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 



14v2-3m 



MATTESON k WILLUMSON, 
Stockton. CaL 



8. O. BOWLKT. 



CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Importers and IVf nniifVioturors 

—OF— 

CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 Uerchant's Exchange, 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCISOO. 



Keep constantly on hand top snd open Buggies, top 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and finest workmanship. 

We would call particular attention to our fine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles 8. Ooffrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Helfield k Jackson, Rahway, New Jersey; 

Gregg k Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 
And other first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double Bsr- 
nesB, of the most celebrated makers: 

0. Graham, New York; J. R, Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
b Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress snd Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes, Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO & BOWLET, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

24v6-3m San Francisco, 



ATTENTION, DAIRYMEN I 



RALPH'S PATENT 

ONEIDA CHEESE VATS, 

TO HOLD FROM 
One Hundred to Five Thousand Oallons. 

CHEESE HOOPS, 

FROM SMALLEST TO LARGEST SIZE. 

PRESSED MILK-PANS, 

PIECE MILK-PANS, 

STRAINER PAILS, 

CREAM PAILS, 

MILK PAILS, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 

The above are made of the best materials and in the 
host manner. We are making a specialty of DAIRY- 
MEN'S GOODS, and sell the same at prices that are 
very low, as compared with the Eastern States. Dairy- 
men will find it to their advantage to call upon us. 

ghiohgii: ii. ta.y 4Se co., 

(314, 616 and 618 Battery St., 

25v8-.3m SAN FRANCISCO. 

SQUIRRELS. 

For Game Traps, none are better than the 

" No-whouse Traps," 

Nos. 1 and 1 H being the best sizes for Squirrels. 

For sale by CONROY, O'CONNOR k CO., 

Nos. 1U7 and 109 Front street, 
19v6-eow-3m San Francisco. 



Horse Clipping— Price, $6 per Horse. 

Otir friends and patrons are hereby notified tbat we 
are prepared with the Best Bobse Cuppinq MACRDm 
in the country to do and guarantee fint-class work. 

20v()-3m PRINCE k CHANTRY, 

Norfolk Stables, Cor, Ellis and Hsson, 8, F, 



January 17, 1874.] 




ESTABLISHED 1853. 

Stock for Nurserymen and Florists. 

TERMS CASH. 

Cherry Seedlings — Mazzard $12 per 1000 

" •' — Mahaleb 20 per 1000 

Apple Seedlings 12 per 1000 

Pear Seedlings 15 per 1000 

Walnatg, English, 4 to 6 ft 15 per 100 

California bl'k, 4 to 6 ft 15 per 100 

Spanish Chestnuts, 6 to 12 in 15 per 100 

Cork Elm, 4 to 6 ft 15 per 100 

" 6to8ft 20 per 100 

Blue Gums, or Eucalyptus, in variety. .$3 to 10 per 100 

Magnolia, Grandiflora, 3 to 5 in 3 per doz. 

" 6 to 12 in 6 per doz. 

" " 12 to 18 in 12 per doz. 

Golden Arborvita 8 to 12 in 6 per doz. 

" " 12tol8in Operdoz. 

Heath-leaved Arborvita, 12 to 18 in 6 per doz. 

Cratagus Arboria, 12 to 18 in 2.50 per doz. 

<• 2to4ft e.OOperdoz. 

Enonymous Eeptans, Varigata 2.50 per doz. 

" Pulchella 2.50 per doz. 

" Argentea Marginata 3.00 per doz. 

" Japonica 3.00 per doz. 

" Aurea 3.00 per doz. 

Swedish Juniper, 12 to 18 in 3.00 per doz. 

Heath, Mediterranean "H^rdy" 2.50 per doz. 

Will only sell in quantity specified at these prices. 
If less, 10 per cent, added; if more, 10 per ct. discount. 



KING'S NURSERY, 

ELM Street, between Telegraph Avenue and Broadway, 
Oakland, Cal. 

GEEEN HOUSE PLANTS, 
EVERGREEN TREES, 

SHRUBS, ROSES, ETC, 
100,000 MONTEREY 

CYPRESS TREES 
A superior stock of large sized AUSTRALIAN GUM 
TREES, including:— EUCALYPTUS GLOBOLU8 (Blue 
Gum)— extrafine street and shade trees. EUCALYPTUS 
VIMENALIS— both sorts very popular. ACACIAS in 
variety. Monterey Pines, Lawson's Cypress, etc., etc. 
Orders attended to. Address: 



18v6-tf 



BERNARD S. FOX, 

San Jose, Cal. 



Fruit Trees ! Fruit Trees ! 

AND WHERE TO PURCHASE THEM. 

The Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society has 
awarded : 

Largest collection of Pears, first premium. . .B. 8. Fox. 

Best twelve varieties of Pears B. S. Fox. 

Largest collection of Apples B. S. Fox. 

Best twelve varieties of Apples B. S. Fox. 

Best collection of Plums B. 8. Fox. 

Largest collection of Nuts B. S. Fox. 

Best soft-shelled Almonds (Langnedoc) B. S. Fox. 

Forest Trees, Shade Trees, larg") and small, in 
quantity. 

BERNARD S. FOX, San Jose, Cal. 



Agent, Mr. 
Francisco. 



THOS. MEHERIN, Battery street, San 
ocl8 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental 

EVERGREEN TREES AND 
Plants Tor Sale, 

At the old stand, corner Oregon and Battery streets. 
Directly opposite Post Office, San Fbanoisoo . 



I NOW OFFER FOR SALE 

The Largest and Best Collection of Fruit, 
Shade and £verg'reen Trees and Plants 

Ever offered in this market, and at Reduced Prices. 
Persons laying out new grounds would do well to call 
and examine our stock before purchasing elsewhere. 

Orders from the Country 

Promptly attended to and packed with care. 
Send for Price Catalogue. 
AGENT FOR B. 8. FOX'S NURSERIES, SAN JOSE 
Address THOMAS MBHERIK, 

616 Battery Street, 

San Fbancisco. 
P. 0. Box 722. 24v6-3m 





M. KING, 



2iv6-3m 



Nurseryman, 
OAKLAND, CAL. 



Horticulturist — Los Angeles, Cal. 

Has for sale as per catalogiie the following varities of 
trees, adapted to the climate of California. 

ORANGE TREES, BUDDED AND GRAFTID; 

ORANGE TREES, SEEDLINGS; 

LEMON TREES, 

LIME TREES, 

CITRON, 

SHADDOCK, 

POMEGRANATE. 

ITALIAN CHESTNUT— This tree is unsurpassed for 

beauty, and very prolific. The Chestnuts aro delicate 

in flavor and very large, and an almost endless variety 

of rare, useful and ornamental trees. 

Send for priced Catalogue. 24v6-6m 



METROPOLITAN NURSERY. 

MILLER & SIEVERS, Propr's. 

We can now offer for sale a fine assortment of 
NEW AND RARE 

FLOWERING & ORNAMEMTAL PLANTS, 

SHRUBS AND TREES, 

IN GOOD AND HEALTHY CONDITION. ALSO A 
CHOICE COLLECTION OF 

FLOWERING BULBS AND SEEDS, 

(Native and foreign.) 

Our catalogue is now ready, and is the most extensive 
ever published on this Coast; we will forward it free to 
all applicants. 

Nutseries on Lombard and Chestnut streets, near 
Larkin street, at the termimis of the new Clay street 
railroad. Floral and seed depot. No. 27 Post street, San 
Francisco. 

Letters by Mail or expresss will reach us. 

JalO MILLER & SIEVERS. 




TREES FOR SALE. 

T'he undersigrned offer for sale at their 
INurseries, 

Near Nlles Station, Central Pacific Railroad, Alameda 
county, Cal., a fine stock of Standakd Feuit 
Tkeeb of the orchard varieties, best adapted for Cali- 
fornia. Our Trees are one and two years old, and all 
well grown and well rooted, and true to the label. 

We invite Planters and Dealers to examine our stock be- 
fore purcha^in^i. Send ftjr a Descriptive Catalogue and 
Price List. Trees can be sent by regular freight routes or 
by Express, as directed. Caretul attention yiven to pack- 
ing for BliipiDCnt. Local AKenta wanted, to whom a libera! 
commission will be naitl. Address the nndersigricd, either 
at Oenterville, Alameda Co., Cal., or at ilH California St. 
San Francisco. Oal. 

18v6-4in 8IIINN «fe CO. , Proprietors. 



ALMOND TREES. 

The subscriber has a large lot of young Almond 
Trees, one, two and three years old, in a thrifty con- 
dition, o( the celebrated Languedoc variety, which will 
be disposed of at reasonable rates. 

Orders may be sent to the undersigned, and the tre«8 
will be properly packed and deliyexed at NUes Station . 

B. D. T. CLOXTOH, 

(By Express) Niles Station, Alameda Co., Cal. 

P. O. Address, Centreville, Alameda Co., Cal. 
14v6-tf 



PETAL'S NUESERIES. 
Fruit, Ornamental and Evergreen Trees, 

SHRUBS AND PLANTS, 

Vegetable and Flower Seeds, Greenhouse and Bedding 

Plants, embracing all of the most desirable kinds, 

are now ready and for sale. 

BLUE GUM & OTHER VARIETIES OF EUCALYPTUS. 

BoxAvood Pl»ntfl for Oarden 'Wa.lks. 

Koses of all the New and Old Varieties. 
Correspond with me, and, if possible, come and see 
my trees, etc. All orders will receive prompt attention. 
Address: A. D. PRYAL, 

Oakland, Alameda Co., Cal. 
DEPOT AND SEED STORE— Broadway, opposite the 
City Hall; Nursery and Greenhouse, 3M miles north of 
Oakland, and one mile from Oakland Horse Railroad 
depot at Temescal. 

Botanical collectors in all parts of the world are re- 
quested to correspond. 25v6-tl 



TREES, TREES, TREES 




In any quantity from one tree to 10,000, both whole- 
sale and retail, at lowest market rates. Fruits guaran- 
teed true to name. I have many new varieties of fruit 
in my collection which are tar superior to the old stand- 
ard varieties. Among them is the celebrated Beatrice 
Peach , gu.aran teed true; this Peach is 20 days earlier 
than the Hale's Early, and in every respect a fine peach. 

My stock of Shade Trees and Grape Vinos is the 
largest in the State, and a fine assortment. 

Send stamp for printed Catalogue, Price List and 
directions for planting and training, or come and see 
the stock, at the CAPITAL NURSERIES. Office and 
treedepot U street, between 15th and ICth streets, Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 

ROBT. WILLIAMSON, Prop'r. 

Special rates to Patrons of Husbandry. 24v6-3m 



18'r4. (Established in 1857.) 18'r4. 
W. R. STRONG'S SEED WAREHOUSE, 

SACRAMENTO. 

SEEDS ! (All Grown in 1873.) SEEDS ! 

THE PUREST, THE FINEST AND BEST OF 
EVERY VARIETY, 

And raised by the most eitperienced and reliable grow- 
ers of Europe, Eastern States and California. 
My stock is complete; quality unsurpassed; prices as 
low as from the best Eastern houses; embracing Vegeta- 
ble, Flower and Agricultural, Fruit, Shade, Ornamental 
and Fruit Tree 

SEEDS- 
BULBS, Flower and Bulb CHROMOS from Vick, 
(Rochester) and Monnice & Co., (France.) 

NOW READY FOR THE TRADE, lOO.COO POUNDS 
EXTRA QUALITY 

California Alfalfa, Kentucky Blue Qrass, 
Red Clover, White Clover, 

Musquit Grass, Timothy, 

Redtop Grass, Orchard Grass, 

Rye Grass, Vernal Grass, 

And all other Grasses adapted to the climate of the 
Pacific States and the Interior. 

All the better grades forwarded by mail (post-paid), 
at catalogue rates. Money forwarded in postal orders, 
registered letters or express, at my risk. 

My Agricultural Almanac and Price Catalogue is 
ready for distribution — free on application. 

W. R. STRONG-, 

8 and 10 J Street, SACRAMENTO. 

Iv7-3m 



FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 



GLEN GARDENS, 



ONE MILE EAST FROM SACRAMENTO. 



My stock embraces all the most desirable varieties 
known, including several new Peaches, among which 
are the Beatrice, Louise, Early Rivers, Rivers' Early 
York, Stanwix Early York, Victoria, Prince of Wales, 
and several others, (all hybridized by 3. Rivers of En- 
gland) and fruited on my grounds this year for the 
first time In Oaiifornia. 

The Louise and Beatrice are 15 and 20 days 
Earlier than the Hale's Early. 

Being the first to import these new fruits, including 
many sorts not mentioned, purchasers may rely upon 
getting trees true to name. Also, the FREEMASON and 
SALWAY, the most valuable late peaches in culti- 
vation. 

Blackberry, Raspberry and Strawberry Plants; fresh 
Locust Seed— CHEAP FOR CASH. 



ALMOND TREES. 



40,000 Brier's Languedoc Almond Trees, 

One year old from the bud— CHEAP FOR CASH. 

Liberal deductions to the trade and to those planting 
large numbers. The tree grows rapidly, bears young 
and constantly, blooms late, is hardy. The almond is 
lurge and sweet, with a soft shell. 

Send your orders for these and all kinds of fruit and 
nut trees, to 

W. W. BRIER, 

24v6-2m Alvarado, Alameda Co., Cal. 



E. JP. 



de27-lm 



A-XKLEN, 

Proprietor. 



m 



AUSTRALIAN 
GUJM: TItJElES. 



250,000 on hand for this season, at rates to encourage 
forest culture. Also, 50,000 Cypress, in shipping order. 

Nursery on 12th street, one block north of Tubbs' 
Hotel, East Oakland, Cal. Or address. Box 80, Oak- 
land. BAILEY & CO., Proprietors. 

Beautiful fresh Cypress Seed, $3 per pound, sent by 
mall, warranted pure and of the finest quality. 
a6v6-3m 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES, 

PETALUMA, CAL. 

Having increased our facilities for growing Trees and 
Plants, and permanently located our Greenhouses and 
Tree Depot corner Washington and Liberty streets, we 
are prepared to furnish Fruit and Shade Trees, Small 
Fruits, Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, Flowering Shrubs, 
Greenhouse and Bedding Plants, etc. Send for De- 
scriptive Catalogue and list of prices. 

Address, W. H. & G. B. PEPPER, 

21v6-ly Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 




BAY NURSERY, 

Mi OAKLAND, CAL. (Established in 1852.) 

ss^ JAMES HUTCHISON, Prop'r., 

HAS FOB SALE, WHOLESASE AND RETAIL, 
an immense stock of Evergreen Trues, Ornamental 
Shrubs and Flowering Plants, suitable for the conserva- 
tory, parlor window, flower garden, lawn, vases, rock- 
eries, banging baskets, ferneries, etc. Comprising in 
part, Camelias, Magnolias, Daphnes, Araucarias.Yuccas, 
Variegated Agaves, Roses, Fuchsias, Carnations, Euca- 
lyptus Acacias, Peppers, Cypress, Pines, Junipers, 
Cedar of Lebanon, etc. New and rare plants a special- 
ty. Dealers and nurserymen supplied at low rates. 
Hyacinths, Tube Roses, Tulips and other Bulbs. .Choice 
Flower Seed, Garden and Lawn Seed, fresh and genuine. 
2v7-3m 



ElSTABI.ISH3i:i> 18!;0. 



PATRONIZE HOME INDUSTRY, 

SEVIN VINCENT & CO- 

Being the only Seed Growers on the Pacific Coast who 

raise 

Vegetable, Flower and Tree Seeds of 
all kinds. 



Long experience, extensive practice, and the abun- 
dant production of this year's seed crop, enables us to 
offer a selection of Superior Seeds for California and 
Foreign Soils, and also places us in a position to main- 
tain the lead in the market for Pure Seeds, and much 
cheaper than those sold by other seedsmen. 

A large assortment of Imported DUTCH BULBS and 
GLASSES just arrived. 

ALFALFA, Cloveb, Timotht, Kentuckt BLnx Grass, 
Okchabd Grass, and all other varieties. 

Fbdit Trees, Shade Trees, Hardy Shrubs, and a 
general assortment of all kinds of Vegetable Plants. 

Notice. — We will send, free of postage, on receipt of 
order, 25 varieties of garden seeds in small packages 
price, $1.25; or the larger size packages^price, $2.50. 

S^ Send for Catalogue and Price List. 



18vG-4m 



SEVIN VINCENT k CO., 
COT Sansome st., San Francisco. 



Ornamental and Evergreen Trees for Sale 
at the Old Maple Leaf Nursery. 

I have now on hand the larcest and best vatietie.s of or- 
namental Evergreen Tret-s, Fruit Trees of all kinds, alsoa 
larne lot of the Blue Gums. Irom six inches to i2fi'et hifih, 
at from f 4 to SIOO per hundred. A larue lot of C.vpiesses, 
Vines and Janiper.-i of every kind. Green House Plants 
and a laiije quantity of Rnses. Maple and Laburnum 
Trees for street planting. I would call the attention of 
the trade to a larKe quantity of Australian and African 
Timber Reeds, and especially C'edrous Peodare, or Pea- 
vine Cedar Reeds. 

L. M. NEWSOM, 
East Oakland, 12ih St., near Tubb's Hotel. 



Send for Ostalo^ue. 



jalO 



HOP ROOTS FOR SALE. 

I have a lot of choice HOP ROOTS, and also healthy 
BLACKBERRY SETS, for sale at LOWEST BATES. 
Orders may be addressed through Dewey & Co., of the 
Rural Press, San Francisco; Robt. Williamson, Capital 
Nurseries, Sacramento; or to me, 

CALVERT T. BIRD, 

25v6-3m San Jose, Cal. 



_JLb a large collection of 

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs 

FOR SALE AT BELLE VIEW NURSERY, OAKLAND. 
S. NOLAN, Proprietor. avT-Sm 



Brooklyn Nursery, 

13th avenue, OPPOSITE BROOKLYN P. O. 

This Nursery has for sale at low prices about 20.000 Cy- 
press, C$3 to il.5 per hundred), 10,000 Australian Hluo Ouins. 
and about 3,000 assorted Roses. Also a choice selec ion of 
the various kinds of ornamental shrubbery, etc. Special 
attt-ntiun given to the laying out of i andscai.e Gai dens 
Orders received at the Nursery, or at the office of J. P. 
SWEENY A CO ., Seedsmen, Nob 409 and 411 Davis St., S F. 

24v6-3m JOHN CAREY, Proprietor. 



FRUIT AND ORNAMENTAL TREES. 

Small Fruits, 

Evergreens. 

Shrubs, 

Hoses, Etc., Etc. 
Dealers and Nurserymen supplied at Low Rates. 
Catalognea famished on application. 

JOHN ROCK, 
lSv6-t( San Jose, Oal. 



NEW IMPORTATION. 

50 ALMOND TREES (soft shells, largest fruit.) 

30 CHESTNUT TKEES (grafted, largest fruit.) 

25 OLIVE TREES (largest fruit.) 

60 HAZELNUT TREES {three kinds, the best.) 

50 BLACK CUREANT TREES. 

25 .JUJUBE TREES. 

25 PISTACHIO TREES. 

25 CAPER TREES. 
Choice p!ants,adapted to this climate, and warranted, 
will arrive in San Francisco by th? Pacific Mail steamer, 
due January 24, 1S74, and are from the best nursery in 
France. For sale by E. GATJTHIER, 
jalO-lt 258 Third St., 3. F. 



THOS. A. GAREY'S 
SsJemi- Tropical IS nrseries, 

San Pedro street, two miles below the Court House, 

LOS ANGELEa, CAL. 

The Largest Stock of Semi-Tropical and Northern Fruit 

Trees in Southern California, 

Grafted Orange Trees a Specialty. 

14vC-Cm THOS. A. GAREY, Proprietor 

Priced catalogue sent free. Address P. O. Box 265. 



McLAREN, JANES & CO., 

DEALERS, MANUKACTURERS AND INTROnUOEnS OF 

ISTKW IIN VEIS TION^ 

FOR THE PACIFIC COAST. 
Manufacture Espey's P.itent Coil Wire Door and Gate 
Springs 



Gate' 8 Patent Oil Blacking, etc. 



Real Estate and General Business Agency. 

NO 606 CLAY STREET, SAN FEANCI8C0, OAL. 
jttlO-bp-3m 



Flax Seed and Castor Beans. ' 

Pacific Oil audi X^ead "Works 

SAN FRANCISCO, are prepared to 

FURNISH SEED, AND CONTRACT 

For next year's crop of Flax Seed an d Castor Beans, a 
rates that, with proper cultivation on suitable land, 
will make them among the most profitable crops grown. 
For further particulars address 

PACIFIC OIL AND LEAD WORKS, 

3 and 5 Front street, San Francisco. 
12v6-3m P. O. Box 1443. 



SEEDS. 

Save Time and Money. Buy direct of the GROWER. 

Vegetable, Field and Flower, fresh and true to name. 

Catalogue for 1874 sent FREE, by 

GEO. S. HASKELL & CO., Seed Growers, 

2.5vC-2m Rockford, III. 



SUPERIOR CHILE ALFALFA SEED, 

EX " ETA" FROM VALPARAISO, 

For Sale by 

CROSS & CO., 

316 California street San Franciscx). 

I9v»-tf 



WHITE LEGHORN CHICKENS 



CHOICE FOWLS AND FRESH EGGS AT 
REASONABLE RATES. 

ALSO A FEW GOOD 



Si 



DARK BRAHMAS AND BLACK SPANISH. 

F. IV. "WOOOS A CO., 

de27-4t 67 California ICarkat' 



tC I *nAr'ril«y' Ac'nUwuMfillAllclM.'toiwornntr^o- 
*») 10 *uVpl«,or«l'h"«fi, jouii«orol<l,nii>ki>mi)roi»oii«y«l 
woi^ for u. In llM.lrnpar«ni<»nvail or all llio llm«lhanatanythllic 
•!■•, PftrtlcnUrirrM. AddraAaO. lltliiauoaCo.,Portlftlld.ll«lD«. 



-48 



s^Aomm mws^^ s^m®8«. 



[January 17, 1874 



i^"See page 36 for Department of P. of B. and List of 
Mew Cixanges. - 



California Subordinate Granges. 

[This list contains the names of Mastirs and Secretaries, 
■0 far as reported to U8, elected to serve duriofr the year 
Itni. Secretaries and others will Kreatly sblifre us by 
making needful correctionH.] 

ALAMEDA COUNTY. 
C'EN'TERVrr.LE ORANGE. Centerville, Alameda iCo.: 

.James Shins. Master; J. L. Bf.ard. Sec'y. 
EDEX nRAN(;E. Hij-wards, Alameda Co.: Thos. Hf.i,- 

nu. Mister; Wm. Owes, Sec'y, 
LTVSRMORR GR\NOE, Livermore Valley, Alameda 

O '. : D^NiKi. iNM.vv. Matter: H". R. Kassett. Secy. 
TEMESCAL GRANGE, Oakland. Alameda Uo.: E. S. 

Oark. M istcr; JOHS OOLLIN*. Sco'y. 
BUTTE COU>-TV. 
CHICO GRANGE, Ohico, Butte Co.: W. M. Thobp, Master; 

J . W. SooTT. Sec'y. Agent. W. M. Thorp. 
NORD GR.ANUK, P. O.. Nord, Butle Co.: G. W. Colbt, 

Master: Albert Carmrn, Sec'y. 

COLUSA COUNTY. 
ANTELOPE GRANDE, Colusa, Colusa Co.: II. A. 

I.ior.AN. Master; A. T. Wblton. Sec'v. 
CENTER GRANiiE, P. O, ' olasa, OolnsaOo. J. P. KiM- 

riBKLi.. Master; W (i. Saindf.bs, Secy. 
COLL'.-SA i;raN(!E. Colusa, ColusaCo.: W. K. Estell, 

Master: U. ,li»Nr:s. Sec'v. 
FHKSHVVATEK GR.VNGE, P. O.. Colusa, f^olosa Co.: I. 

H. Durham. Master: R. A. Wilsev, Seo'y. 
GRAND ISLAND ■JRtNUK, Svoamore P. O., Colusa Co.: 

.1 .T HiciiK. Mister: J. O. n'lLKiNs. Sec'y. 
PI..\ZA GRANGE, Olimno, Oolusa Co.: t'. C. GaATES, 

Master: W. E. Green, Seo'y. _ 

PRINtJE'rON GRANGE. Princeton. Colusa Co.: A. D. 

LotiAN, Maat4-r; H. .Jame.son, Sec'y. 
FUNK SLOl'Gll GRANNIE, Colusa. Colusa Co.: E. O. 

HtTNTER. Master; Geo. B Harden, Si-c'y. 
SPRING VALLEY GRANCE, Sprinif Valley, Oolnsa Co.: 

D. H. Abnoi.I). Mas'er: L. T. Hayman, Sec'y. 

UNION GRANGE, P. O., Princeton, ColusaCo.: M. Davis, 

Ma.ster: Isaai' L MiDaniei.. Secy. 
WILL,OWS GRANGE, P. O., Princeton. Colusa Co. : J. W. 

ZiTjrWALT, Master: HEO. T. Hicklin, Secy. 

CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 

DANVILLE GRANGE. Danville, Contra CosU Co.: Chas. 

Wood, Master: John B. Sydseb, Sec'y. 
POINT OK TIMBER ORANGE, Antioch P. O., Contra 

OostaCo.: R. G. Dean. Master; J. E. W. Carey, Sec'v. 
WALNUT CREEK GRVNGE. Walnut Creek. Contra 

CostaCo.: Nathaniel Jones, Master; Wsi. K. Daly, 

Sec'y. 

EL DORADO COUNTY. 
PILOT HILL GRANGE, Pilot Hill, El Dorado Co : P. D. 

Brown, Master; A, J. BAVLEr, Seo'y. 

FRESNO COUNTY. 
FRtNKLIN GRANGE; Kingston, F. Wyani-K, Mast«r ; A. 
B. Crowell, Nec'y. 
. FRES.VOGRANGK, FresnoCity: H. W. Fassett, Master; 

E. DcsY, Seo'y. 

GARRETSU.V GRANGE. King's River: W. J. HcTCH- 

IHON. Master: W. W. Phillips, Sec'y. 
LAKE GRVNGE, Kingston: M. S. Babcock, Master; |E. 

J. Benedict. Sec'y. 

HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 
KIWELATTI GRANGE, Areata. Humboldt Co.: |Lewi3 

H Wood. Mister; D. D. AVERILL, Sec'v. 

TABLE BLUFF ORANiiE. Tahle Bluff, Humboldt Co.: 
.Jackwin Sawyer. Master : B. 11. C. Pollard. Sec'y. 

FERXD.VLE GRA.V(;E. Forndale, Humboldt Co.: F. L. 
lioTSToK. Master; iJ. W. (iRiFFITii. Sec'y. 

ELK RIVER GRANGE. Eurika. Humboldt Co.: Theo- 
dore Mf.ver, .M;iater; D. A DrMerRITT. Sec'y. 

RoHNEKViLLE GRANDK, RolinerviI.e. Humboldt Co.: 
B. T. Jameson, Master; H. S. Case, Secretary. 

LAKE COUNTY. 
OUENOC GRANGE, Ouenoc. Lake Co.: H."; A.fcOLITEn. 

Master: Mrs. A. A. Ritchie. Sec'y. 
KEL3EYVTLLE GRANGE, Kelseyville, Lake Co. : D. P. 

SHATTrcK. Master: T. OiiMsTON. Sec'y. 
LAKEPOKI" GRANiJE. Lakeport, LaKeCo.: O. Octtee 

Master; N. Phelan, Sec'y. 
LOWER L.\KE GRANGtl, Lower Lake, Lake Co. : A. 

K. Noel, Master: Horace Stow, Sec'y. 
UPPER LAKE ORANGE. Upper Lake, Lake Co.: D. V. 

Thompson, Master; D. y. McCarty, S«c'y. 

• LOS ANOELES COUNTY. 

ALLIANCE GRANGE. El Monte, Los Angeles Co.: 8. 8. 

REEVE.S. Master: .1. W. Marshall, Secy. 
LOs A.VGELKS GRANiiK, Los Angeles Co.: T. A. Gabev, 

Master; T. D. Hancock, Sec'y. 
AZI'SA GRANiiK, Kl Monte. Los Anceles Co.: W. W. 

Maxey. Master; J. C. Preston, Sec'y. 
COMPTON GRANoa, Compton. Los Angeles Co: C. 'W. 

CoLTRKN, .Master; J. A. Walkjbr, Sec'y. 
EL MONT'S URANOK, Lo« Angeles Co.: O. C. Gibbs. 

Masier;P. O., Los Angeles. J. II. Grat, Sec'y ; P. O., 

£1 Monte. 
ENTEKPRISE ORANGE, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Co.; 

A. M. Socthworth. .Master; W. f. Henderson. Sec'v. 
EUREKA GRANGK, Spadra. Los Angeles Co.: T. C. Tan- 
ner. .Mister; Joseph Wright. Sec'y. 

FaIRVIEW GRANGE. Anatieiin, Los Angeles Co : Ed- 
ward Evey. Master; .1. o. Taylor. Sec'y. 
FLORENCE GRANGE, Los Angeles Los Angeles Co.: 

.losIAH RfSSELL. Master; WlLLIAM PORTER. Scc'y. 

FRUIT LAND (iRANGE, TustinCity.Los Angeles Co; A. 

B. Hayward, Master: E. R. Nichols, Sec'y 

LOS NEITOS GRA.'>iGE, Los Angeles Co.: E. B. Gban- 

DON, Maater; P. O., Los Angeles: J. F. Marquis. Sec'y; 

P. O.. Anaheim. 
NErt' RIVER GRANGE, Los Neitos P. O.. Los Angeles 

Co.: R B. (iUTHRiE, Master; D. S. Warulow, Sec'y. 
ORANGE GRANiili. Rictilanrf, Los Angeles Co.: Joseph 

Beach, Master; .1. W. Anderson, Sec'y. 
SILVER GRANIJE. Los Neitos. Los Angeles Co.: H. L 

Montgomery. M;iater; W. P. McDonald, Sec'y. 
WESTMINISTER GRANGE. (Anaheim, P. O.) M. B. 

Ubaiu, Master; Henuv Stephens, Sec'y. 
MARIN COUNTY. 
NIOASIO GRANGE, Nicaslo, Mvrin Co.; H. T. Taft, 

Master; J. W. Noble. Se -'y. 
POINT ARENAS GRANGh., Point Arenas. Marin Co.: 

A. H. Ste.i.son, Master; .loiiN A. Vnoa, Sec'y. 
TOMALES GRANGE, Tomalns, Marm Co.: WM. VaN- 

DESBILT, Master; R. H. Prin( E, Sec'y. 

MENDOCINO COUNTY. 

POTTER VALLEY GRANGE, Porno, Mendocino Co.: J. 

Mewhinney, Ma.st«r; T. McCowan. Sec'y. 
UKIAH (iRANtiE, Ukiah Oitv. Mendocino Co.: W. D. 

White, .Master; A. O. C.vbpenteb, Sec'y. 

MERCED COUNTY. 

BADGER FLAT GRANGE, Krevenhagen's P. O., Merced 
Co., vtn Gilroy: W. W. Pahliw, Master; ALFRED I*. Meb- 

CdTTONWuoD (JRANtJE, Hill's Ferry, Merced Co.: J. 

L. Crittenden. Master; J. J. Doyle. Sec'v. 
HOPETON GRANtJK. Hopetou, Merced Co.: JOHir Rdd- 

DLE, Master; T. Eaolksdn. ^^pc'y. 
LOS BANGS (iRANtJE. Kreyenliagens P. O., Merced Co., 

I'M, (Jilroy ; Wm. M . VlNEY, Master; H. C. WaINWBIOUT, 

Sec'y. 
MERCED GRANGE, Merced, Meroed Co.: W. E. ELLIOT, 

Master; F. Tadlock. Sec'y. Agent, W. P. Fowleb. 
SNELLING GRANGE, Suelling, Merced Co.: Uaniel 

Yeizeb, Master; W. L. Hamlin, Sec'y. 

MONTEREY COUNTY. 

HOLLISTEK GRANGE, Hollister, Monterey Co.- J D 
Kowt.ER, Master; S. F. Cowan, .Sce'y. Agent. J. D 
Fowler. 

SALl.VAS GRANGE. Salinas.Monterey Co.: N. L Alleu 
Mi-ter: Samuel Cassidt, Sec'y. Agen:, W, L. Cab' 

PEMTBB. 

tSAPA COUNTr. 

CALI-;T0G A GRANGE, Cslistoira. J. N. Bennett, Master- 

L. Hopkins. Sec'y. 
NAPA GRANGE, Nana City. Napa Co. : W. H. Baxter. 

Master; .P. Walter Ward, Sec'v. Agent, W. A. Fisurk. 
ST. HELENA URaNGE, St, Helena, Napa Co : J. H. 

ALLISON. Master. ,F . L. Edwahdh, Sec'y. 
YOUNTViLLE GRANiiB, Vountville, Napa Co.: J. M 

Mayfield, Master; Kbank Gbipfin, Seo'y. Agent, J. 

U. Hatfield. 



lEKBYFIELD, 



SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 
BRIGHTON GRANGE, Brightfrn, Bacramcnto Co. ; J. M 

Bell. Master: MAitRinR Ti>oMTri*. Sec! 
ELK GROVE GRAN(;E. Elk Grove. Sacramento Co.: 

Obadiah S. Freeman, Master: Delob Gade. Sec'y 
FLORIN (JRANGK. San Jo».iuin Township. Sacramento 

Co.: CALEii ARNOi,i>.Mast«r; Wii.LlAM ^cuo^•IKLD, Sec. 
SACRAMENTO GRAN(;E. No, Vi, Sacramcntj, Sacra- 
mento (jo,; W. S. Manixivk, Master; A.S.Greenlaw, 

Sec'y. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 
SAN BERNARDINO GRANGE, P. O., Rircrsi'le, San 

Bernardmo Co.; E. G. Bbown, Master; J. F. GoDLD, 

Sec'y., San liernardino. 

SAN JOAQUIN OOUff PY. 
ATTiANTA GRANGE. Slorano. San Joaquin Co.: W. T. 

Campbell. Master: Potman Vishes, Sjc'y. P. O., Mo- 

rano, San Joaquin Co. 
CAsrOlUA (iRANGE. Lathrop, San Joaquin Co.: Sew- 
all Goweb. Master; J. Steahan, Sec'y. 
LINDEN GRANGE, Linlen, San .loaquin Co.: John 

Waslev, Master: Jahrii Waslky. Seo'y. 
LIRF.RrV GRANliE. Acampit. San .loaquin Co.: JusTDH 

ScHOMP, Master; J. J. Emslir, Seo'y. 
I.ODI GKANGE. Lodi.San JoaqumiJo.: J. W. Kf.aiiny, 

.Master; Miis- Nellie CiieiucH, Sec'v. 
RUSTIC (iliANGE. I.atlirop, San Joaquin Co.: J. A. 

SHEPHERD, Master; Henry Moork. Sec'y. 
STOCKl'O.^ GRaVuE, Stockton, San Juaquin Co.: 'Wm. 

L OvERHisEB. Master: Wm G, Phelps, sec'y. 
WEST SAN JOAtJUIN GRANGE, Ellis. San Joaqnin Co.: 

M, Lammeks, Miister: Geo. E. McStay. Sec'y. 
WILDWOOD GRANGE, Wildw.>od School House, San 

Joaquin Ci.: Jos. Leiohxo.n, Master; A, B. Munsjn, 

Sec'y. 
WOODBRIDGE GRANGE, Woodbridge, San Joaquin Co.: 

J. L. Hdtson, Master; A. S. Thomas. Sec'y. 
SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. 
ARROYO QRaNDE GRANGE, Arroyo Grande, San Luis 

Obispo Co. ; W. U. Nelson, Master; D. F. Newsom, 

Sec'y. 
OAMBUIA GRANcfE. Cambria, San Luis Obispo Co • 
C. H. IvlNS. Master Herbert Olmstead, Sec'y 
MURO CITY GRANGE, Moro, San Luis Obispo Co.: A. J. 

MOTHERgiCAD, Master; H. Y. Stani,et, Seo'y. Agent, A. 

.1. MOTIIEBSE.VD. 

OLD CRKEK GRANGE. Old Creek, San Luis Obispo Co. : 
Isaac Flood, Master: R. M. Pbeston, Sec'y. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO GRANGE, San Luis Obispo, San Luis 
Obispo Co.: Wm. Jackson, Master; E. L, Reed, Sec'\, 
SAN MATEO COUNTY, 

PESOADEROGRANGE. Pescadero, San Mateo Co.- B.V. 
WeeKjs, Mu8t*r; H. B. Sprague. Sec'y. 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. 
OARPENTERIA GRANGE. Carnenteria, Santa Barbara 

Co. : O, N, l^ADWELL .Master; G. E. Thcrmand, iiec'y 
CONFIDENCE GRANGE. Cmadaloupe, Manta Barbara 

Co.: A. COPELAM), Master; J. T, AtrsTiN, Sec'y. 
SANTA BARBARA URANGE, .Saiita Barbara, S. B. Co ■ 

O. L, Abbott. Master: C. Kensey, Sec'y. 
SANIA MARH URANGE. Santa Barbara Oo,: P.O. 

Sney Station. San Luis Obispj Co.: Joel Milleb, Mas- 
ter; M. D. .Miller, Seo'y. 

SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. 
RIVERSIDE, Riverside, P. O. E. G. Brown, Master; W. 

W. Kimball. Secy. 

SANTA CLARA COUNTY. 
SAN JOSE GRANGE. No. 10, San Jose. Santa Clara Co : 

G. W. Henniso, Master; Mms J ettoba WATKiN8,Secy. 

San Jose, Agent, J, W, Hebndon. 
SANTA CLARA .iRAN(;E. Santa Clara P. O,. SanU Clara 

Co.: H. M. Leonard, Master; I, A, Wilcoj. Sec'y. 
SARATOGA (;RAN<;E. Saratoga. Santa Clsra Co.: Fban- 

018 DBE8HER, Master: Miss Jeknie Fabwell, Sec'y. 
SANTA CRUZ CI)\jNTY. 
GEORGIANA grange, Georgiana, Solano Co: F. M. 

KiTTRELL, Master: Geo, a. Knott. Sec'y. 
I'AJARO GRAN<;E, p. O. Watsoiiville. Santa Cruz Co.: 

I). M. C'LOtioH. Master : <} W. Roadiiodse. See'y. 
SANTA CRUZ GRANGE. Santa Cru7.: G. C. WabdwKLL, 

Master: J, W.Moroan. Sec'y. 
WaTSONVILLE grange, Watsonville. J. MoCallam 

Master; A. F. Rich.irdson, Sec'y. 

SOLANO COUNTY. 
DENVERTON ORANGK, Denverton, Solano Co.: J. B. 

C<RBiN(iTON Master; O. C. Arnold. Sec'y. 
DIXON GRANGE, Dlion, Solano Oo. : J. C. Ml 

Master: James a. Ellis, Sec'y. 
ELMIRA GRANGE, Vaca Station, Solano Oo. : J. A. Claxk, 

Master; M. D. CooPER, Sec'y, 
ROi^KVILLE GKANGE. 0.<rdclia, Solano Co.; W. A. 

Lattin, Master: J. R. Morris. Sec'y. 
SUISUN VALLEY GRANGE, Suisun, Solano Co.: R. 0. 

Haile. Master; A, T, llArcH, Seo'y. 
VACAVILLE GRANGE. Vacaville, Solano Co.: E. R. 

Thubbcu. .viaster: Oscar Dobbins. Sec'y. 
VALLKJO GRANGE, Vallejo, Solano Co.: O. O. Peabsox, 

Master; Chas. B. Demino. Sec'y. 

SONOMA COUNTY. 
BENNETT VALLEY GRANGK, Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co. : 

J. De TiRK, Master: J. H. Plank, Sec'y. 
BLOO.MFIELD grange. Santa Rosa, Sonoma Co, : Wm 

H. White. Master; D. Dritner, Sec'y. 
BODKGAiiRANGK.Bodega.Sonomatio.: J. H. HF.OLEB, 

Master; W. SMITH. Sec'v. 
CLOVERDAJ.E GRANGK, Cloverdale, Sonoma Co.; 

Chas. H. Cooley. Master; J. B. Cooley, Sec'y. 
GEYSKRVILLE GRANGE, lieys -rviile. Sonoma Co.: 

Calvin M. Bosworth. Master: R. R. Leioh. Sec'y. 
UEALDSBURG GRANGE, Heaidshurg, Sonoma Co,: 

•Jharles Alex.anoer, Master: Mrs. S. A. Peck, Seo'y. 
Agent, r. H. Merry. 
PETALUMA GRANGE. Pctaluma, Sonoma Co.: L. W. 

Walkeb, Master; D. G. Heald, Sec'y. Agent. VV. M. 

Hill. 
SANTA ROSA GRANGE, SanU Rosa, Sonoma Co.: Geo. 

W. Davis. Master ; J. A. Obbeen, Sec'y. 
SONOMA GRANGK, Sonoma Co. : P. Oj Si-noma, Sonoma 

Co,; Wm, McP. Hill, Master; W. A- Berrv, Sec'v. 
SEBASTOfOL GRANGE. Sebastopol, Sonoma i^o. ; M 

C. Hicks. Master; .losEfil Pl'RRINOTON. Sec'v. 
TWO ROI'K GRANGE, Two Kock, Sonoma Co,: John 

R, Do,is, Master: ,IoHN H, Freeman, Sec'y. 
WINDSOR ORANGE. Windsor, .Sonoma Co.: A. B. NAt- 

TET, Master; J. H. McCleuland. Sec'y. 
STANISLAUS COUVTY. 
BONITA GRANGE, Crow's Landing, Stanislaus Co.: J . 

W. Tbe.\dwell. Master: A. B. *;rook, Seo'y. 
CERES GRANtiE. Westport Precinct, Stanislaus Co.; 

W. B. Harp, Muster; C.N. Wiiitmore, Secy. 
GRAYSON GRANGE, (iravsm. SianislausCo.; I. O. Gard- 
ner, M«5ter; Miss 11. J. Pheli-s. Sec'v. 
ORISTIMBA GRANGE, Hill's Ferry, .Stanislaus Co.; W. 

J. Miller, Master: This. a. (Jhapman, Sec'y 
SALIDA GRANGE. No. 8. Modesto P. O., Stanislaus Co.; 

H. F, PARKKa. Master; A. H. Klmobe, Sec'y. 
STANISLAUS ORANGE, Modesto, Stanislaus Co.: J. D, 

Spencer, Master: Vital E. Bangs, Sec'y. 
TURLOCK GRANGE, Turlock, Sunislaus Co.: A. B. 

KCLKERTH. Master; ,IonN A. HF.NDEES0N. Sec'y. 
WATERFORD GRANGE. Wsterforrt, Stanislaus Co. : R. 

R. Warder, Master; W, C. Collins, Sec'y. 

SUTTER COUNTY. 
SUTTER GRANGE. Sutter, Sutter Oo.: W. C. Smith, 

Master: M. C. Hunoerford, Sec'y. 
YUBA CIIY GRANGE, Yuba City, Sutter Co.; T. B. 

Hull, Master: S. R. Chandler, Sec'y. 

TEHAMA COUNTY. 
RED BLUFF GRANGE. Red Bluff. R. II. Blossom. 
Ma fiter; John Cl'Rtis. Sec'y. 

TULARE COUNTY. 
DEEP CREEK GRANGE. Farmersville : W. G. Pf.nne- 

baker. Master; F. G. -iF.FFBBDa. Seo'y. 

TULE RIVr.R GRANGE. Portcrville, Tulare Co.: G. A. 

Williamson, Master; N. T. Blaib, Sec. 

VENTURA COU.VTY. 

SATICOY GRANGE. P. O.. San Buenaventura. Ventura 

Oo. : MU.TON Wa»son, Master ; K A. Duval, Sec'y. ' 

YOLO COUNTY. 
ANTBLOPR ORANdE, W J. Olabk. Mastm; O. L. N. 

Vaioun, Se. 'y; P. () . Antelope. Yolo Co. 
BUCKEYE GRANGE. Yolo Co.: P.O.. Buckeye, Yolo Co. 

Wm.Sims. Master; J. G. ALI.rji, Sec'y. 
CACHE CRELK GRANGE, Cache Creek. Yolo Co.: D. B. 

HuBLBURT, Master: L. D. Stephens, Sec'y. 
CAPA VALLhY GRANGE, Oapa, Yolo Co.: R. R. Dabbv, 

Master; P. M. Savaoe. Seo'y. 
DAVISV^ILLE GRANGE Davisville, Yolo Co.: Chas. E. 

(JREEN. Master; John KtllJIER. Secy. 
HU.M)RV HOLLOW GRANiiK, P. O., Yolo, Yolo Co. : G. 

L. Parker. Master: C. O. PFRKiNg. Sec'y. 
WEST CRAFTON (.RANGE. Yolo, Yolo Co.: A. W. Mon- 

His, Master: Geo. W. Parkx, Sec'y, 
YcjLO (iKANGE. W..oOland. Volo (;o.; W. M. J.VCK80N 

Master: D. ScHiNDLER, Sec y. Agent. W. M. Jackson. 

»^ Deputies who organize new Granges arc requested 
to 8< nd the list of oHlcers, and the names of all charter 
members, with other facts of interest, for free publication 
in the Rubal Pbesh, as early as possibi*. 



The National Grange. 

OFFICEK>« : 

Jf.urf.'r.-DUDLEY W. ADAMS, Waukon. Iowa. 
Orrrswr— THO.Mas TAYLOR, (Jolnmliia. South Carolina, 
r.mnr'-r—T. A. THOMPSO.N. Planview, Wabash Co., Minn, 
.S'(^.mr.(-A J. VAUilllAN. Early ilrove. Marshall (^a..Mi8s. 
-«™i«.i.,r\Y<-.™r.;_ii. \v. THOMPSON— New Briinswlck.N J. 
Cliaplain—Rr.\. A. I!. (;ROSH. Washington. D. O. . 
Tr'.i. ,,,.r-F M. .McDowell. Comlng, N. V. 

1 II Kl-LLEY. Washington, D.O. 

u DINWIDDIK OreiianI Drove. L»keCo.,Ind, 
I. W. AD \ M s, Waukon. Liwa. 
' '.\i:s, (1. 11. KELLEV, Wa.hington, D. C. 

f'/„r,.-MRs..l.aABBOn'. (Jlarkosville.But.er Co..lowa. 
L(uii/ AmiKlant /Urirtinl—Mjas C . A. II ALL, Wa-hinBton,D.C. 

JExecntlvc Co mm It tee i 
WILLIAM SAUNDERS, Washington, D. C. 
D. » YAI'I- AIKEN. Coke-bury, Ablieyillo Co., S. C. 
E.R. SHANKLAND, Dubuque. Iowa. 



California State Grange, 

OFPICEKS t 

MatUr-J. M. HAMILTON, Oienoc, Lake Co. ■ J 

Oiwr-0. LABUoTr. Santa Barbara. i j ; J rt 

/,>r<urfr-.I. W. A. WRIGHT, Borden. Fresno Oo. 
SInrarcl-ii. L. ALI.E.V. Salinas, Monterey (Jo. 
AfMaiU .siy<ic-ir,l—V/ 1*. M. JACKSON. Woodland. Yold Co. 
/■hiplnia-l. G. GARDNtR. (.iravBon. 
Trf.i.urrr-W. A. FISHER, Napa fitv, Napa Co. 
Sn-rHarv—Vf. H. BAXTER. 3.1) California street, S. F. 
0:iU Kr,!,^— R. R. WARIIER, W;,terford, Sta'iislaus Co. 
f>r».j^MRS. G. W. DAVIS. Santa Rosa. Sonoma Co. 
Poinm,..-MRS. S. C. BAXTER. Napa ( itv, Napa Co. 
F/or<i-MRS. R. S. IIE(;ELER, Boi^ga. s'..noina Co 
Ltutu Ai>-vt.i«l .Swifurtl— Mrs. 3. U. GARDNER, Grayson, 
Stanislaus Co. 

Exerntlve Committee : 

J. M.HAMILTON. W. M, Chairman, of Ouenoc, Lake Co 

I. O. GARDNER. Gravson, SUnislaiis Co 

J. C. .MKKKVf lELD, Dixon, Solano Co. 

H. B. JOLLY. Merced, Mereed Co. 

THO-J. A. GAREY, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Oo. 

G. W. COLBY, Nord. Butte Co. 

A. B.N ALLY, Windsor, Sonoma Oo. 

Mtate Agrency t 

Room 9, No. X2t California ktreet, San Francisco.— G. P. 
Kbllooo, General Agent. j _, . . i 



List of Deputies. 

County. Depoty. Post Office. 

Alameda. A. T. Dewev. Oakland or ,San F'ei, 

Butte. Wm. M. Thorp. Chico. 

Colusa. .1. J. Ilicok. Grand Island. 

Contra Costa. R. G. Dsan. Antioch. 

San Francisco. John Megl»r. (;enerBt Deputy. 

Lake. J. M. Hamilton. (iuenoc. 

Merced. H. B. Jolley. Merced City. 

Monterey. J. D. Fowler. Hollister 

Napa is supplied bv Worthy Secretary, W. H. Baxter. 
Sacramento. \Y. S .Manlove. Sacramento. 

San Joa<iuin, K. B.Stiles. Ellis. 

San Luis Obispo. A. .1. Molhersead. Moro. 
San Mateo. B. V. Weeks. Pescaiero. 

Santa Clara. W. G. Henning. San Jose. 

Solano. J. A. Clark. Vaca Station. 

Sonoma. Geo. W. Davis. Santa Rosa. 

Stanislaus, J. D. Spencer. Modesto. 

Yolo. Wm.M, J,tck3on. Woodland. 

Los Angeles. Thos. A. (larey. Los Anjeles. 

Santa Barbara. O. L. Abbott. Santa Barliara. 

Ventura. Milton Wasson. San Buenaventur.!. 

Farmers desiring to organize Granges, can apply to .1. M 
Hamilton, (W. Master), tiuenoc, Lake Co, ; W. H. Baxter, 
iW. Secy), X» California St., S. K ; J. W, A, Wright. iW. 
Lecturer), Borden, Fresno (jo. ; or to the nearest Deputy 
to their locality. Thos. H. Merry. (W. Et-L-ctnrer) of 
llcaldsburg, is also deputised to organize Granges. 



Constitulions and By-laws. 

Blank Subordinate Oran^re (Constitutions and By-LawB 
(fnrm recommended officially by Cal. Kx. Committee) with 
IheNatiunal and Califoroia Idtate Gr&oge Oonstitution. 
By-Laws and Rules of Order, in neat pamphlet form, sent 
pofi(p<tid, at ^ cts. per copy. Bj express At$4 per lOU, coin. 

For Subordinate Granges 

Special By-Laws for Subordinate Oranges printed to ordflr 
and substituted in place of the blank form above men- 
tioned, at reasonable oost at the office of the Pacific RO- 

BAL. PKEtiU. 

DEWEY k CO., Publisher, 
Jan. 1874. ^*o. 338 Montgomery »t., S. F. 



ARTICLES FOR GRANGES. 

Gent H regalia, sash and pouch (tirat qualily) $ V> 

Lady's regalia, sash and apron ^> 

Applications for membership, per lOU 1 00 

Withdrawal Cards, per 100 1 00 

Receipt Buokfl for Secretaries, 50 

Receipt Books for Troaeurcrfl 5tl 

Klank Order Books for Treasurers 60 

Full sets of Jewels for officers' regalia (13) 10 00 

FuU sets of working tooln. in muslin case (7) 7 00 

Spud.pruning hook and -hepht-rd'scrookdinmounted) 7 00 

Seals, with monogram P or H. in center, 6 00 

Furnished by W. H. BAXTKR. State Secretary. No- 
320 i'alifornia Street. iSan Francisco. 



The Mining & Scientific Press 

started In 1860, is one of the oldest weekly Journals now 
published in San Francisco. It has been conducted 
by its present proprieturs lor tfn years, during which 
period it lia-^ been repeatedly enlarged and constantly 
Improved. The active and steadfast efforts of its pub- 
lishers bavp gained for its conduct an amount of practi- 
cal erpcrience greater than any other puolisbers have 
accumulated on this coast, of a weekly Journal. 

The sum pai<l by us for the best editorial talent ob- 
tainable for our special class Journal; for engravini^, 
for interesting ncwB and correspondence, and for print, 
ing a large-sized, handsome sheet, is nnequalled by that 
of any other American weekly west of the WsslBsippi. 
. As a PBAcnaai. Mntiita Joitbnal it bas no rival on 
this Continent. 

It is the only Meohakioai., and the only Scnssrinc 
journal of the Pacific States. 
Every Miner. Assaycr, Millman, and Metallorgist in the 

United States shonld take it. 
Every Pacific Coast Mechanic, Engineer, Inventor, 
Manufacturer, Professional Man, and Progressive 
and ludustrial Student should patronize its columns 
of fresh and valuable information. 
Every Mining Engineer, Sunerintendent, Metallurgist, 
Mine Owner and Mine Worker in the world should 
profit by its lUnstrationB and descriptions of New 
Machinery, Processes, Discoveries and Kecord of 
Mining Events. 
Every intelligent thinker in the land, inblgh or humble 
situation, who would avoid literary trash for genu- 
ine information, should SUBSCRIBE AT ONCE. 

DEWEY & CO.. 

No. 338 Montgomery street, S. P. 



HINTS FOR 



Yin will send on ncelpt of stamp for 
postage, FREE, our .V2-patfe (Jirculars 
contaiDing 113 Illustrated Mechani- Ikll/tr MTftDC 
cal Movements: a digestof PATENT I" 'til I URO, 
LAWS; information how toobtain paconts, and about the 
rights and privilegea of inventors and patentees: list of 
Goverment fees, practical hints, etc., etc AddresaOE WEY 
k 0O„ Pnbliibera and Patent Acsnta, Sao Francisco. 



Fourth Year of the Pacific Rural Press. 

The publishers of this journal dcalgn making its 
weekly Issues during its fourth year (1874) still more 
acceptable and valuable than tiioso of the past. 
A Fanner's 7 Paper Always. 

The Kfm*i, Pbrss— eatablished Jan. 1870, has been 
thoroughly a farmer's papur— " first, last, and always." 
Its success in popularity and rapidly increasing circn- 
Ution baa eiceetfed that of any other weekly on the 
coast. 

Neither Politics or Creeds. 

We refer with Satlsfartion to the independent, eliaste 
and useful character of our reading matter and the 
absence from our columns of questionable and demora- 
lizing advertisementB. 

We 6h,ill strive to make It an ever welcome visitor to 
those who desire to constantly 

Improve the Heart and Kind, 

And shall gives larger spare to our HoxK CiBCtK de- 
partment, which from the first has been a popular fea- 
ture of the KUBAi.. 

Unr aliu is to gather information from all reliable 
sources, In the varied fortusin wlilrh It is to be obtain- 
e<1. Our work is to divest our gleanings nt allsnper- 
tluities; condense such information as is of most im- 
portance to our special class of readers— give it to these 
In the plainest and fewest words possible, — saving 
thtir time by our labor. 

Our Leadins: Bepartments 
Will be continued under the following heads; 



The Horse, 

The Swine Yard, 

Sericulture, 

Tlie Vegetable Garden, 

The Flower Garden, 

The Vineyard, 

The Orchard, 

Tropical Fruits, 

Small Fruits, 

The Cereals, 

Pasturage, etc.. 

Fertilizers, 

MiscellancoDS. 

1,1 



The Home Circle, 
Young Folk's Column, 
Short Stories, 
Home and Farm, 
Useful luforination. 
Domestic Economy, 
Qood Health, 
The Dairy, 
The Apiary, 
Poultry Notes, 
Horned Stock, 
Sheep and Wool, 
Ooats, 

Practical Farmers 

Know how important It Is that the above subjects 
shnuld be treated from a local standpoint— that gen- 
erally the larining tactics ot the East will not do for 
this coast, that agciculture, in',its Infancy here, can de- 
rive greater b<>nefits from an exchange of experience 
through the columns of the press than in older fields. 
Constantly c^bscrving and studying developments in the 
special field we represent, we can be expected to give 
truer luforination on agricultural subjects, than more 
general writers at home or abroad. 

Otir Tra-veling' Correspondents 
Will do much service by gathering a large amount of 
interesting information from various parts of the Coast, 
which, but for their research and practiced observation 
jui(^Ut never be placed on record or reach the eye of the 
reading public. Of our many 

liOcal Correspondents 
We have particular reason to l>e proud. No paper on 
this Coast — old or new — has ever btvn so highly favored 
with voltmteer contributions. They are talented, reli- 
able, independent and generous representatives of an 
intelligent and enterprising people, noble types of good 
humor, unselfishness and true progress. 

Short Stories, "* .;'""; ^ 
Original and 8elect«!j, will hereafter appear in each 
number. Their selection, we trust, will be such as to 
render tbem populaf and anobjectiouable to all. In 
addition to a large numlter of 

Fine Fngraving'S, 
Representing Choice Stock, Farm Prodnets, Scenery, 
Ueiaarkable Productions, Improvements In Farming 
Implements and Machinery, Works of Art and the 
Beautiful in Nature, we shall from time to time present 
the modest 

Faces of Prominent Farmers 
Who, as pioneers in the development of agriculture on 
this Coast, or as active laborers in the "Fanners' 
Of;nse," are worthy of the distinction they enjoy, and 
the favor with which they are looked upon by our 
many readers at home and abroad. 

Engravings (costing thousands of dollars originally) 
are inserted In our columns during a single year. They 
afford instant and perpetual improssiODB often more 
perfect and real than words can convey. 
Patrons of Husbandry. 

We shall continue to give our weekly summary of 
matters connected with the interest and progress of this 
growing and important movement. We shall aim to 
give informstfon as fresh as poi-sible in this depart, 
ment. Its readers are aware that tbe ItniAL has been in 
the lead in calling farmers to organize. We shall con- 
tlnne to work zealously with the Granges for the noble 
obJe<-ta of the Order. 

The present is an 

Important Period 
In the kistory of i<nr Coast. The coming 13 months 

promise greater developments in its agricultural pro- 
gress than has been experienced in any previous year. 
Agriculturists arc alive to improvements in every direc- 
tion, and those who would keep up with the spirit of 
the times should certainly read the Ritral Pbess. 

The S. F. Uarket Beports 
Will receive greater attention iu the department o f 
Domestic Pbouijce than that of any other weekly jour- 
nal. We shall spare no pains to rentier the reports as 
reliable and complete as possible. By the eniploj-ment 
of our special reporter we hope to make this very im- 
portant part of our paper one of its best and most satls- 
lactory features. 

Kind '\^orda and Acts 
Have done much to build up in this isolated and 
sparsely settled coast so large and complete an agrlcul. 
tural J'lurnal as the Pacific Rorai. Pbrss. Wacom- 
meuco the new year with a regular circulation of 

Over 6,000 Copies, 
A far greater issue than that of any weekly on this 
Coast, independent of a daily publication. If our 
friends will continue to " help us help ourselves," we 
hope to reach a circulation of 8,000 this year, and do a 
correspondingly greater service of good. While we have 
the greatest advantages and can make ,by far the best 
weekly for 

Agriculturists on This Side of the Continent, 
We cannot expect one-half so large a circulation as Jour- 
nals in olderand more populous districts. Consequently 
readers cannot rightly expect such a paper here at East- 
ern rates. 

No Premiums Bat a Qood Paper 
Do we offer. A Uabhy chroiuo (or cheap map), 
with an tU suited paper, will hardly satisfy the farm- 
ers of this Coast, whose time is too preiious for trifling. 
To many of yoa the benefit of a reliable and valuable 
paper should reach a hundred fold its cost, while to 
all a poor journal would be dear at any price. 

Sample Copies Furnished Free 
On receipt of stamii for postage. 

A8«nt8 are Wanted 
Who will do more or lees active cauvasaing. To mich 
we will furnish free aaiuplos and pay liberally for their 
•ervioea. 

Terms of SulMoription; 

One year (payable in advance) $4.00 

SI* months 2.25 

To Granges and Farmers' Clubs, furnishing club 
lists, $3 per annum. 

SEWET tc OCPubUshsrs. 
Office, No. 338 Montgomery street, Ban Francisco, 




Volume VII.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JANUARY, 24, 1874. 



[Number 4. 



A Floral Koh-i-Noor. 

Editoes Eukal Press:— The fact that the 
avowed raission of your excellent paper is 
rather utilitarian than rosthetic, will not pre- 
vent you from taking an interest in a 
short description of a marvellous 
rose-tree at Santa Bosa. I saw it on 
a calm bright Sunday morning — and 
it was preacher, sermon, altar, all in 
one. Making it the text for a little 
talk to a children's gathering, I could 
but faintly shadow forth the lessons 
of truth and love suggested by that 
"sweet-scented picture" painted by 
the Divine Artist. 

"Your volcelesB lips, flowers 1 are living 
prenchers, 

Each cup a pulpit, every leaf a book. 
Supplying to my fancy uumeroua teachers 

From loneliest nook. 

In the Bweet-scented pictures, heavenly ar- 
tist I 
With which thou paintest Nature's wide- 
spread hall, 
What a delightful lesson thou impartest 
Of love to all. 

Not useless are ye, flowers I though made 
for pleasure 
Blooming o'er field and wave, by day and 
night, 
From every source your sanction bids me 
treasure 
Harmless delight." 

This rose adorns tne cottage of my 
friend 8. A. Kendall, the photo- 
grapher of Santa Rosa. It was plan- 
ted in 1858, and is of the Lamarque 
variety, the most beautiful of the 
white roses. But how describe that 
which is essentially indescribable ? 
Imagine an immense bouquet of white 
roses, twenty-five feet high, twenty- 
two feet across, beautifully rounded, 
with a blossoming surface of four hun- 
dred square feet, with four thous- 
and full-blown roses and twenty 
thousand buds 1 

There is the truthful statement, 
but not the picture— my pen cannot 
describe it. I could as easily write a 
poem of the first order. The stem, 
near the ground, measures twenty- 
four inches in circumference ; just 
above the ground it separates into 
three principal stems that grow over 
twelve feet to the cottage-eaves with- 
out lateral branches. These main 
stems pass between the eaves and a 
strong support attached to the house. 
Enough ! — my pen is impatient of 
these dry details, and would leap into 
poetry — if it could. I have seen 
many of the finest paintings and 
statues of the great masters ; I have 
seen the tropical flora in all its gorge- 
ousness ; but this rose-tree was the 
most beautiful work of Nature (with 
a little aid from man) my eyes ever 
beheld. Santa Rosa ! appropriately 
and sweetly named ! It is at this 
season a city of roses. They bloom 
in almost every yard, and shed their 
sweet perfume all around. Flowers 
are a luxury enjoyed by the poor as 
well as the rich. They cost nothing 
but a little labor, and that labor a 
delight to every healthy mind; That-wonderful 
rose over friend Rendall's cottage door and 
roof, as a ministrant of the beautiful, is of more 
value than any painting to be found in the halls 
of our money-kings — yet it has never cost the 
price of ft bad cigar. With our climate and 



soil, our California homes should be thepleas- 
antest on earth, and nothing but laziness or 
lack of taste will prevent them from being so. 
Mr. Kendall has photographed this Koh-i- 
noor of the roses. It makes a beautiful pic- 



men of rosebush had been as full of roses 
throughout as in the thickest portion repre- 
sented; but when the photograph was taken, 
portions of the bush had been reft of many of 
them, and therefore are not represented. — Ed. 




$tate Fair Election of Officers. 

We would like to learn whether the late an- 
nual meeting of the State Agricultural Society 
for the election of oifioers was either adver- 
tised in the agricultural papers of 
the State or any kind of notice or in- 
formation given to the farmers, of 
the day on which the meeting was 
to have been held. The constitu- 
tion of the society doubtless appoints 
the day and place of meeting, but 
farmers are not expected to always 
carry a constitution in their pockets, 
or have the subject of the annual 
meeting constantly on their minds; 
but they do expect to be notified of 
the coming event and through the 
proper channels, their agricultural 
papers, and duty or common courtesy 
at least, should have prompted the 
proper officer of the Board to have , 
given timely notice. 

Our State Agricultural Society is 
too rapidly bijcoming a one-sided 
concern. Instead of being conducted 
in the real interests of agriculture, 
disseminating facts and information 
on the subject of fruit, plant, veg- 
etable and grain growth, the best 
modes of roaring and feeding farm 
animals and the improvement of our 
dairy products, the main force of 
mind of the directors seems to be the 
promotion of the horse racing, gam- 
bling department of the institution, 
over every other interest. 

■ We learn that a sum equal to about 
$22,000 is to be expended in the 
erection of a "grand stand," for the 
convenience of those who would be 
witnesses to the annual trials of 
speed between fast horses; while 
nothing is proposed to add to the 
interest of the exhibition of farm 
products at the pavilion of the so- 
ciety. 

The people of the State, so remote 
from Sacramento as to make it im- 
possible for them to attend the an- 
nual fair, must all contribute their 
share to keep up this horse racing, 
pool selling, gambling concern, 
whether they objector not; they are 
at the mercy of the directois of the 
Society, and hold their peace, but 
for how long, we shall see, unless 
some improvement in management 
be made. 



ture, but when 1 look at it I sigh to think how 
poorly the best productions of human art can 
compete with nature. 

O. P. FjTZOEBlLD. 

Santa Rosa, June 4th, 1873. 

We would remark, that this splendid speoi- 



KOH-I-NOOR. 



' The Florida pecan nut is a profitable one for 
cultivation. For instance, ten acres could well 
sustain 210 trees, which would yield the seventh 
year about 300 bushels, making over $2,000 
from ten acres. That is nearly equal to an 
orange grove. 



How AND When to Dby Cows. — It 
would seem as though there need be 
no diflference on this subject, when 
the great trouble generally is with 
our cows and our way of feeding 
them, that they will dry up anyway 
for the greater number, long before 
wo really want them to. But there 
are some excellent cows in California 
and well kept, which continue to 
give milk nearly the entire year. It 
is better for these however, to be 
dried off carefully by drawing oflf all the thick 
milk every three or foiu days. Not to do this 
would be to endanger the udder and perhaps 
cause the loss of the use of one or more teats. 
The time for doing it should be from a ^onth 
to six weeks before the cow comes in. " 
find bis answer in the above. 



H. will 



60 



[January 24, 1874 



j^ORRESPONDENCE. 



Notes of Travel. 

No. 1— For the Phess— Br C. M. D. 

Stockton and Vicinity. 

Stockton, January 7th, 1874. 
Stockton, the county-seat of San .Toaquin 
county, stands at the head of slungh navigation 
with a population of about 13,000, 

Here is a valley, at once the most fruitful, 
productive and extensive in California. In 
fact, it is a sea of land. We took a ride about 
seventeen miles in the country, and found 
the farmers all busy plowing and sowing their 
productive soil, which responds abundantly to 
the bands of industry. 

The county is highly favored with four beau- 
tiful rivers, the Merced, Calaveras, ^Mokel- 
uiune and the San Joaquin. Farmers, mer- 
chants and manufacturers are all unceasing in 
their operations, preparing for the coming pros- 
perity, which they view with an anxious eye in 
the no distant future. We hope and trust 
their hopes may not be blighted, and that they 
will reap in abundance the golden harvest for 
which they are now making such extensive 
preparations. 

In the following we shall speak of some of 
the manufacturiug and aaricuUural iuiUistries 
of the city. 

Sliipments from Stockton from 1862 to 1873. 



Bushels. 

18C7 864,266 

1808 1,384,8)3 

1869 i.sM.vas 

1870 l,5lia,2(K) 

1871 1,114,650 

187-2 8,410,S;t3 

1873 1.671,800 



Value. 
$1,14:),879 
1,162,924 
1,674.221 
l,O47,6<!0 
1,283,361) 
3,000,000 
2,008,960 



Receipts of Wheat in 1873. 
By teams and steamers, G4,3G0 tons. By 
railrond, 10,"JoO tons. Total, 75,310 tons. 

Shipped during six months ending Jan. 1st, 
1874, 50,244 tons. Leaving in store in Stock- 
ton, 25,066 tons. 

Wool Sliipments. 
The principal firm engaged in wool ship- 
ments is Owens & Moore, who shipped 403,400 
pounds. Mr. De Blainville shipped 110,000 
pounds, and about 50,000 pounds were shipped 
in small lota. Total value, $102,578. 
Poultry and Eggs. 

Value. 

82,000 dozen Es;kb $3J.sou 

7,100 dozen OhiekeuB 36,050 

eODdozen DuckB 4,S00 

2,800 dozen Geese 2.800 

n,000dozen Turkeys 2.'>,.'>00 



Total value $104,630 

Manufactures of Grain and Flour. 

Stockton City Mill, Sperry, Burkett & Co. 
proprietors: Wheat, ground, 7,560 tons, worth 
$302,400; flour, 57.680 barrels, worth. $374, 920: 
graham Itlour, 360 barrels, ^1,960 ; cracked 
wheat, 18 tons, $1,080; corn meal, 630 barrels, 
$2,992.50; ground, 1,640 tons; of barley, corn 
and screenings, 52 tons, $480; paid for labor, 
$19,000; cleaned 1,150 tons wheat for seed and 
market. 

Lane's Mill, 
R. B. Lane, proprietor: Wheat used, 2,400 
tons, worth $94,400; flour, 16,000 barrels, 
$96,000; meal, 372 barrels, $1,870; barley, 
1,482,391 pounds, $22,000. Total business, 
$214,270. 

Foundries. 

Stockton Iron AVorks, situated on California 
street, between Weber avenue and Main streets, 
Farrington, Hyatt & Co. proprietors. Average 
number of men employed, 14; wages paid, 
$15,000; value of maturial used, $12,000— 
castings and machinery for 35 headers and 
miscellaneous. 

Globe Iron Works, 
Comer of Main and Commerce streets: Av- 
erage number of men employed, 22; amount of 
wages paid, $19,520. Total business of the 
year, $49,500. 

Stockton Paper Mill, 
li. B. Lane proprietor: Capacity, 3,600 pounds 
per day of good news paper. Cost of ma- 
chinery, $70,000. 

Woolen Mills. 

The Stockton Woolen Mills were erected in 
1870, and commenced operations the same 
year. The proprietors, Messrs. Lambert, 
Donghtej <k Tatteison, originally invested about 
$3O,U00 in the enterprise, and during 1871, 
with one set of machinery, 6,000 pairs of 
blankets were manufactured, of a superior 
quality. The product of the mill is on an 
average 1,700 yards of flannel, and 162 pairs 
of blankets. The pay-roll averaged about $800 
per month. At present 15 men are employed 
in the establishment. 

Tanneries. 

There are three tanneries in operation in 
Stockton, the Pacific, Wagner & Harrison's, 
and Kartschoke. The Pacific, Kulraan & Wag- 
ner proprietors, produced $30,000 sides of 
leather, valued at $150,000, and 75 dozen of 
appera. 



Wagner <fc Harrison tanned 280 hides per 
week, and the total value of the year's manu- 
facture is given at $72,800. 

Kartschoke manjfactured leather to the 
amount of about $24,000 in value. 

The value of the chicory manufactured 
in this city in 1872 was $4,500. The total value 
of the product of this establishment in 1873 
cannot fall short of $7,000. 

Agricultural Warehouses. 

H. C. Shaw, 201—203 El Dorado St., Stock- 
ton, is the oldest firm in this line of business 
in the city. 

Sign of Webster Brothers Manufactory, 
Market, between Center and El Dorado. This 
firm has now had an existence of 24 years, and 
in nearly the same location. Its business for 
1873 was $120,000. Classiflcntion of sales: 
50 headers; 5 threshing machines; 5 horse- 
powers; 10 horse, Foi & Derrick; 30 mowing 
machines; 50 chisel cultivators; 150 gang 
plows, 2 to 7 in gang; 200 Studebaker wagons; 
50 express; 50 Gem seed mowers; 30 Sweep- 
stake sulky gangs, and a large assortment of 
small farming implements. Mr. Shaw is also 
agent for the Buckeye mower, Fairbanks' 
scales. Vibrator threshers and Studebaker 
wagons. 

The firm of Jones & Hewlitt deals exclu- 
sively in agricultural implements and every- 
thing usually kept in a first-class establishment 
of that kind. 

Wine Manufactory. 

George West & Co. are extensive manufac- 
turers of native wines, consisting of Port and 
sherry of excellent qualitj-. He employs a 
capital of $20,000, and on an average, 12 men 
during the year. His annual products are 
20,000 gallons, and he has now on hand 37,- 

000 gallons. 

Windmill Manufactory. 

John S. Davis is engaged in the mannfac- 
ture of windmills, called the Gainhirst 
Bossett mill. Also the Champion bay press, 
with his improved windlass latch, the cost of 
which varies from S245 to $265. Last year he 
manufactured 183 and employs three men 
steadily. 

In the foregoing we have given you a list of 
the principal manufactories relating to agricul- 
ture; but they are by no m^ans all of which 
Stockton can boast. There are besides many 
wagon, tinware, harness, and other minor 
manufactories for which we have not space at 
present, but will mention another time. Stock- 
ton has a bright, future prospect before it. It 
has now two railroads in operation, and two 
more in contemplation — the Stockton and Vi- 
salia and Stockton and lone — narrow gauge. 
The latter runs through the richest coal region 
in the State. A street railroad is already in 
course of construction, the cars for which are 
manufactured. It will run from the Stockton 
and Copperopolis railroad depot to the Central 
Pacific. 

The Pacific Rural Pbkss is read by hun- 
dreds in this city and county, and all its pat- 
rons pronounce it the most sensible, reliable 
paper that comes across their threshold. Its 
friends are numerous, its readers are many; 
and while the Rubal Pbkss is hailed with 
pleasure, mechanics and scientific men do not 
forget the Mining and Scientific Press. 

Roots, Pumpkins, Brown Bread, and 
Things in General. 

Editors Press:— I do not believe in con- 
ceding to prejudice even the value of a turnip. 

1 remembered quite well that friend Olden had 
taken exception to turnips and potatoes, and 
had not mentioned beets. It does not afi'ect 
the question of the comparative value of roots 
and alfalfa as food for beasts. Liebig classes 
beets, turnips and potatoes all three together. 
I finish this paragraph with a qnotation from 
his work on the "Chemistry of Agriculture and 
Physiology," that Mr. O. may not judge me 
ambitious of obtaining the woman's victory of 
"last word." Po.ssibly the extract may induce 
him to cast aside his prejudice. Why I wrote 
of beets was, that I am the happy possessor of 
those desirable five acres devoted to that crop, 
which the Rcbal so justly mentioned as a 
desideratum to every farmer, and I prefer to 
speak that I do know, and testify that I have 
seen. I object to turnips, not from prejudice, 
but from having tried them, and found tliem 
wanting. White turnips are apt to mildew, 
und Swedes in addition to the mildewing are 
badly afl'ected by the grey cabbage louse. How- 
ever, as far as regards feeding properties, I 
believe the turnip excels the mangold wurzel. 
"One thousand parts of beet, turnips, or pota- 
toes, yield by incineration, 90 parts of ashes." 
(Liebig, C. of A. & P. p. 154.) 

My beet patch, near i)/i acres of low lying, 
moist, poor sandy land, on which 200 loads of 
manure have been spread, yielded me this 
season some 200 tons of beets, mangold 
wurzels. Not every farmer has suitable land 
for a root crop. 

What All can Raise, 
However, is a crop of pumpkins. Choose a 
friable piece of land; plough deep, (10 inches) 
early in April; plough again, shallow, in mid- 
Aprtl, and sow in hills four yards apart each 
way; thin to three vines in a hill, and keep 
down weeds by running a harrow, followed by 
a drug between the rows, while the weeds are 
in their first two leaves, hand-hoeing close to 
the young plants. The harrow loosens the 
roots of the weeds and the drag buries them. 



roots and branches. Choose a hot day for this 
operation. On four acres I have raised this 
year 50 tons. 

I have to thank two ladies for enlightening 
me on the 

Brown Bread Question. 
I was not altogether benighted when I asked 
Mary Mountain to "come on with that BB, 
recipe" — I had seen, eaten, and even made BB, 
but I wanted t« be put up to all those extra 
wrinkles that dissipated the dyspepsia of the 
R. P. editor in such double quick time. 
Thanks again, M.M. for the sermon apropos of 
the coming gems. Personally, I believe more in 
sermons than in gems, and I propose to show 
my faith by my works. Man does not live by 
bread ,,no! not even tho' it be hygienic brown) 
alone, but by every word that proceedeth 
out of tho mouth of God. That is, by know- 
ledge of the Truth, whether it be hygienic, 
mathematical, philosophic, or spiritual. Wo 
seem to be rather in a haze as to 
What Constitutes Truth. 
Let us leave our turnips and pumpkins 
awhile jr.st to think this over. What makes 
Truth ? Nothing short of the will of God ex- 
pressed in His Word (I don't mean the Bible 
by that) and accomplished by that Word. We 
call it a truth that 2 and 2 make four, a mathe- 
matical truth, but we do not pause to ask our- 
selves why it is a truth. We say it is true and 
good from the mere fact that it is so, and un- 
changeably so; and he who contradicts it shows 
himself foolish and ignorant. Quite so ! Un- 
answerable! is it not? 

For this same cogent reason every operation 
of God's will must be true and good, for when 
he wills He generates power to accomplish. 
He speaks and it is done, and lo! it is very good; 
because none can gainsay it. He says let two 
and two make four, and the veriest tyro in fig- 
ures cannot make it one jot lessor more, and he 
who bases his calculations on two and two 
making five builds his house on the sands 
of folly and ignorance. I have chosen to ex- 
emplify my meaning by this most simple 
mathematical proposition, because, of all kinds 
of truth, mathematical truth is the easiest to 
deal with, and the hardest to darken with 
words without knowledge. It looks very simple 
to say that two plus two equals four because 
God has so decreed it; but God declared to 
Moses His name in an equally simple form— no 
Jehovah, not Chance, not Providence, not Na- 
ture, but merely "I Am Who Atn." 

Hygienic Truth 
Is equally God's will expressed in that Word 
"by whom all things were made, and without 
whom was not anything made that was made." 
God has made man's stomach to digest certain 
diet, man's skin to be kept clean by perspira- 
tion and cold water, man's lungs to receive an 
uninterrupted supply of fresh air. If, by our 
ignorance or willfulness we contradict God, 
and pack our insides full of unwholesome vi- 
ands, unmasticated, and lacking the saliva we 
have wasted over our tobacco; if we just smear 
over our faces and hands with water and towel, 
when we should bathe our whole bodies, leav- 
ing these unwashed almost from y«ar to year; 
if we shut ourselves up at night in unventilat- 
ed rooms, and expect to benefit our lungs by 
breathing warm, vitiated air, instead of that 
which we stigmatize as "night air," and which 
really U pure and fresh, though chilly; if, I say, 
we do any or all of these things we show our 
ignorance of sanitary propositions as simple 
and demonstrable as the proposition in mathe- 
matics that two and two make four; and. by 
our folly or ignorance we induce pain and sick- 
ness, thus unwillingly and unwittingly proving 
the excellence, goodness and wisdom of those 
laws of health given by the great "I am who 
am." Mary Mountain rightly couples together 
" True Intelllgerice and True Uhruslianily; neither 
has aught to fear from the other. 

Our Lord promised his true disciples that 
they should " know the TRUTH that the truth 
should make them free." But, somehow, it 
has come to pass that many of us have been 
taught that intellect must be shelved when 
Christianity is mentioned. Reason has been 
prescribed, and blind credulity and gullibility 
lauded by many in high places of the earth, 
St Paul tells us to " prove all thing.s," to 
" stand fast in our liberty," which we have in 
Christ, etc. He had no fear of the darkness of 
error putting out the Light of Truth that shi- 
neth more and more unto perfect day. He 



to make four? or he by whose flat two and two 
are four? 

Is he wise and good who lives greedily, un- 
cleanly and ignorantly? or he by whose laws 
cleanliness and temperance are necessarv to 
health? 

We contradict God as far as the little meas- 
ure of hfe and powe.- He has lent us will per- 
mit, and then blame him for the penalti-s In- 
curred by transgressing His laws, as though 
He was the author of evil. 

Whatever He wills is good and true because 
it is unchangeably accomplished. He wills two 
and two to h« four and it is four, yesterday, to- 
day and for, .-er, and therefore it is true and 
good, and a' I resistance to His will is neces- 
sarily folly, sin and ignorance. Let us all then 
avoid any culpable ignorance and wilful disre- 
gard of His laws, hygienic and otherwise; vol- 
untarily submitting ourselves to his His will as 
alone excellent; then willing as He wills, we 
share His power, and have, as onr Lord said, 
" the kingdom of God within us." 

I do not make any apology, Messrs. Editors, 
for occupying your valuable columns with this 
short sermon to my brother farmers. The sub- 
ject admits of none, however faulty my hand- 
ling of it. 

A disregard of God's excellent will even in 
farming operations must ever prove to the dis- 
regarder that it is hard indeed to kick against 
the pricks. And if it be necessary to know 
God's will as to seed-time and harvest, and the 
conditions of healthy animal life, how innch 
more important that we should not be ignorant 
of that will as regards ourselves. 

John Bunyan depicts in his "Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress " a " man with a muck rake," too intent 
on his muck raking to lift his eyes and see the 
angel, waiting, longingly and lovingly, with a 
crown of gold for the poor muck raker if he 
will only look up and receive it. 

My beet patch proves my faith in muck rak- 
ing; and my sermon proves that I am at least 
sufficiently interested in the waiting angel to 
wish that your readers may be similarly inter- 
ested. Edwabd Bebwioe. 

Carrael Valley, Dec. 28, 1873. 

P. S. Will Mr. Boot of San Jos6 give us a 
sermon on strawberries, when he can spare 
time ? When is the best time to cut them 
down, and is the whole top cut off or only the 
side leaves and runners, and how long will a 
plantation keep in profitable bearing 7 



A Durable Whitewash. 

Editobs Rcbal Press. — I herewith send re- 
ceipt for whitewashing, in reply to yourBenicia 
correspondent. This wash is incombustible 
and cheap. It will prevent the collection of 
moss, and affords a most efficient protection 
from fire, under ordinary circumstances of ex- 
posure to great heat. Take a sufficient quan- 
tity of good stone lime and slack it carefully in 
a closed box, to prevent, as far as possible, the 
escape of steam; after it is thoroughly slacked 
pass it through a fine sieve. To every six 
quarts of this slacked lime, add one quart of 
coarse salt, and one gallon of water, the mix- 
ture then boiled and skimmed cleaned; then to 
every five gallons thereof, add by slow degrees 
three-fourths of a pound of potash and four 
quarts of very fine sand — the finer the better. 
Coloring matter can be added to fancy. Apply 
with a paint-brush. This wash, if the sand be 
ground fine, looks equally as well as ordinary 
paint, and is far more durable, besides being in- 
combustible. It forms a hard cement, and as 
such will stop cracks in a roof or elsewhere. 
Wood so protected will never decay from the 
surface. Two good coats applied to bricks will 
render them utterly impervious to moisture. 
The expense is a mere trifle. Every farmer 
should cover his outbuildings and board fences 
with this wash. C. T. Habbis. 

Calaveras Co., Model Ranch. 



Eggs VS. Riches. 



Editoils Press: — On page 361, Deo. 6th, of 
the Pacific Rhral Fbess, onr frietd G. W. T. 
C. , of San Gregorio, gives his manner of treating 
could go among the Athenians, the most j his hens, and says that only one in thirty is 
practised logicians, and back them right down I disposed to "take stock in" eggs at 65 cte. per 
by sheer weight of rational argument ; he had 
no need to squirm out by saying that he could 
not argue with infidels or those who discredited 
the Bible. 

We have glanced at mathematic and hygienic 
truth, let us now look for a moment at religious 
truth. The same proposition will serve us 
here, viz, that "God's will alone is excellent." 

For this reason, "He speaks and it is done, 
he commands and it stands fast." "I will, the 
mere atoms despise me," I cannot even reduce 
one particle of dust to its ultimate atoms, nor 
can I annihilate one filament of a spider's web. 
Think, then, for a moment, of the constant ex- 
hibitions of the power of His will, the incon- 
ceivable velocity of light, the nnmeasurable 
immensity of space, the tremendous energies of 
the planetary systems, and the countless mar- 
vels of our every-day existence, and feel in 
your inmost souls how good and true is the 
great I Am Who Am; and good and true simply 
because His will is done in truth and equity, 
and all contradiction or opposition merely 
proves the folly and ignorance of those oppos- 
ing. 

Is be good and true who denies two and two 



disposed to "take stock in" eggs at 65 cte. per 
dozen. At our house, we claim that too many 
thoroughbreds and chicken pens won't pay. 
Let us illustrate the matter in question a 
little. We used to obtain some nice bouquets 
of our best roses for Christmas holidays, 
thus: — By letting the bushes run down 
by neglect and drouth in summer, then prune 
up and irrigate in late fall, and the annual rest 
required by "Imperative Nature," having after 
a fashion be^n taken, fifty per cent, of a spring 
crop could be gathered in December. Some- 
what after this manner we run onr hens. We 
let them run down poor in the latter part of 
summer, and as many as feel like it scratch for 
one chick, then in early fall feed up, and with 
the thriving comes the moulting and the rest 
having l^een taken she is very apt to take stock 
in the 65 cts. per dozen contract. A year old 
hen, that runs down thin scratching at the l>arn 
yard in August, then cared for after the treat- 
ment of Mr. G. W. T. 0., that won't lay in 
October, must have modern thoroughbred pro- 
pensities, for our old-fasb-ojed dunghills will 
take stock in 65 cts. per dozen every tin e. 

Geo. Bat Miixeb. 



January 24, 1874.] 



From Cloverdale, Sonoma County. 

Editoks Kctbal: — I went to Healdsburgh 
yesterday to attend installation. Had a capi- 
tal time. I do not think in the 18 miles down 
Bussian river valley, I saw 100 acres of newly 
plowed land. As usual, we waited for the 
rain. The 3d of December it came, and since 
then we have waited for it to stop. Sonoma 
has never failed to produce a fair crop if gotten 
in anytime during the rainy season; but it is 
so much pleasanfer, more expeditious, and 
more economical, putting ia grain in the fairer 
weather, and longer days of October and No- 
vember. That I shall hereafter, by aid of sum- 
mer fallow and chisel cultivator, in addition to 
the usual catalogue of thpuks to be thankful 
for on Thanksgiving day, to include, that my 
small grain seeding for the coming year is 
done. 

A Few Questions about Grapes and Vines. 
I want to put out 25 to 30 acres for early and 
late market and for raisins. What shall I add 
to the Sweet Water for early? The Tokay 
and Black Morrocco for late and Muscat of 
Alexandria and Fiber Zagosfor ra'sins? Shall 
I take more than one cutting from a shoot? 
Do suckers make good cuttings? Is it any 
advantage or disadvantage to get the cuttings 
before I am ready to put them out? Is it allow- 
able to raise any crop between the rows the 1st 
and 2d year? For my uses would manure in- 
jure the grapes? Where shall I rend the Eukal 
Press, the Atdine, the Am. Agriculturist and 
some other volumes to be bound? And now I 
want a word with your paper folder. I ara an 
old folder and old maidish that way. If he 
will send my paper as neatly folded as Hearlh 
and Home, I will be his uncle for the season. 
Cloverdale, Jan. 4, 1874. 
An interesting letter, and now we would 
like to have some expert in raisin growing, an- 
swer as to the varieties best for^,ra)S(n3, as far 
as his experience goes. 

We should prefer to take cuttings from good, 
short-jointed shoots rather than from suckers; 
either will do, but preference .should be given 
to well matured shoots from well ripened wood 
of last year. Cut them now, anytime, the 
sooner the better. Better not to cultivate any 
crop between the rows of vines; but if you will 
do it, let it be a crop requiring to be hoed, 
never any kind of grain crop. No land in 
California that we have ever seen, suited to 
grape culture would be in the least benefitted 
for vine growing by the application of manures, 
till after several years of culture. Seed your 
books for bindiug when it suits your conven- 
ience; we are always ready on that point. 



51 



Opium Poppy Culture. 

Editors Pbess : — I have a correspondent in 
Wisconsin, who is desirous of engaging in the 
culture of the opium poppy in California, and 
would like to get some information concerning 
it for him. 

I want to get all the information relative to 
its culture — purely facts, no suppositions — 
where seed can be procured and price, and 
from whose.instructions, printed or written, con- 
cerning its culture and also the method of ob- 
taining the extract from the plani;, and the 
proper time to do this. 

My correspondent is a gentlemen of means, 
and wishes to locate in Southern California, 
and if he can get any information in regard to 
these matters, will start the cultivation of the 
cpium poppy on a large scale. 

A. S. WiNCHKSTEP. 

Santa Barbara, January 9th, 1874. 

[We have already given several exhaustive 
articles on the growing of the poppy and col- 
lecting the opium ; and our readers would 
hardly excuse us for repeating them so soon. 
We must refer our correspondent to Vol. 3 of 
RaiiAi. Press, June 22d, 1872, number, which 
contains the gist of much that we have said on 
the subject. Ed.] 



Irrigation— Summer Fallow. 

Editors Press : — In your Press of January 
3d I saw an article from Hagar, of Grayson, on 
irrigation and summer fallow. I think from 
the tone of this letter they have struck^the key 
note for the successful farming of the San Joa- 
quin valley. I have long since been of the 
opinion that summer fallowing was the best 
mode of farming the interior valleys of the 
State. I would suggest they add drilling to 
their summer plowing, by so doing it will give 
them a saving of seed and insure their grain to 
be all in a uniform depth, and be a guard 
against its being dried out after the first rains. 
I believe the only successful way of irrigation 
is under-ground irrigation. In Chile they grow 
their grain on summer fallowed land, entirely, 
often fallowing two seasons for one crop and 
by this process they scarcely ever fail of rais- 
ing good crops, and their mode of tilling there 
is a very primitive one; their plows are some- 
thing near the shape of our old-fashioned one- 
horse shovel plows with one handle instead of 
two, what we Californians would term a crook- 
ed stick. W. N. G. 

Santa Boss, Jan. 5, 1874. 



Profits of Plum Growing. 

Editors Press:— A recent trip through Napa 
valley, causes me to wonder why farmers will 
continue to raise wheat and barley on the same 
land year after year, when nearly every one 
has more or less of his land adapted to other 
crops more profitable, and less exhaustive to 
the soil. 

In the neighborhood of St. Helena espeoi 
ally, I noticed on most every farm, land adap- 
ted to hops, alfalfa, and the various kinds of 
fruit, e.specially the almond and plum. The 
latter is a sure crop here, and as to profit, your 
readers may count for themselves. At fifteen 
feet apart, 193 trees may be planted to the 
acre. I do not know from experience, how 
much they would produce, but think that at 
the age of seven or eight years, 50 lbs. of the 
— pitted— dried fruit to the tree, would be a 
low estimate. This would give 9,650 pounds, 
which at 20 cts. per lb. would give ten dollars 
per tree, or $1,930 for the acre. If any one thinks 
I have placed my estimates too high, they 
may reduce them one-half or even three- 
fourths, and still it will leave a handsome re- 
waid for the labor and capital invested. 

It seems to me. there ia no finer climate in 
the world, for drying fruits, than in upper Napa 
valley. 

The poorer lands are very properly chosen 
for vineyards; and the grapes are sold to the 
wine makers for an average of one cent per lb; 
whereas five or six cents might be realized by 
converting a portion of their vineyard products 
into raisins. If they have not the proper 
varieties, they could easily make the necessary 
change by grafting, Aud only one year's loss of 
time. 

I notice that most of the farmers sow wheat, 
barley or oats for hay. Their richest land only 
produces four tons per acre ; whereas the same 
to alfalfa pioduces six to eight, and this with- 
out irrigation. A saving of ploughing and 
seeding every year is made as well. 

For hops, no better land can be found than 
the rich loamy bottoms of Napa Creek; for a 
proof of this, a visit to the yards of Mr. A. 
Clock and C. A. Story will convince the most 
ske.jtical. 

Mr. commenced about six years ago 

with very little capital, and although hops ruled 
very low, the first three years, he has succeeded 
in amassing a handsome fortune. 

Some of the land owners are dividing up 
their farms and selling off in lots to suit pur- 
chasers, which will give those that can appre- 
ci ite the valf e of these lands for fruit growing, 
a charce to secure a home in one of the most 
beautiful and productive valleys on the Pacific 
co.ast; and amid scenery the most grand, a 
mild and healthful c'imate, with all the ad- 
vr taj,es of good society, excellent schools, 
charches etc., e^c. ; with a sure competence in 
a few years from this, tl e most delightful of all 
occupations, horticaltire. 

Those with some e perience, and a little cap- 
ital, to purchase, plant, and wait for a few 
years for returns, would do well to visit Napa 
valley before locating elsewhe 'e. 

Lands are still within the reach of persons of 
moderate means, but aie advancing every year. 
Bottom lards are generally held at about $100 
per acre. About the villages at $150 per acre, 
and in some cases for $200 per acre. Small 
tracts, with house, well, small orchard and other 
improvements may be had, titles perfect. 

If this letter meets the eye of any person that 
can tell from actual experience, the yield of the 
plum tree — dried fruit — he will doubtless con- 
fer a favor by communicating through the col- 
umns of the Rural,. J. M. 
St. Helena, Napa Valley, Jan. 1st, 1874. 



wherever it can be supplied. In the e.arlier 
period of settlement, the palmy days of "Wash- 
oe,'' the owners of the meadows grew rapidly 
wealthy with hay at $100 per ton. Now, it is 
the "Sage busher's" time, with alfalfa at $25 to 
$30 per ton, and Timothy still higher. But 
two, and sometimes three crops of alfalfa are 
cut here, yet the hay is of superior quality. 
It is our staple, for, as you may know, Nevada 
lays but small claim to s access in the cereals. 
In a recent number of the Press I saw that you 
had promised an article on the cultivation of 
the cranberry, when any one so desired, provid- 
ing they had the reqaisite soil and facilities. 
Believing that to be the case with a considera- 
ble number here, and myself in particular, I 
shall be pleased and grateful for the modus 
operandi, and will give this excellent fruit a 
trial. I have found nearly all the necessary di- 
rections in one of the Agricultural Reports for 
the cultivation, after getting a start. There, I 
am not let into the secret, whether cuttings, 
roots, or the seed are essential. 

Recently, it was said that a Grange was to be 
organized in this valley soon, yet I do not hear 
of any steps in that direction. With the king 
of monopolies cutting our beautiful valley in 
twain at its northern extremity, and its satellite, 
the Virginia and Tiuckee R. R. severing it from 
north to south, we are very much in the posi- 
tion of the two boys out on a lake in a thunder- 
storm; neither could pray, yet one said to the 
other, "ByHokey! something must be done." 
Its no use to pray to grasping monopolies, that 
we all know, but By Hokey! we can do some- 
thing else. 

We can, and do, exclaim. Glory to Gideon! 
now that Cal.'s idol, Newton Booth, is to repre- 
sent the Pacific slope in the next congress, and 
meantime sing that old song, "There's a good 
time coming, boys, wait a little longer." 

Sage Bushee. 

Reno, Nev. Jan. 5th 1874. 

Oakland Jottings. 

A Defence otfhe Sex, and a few Criticisms on the 
Lords of Creation. 



Letter from Reno. 

Editor Press: — ^Though there are a number 
of subscribers for your excellent journal here 
in Reno, I do not recollect of having seen any 
contributions to its columns from this section. 
We on this side of the mountains can hardly 
be governed by the same rules that our agri- 
cultural friends in Cal. are, but we may, 
through the medium of the Press disseminate 
such knowledge amongst ourselves as ia appli- 
cable to this climate and region. There is an 
abundance of reading, however, always to be 
found therein, of general application, and for 
one I would like to see the number of sub- 
scribers in "Truckee Meadows" and this entire 
valley increased. To that end, I have spoken 
to my neighbors, when agricultural topics came 
up in conversation, of the value I placed on the 
Rural Press, and shall take pleasure in en- 
deavoring to induce some to send for it, even if 
obliged to discard some of the trashy literature 
which has ridden into their homes on an oil 
chromo. Within a few years the attention of 
settlers here has turned toward the cultivation 
of the "Sage brush" soil, wherever water could 
be brought from the Truckee river in ditches 
for irrigation, and it has been found that for 
many kinds of vegetables, and for alfalfa it is 
very productive. The excellence of potatoes 
grown here is acknowledged by the San Fran- 
cisco and Sacramento markets, and though 
Virginia City, and along the line of theC. P. R. 
R. east as far as Elko, furnish us with a ready 
market for our produce, some finds its way to 
Cal. Increased amounts of alfalfa are sown 
every season and the natural grass on the 
meadows has to give way to this superior feed 



EoiTOBd Press :— The kindly face of old Sol 
has been at last disclosed to ns, after so many 
long weeks of concealment behind leaden 
clouds and deluges of pouring rain, and it is 
needless to say that nature animate and inani- 
mate, who is supposed by out-side]barbarians — 
that is all such unfortunates who do not dwell 
in Oakland — -to hold her sway amid these syl- 
van shades, rejoices. She has also put on 
(I suppose it would be more elegant to say, 
donned; well, donned) her most gorgeous livery, 
and with her clean, well-washed face, begins 
to present altogether a very creditable appear- 
ance. 

With the cessation of the rain, there is an 
effort, socially speaking, to make people less 
hermit-like, and occasionally a lecture, or an 
evening reunion of some sort, makes abreakin 
the monotony of our hum-drum lives. Thus an 
entertainment on the 6th, for the benefit of the 
Oakland library, which Consisted of a lecture, 
by J. C. Ferguson on " Scotland," together with 
poetic readings, highland bag-pipe music, and 
which concluded with a dance, was an highly 
enjoyable affair to the intelligent and apprecia- 
tive audience, who listened. 

To-day the University re-opens, and students 
and professors, who for a season have thrown 
aside book and pencil, and by the family hearth- 
stone joined in the recreations and amusements 
which the reunions of the holiday season just 
passed made suitable, have returned to their 
posts, and for another term take a pull together 
up the slippery "hill of science." 

In the Rural Press of Nov. 22d, there ap- 
peared an article under the head of "Observa- 
tions on the sexes," and signed "E. E. A.," in 
which the writer makes some very odious com- 
parisons between his own (I take it for granted, 
no woman would write thus of her own sex), 
and the sex to which his mother (if he ever 
had one) belonged. I intended to have an- 
swered the article referred to at the time, but a 
multiplicity of duties prevented, but I trust it is 
nottoolate, ever, to refute a slander. "E. E. A." 
cites an example of a woman finding the need 
of a pin, while walking in the street, and ap 
proaching another woman for the loan, is in- 
dignantly denied the request, with the added 
insult that "she wasn't a walking pin cushion." 
Now, I do not believe that "E. E. A." ever saw 
such a libel on woman as the example he cites, 
aad if any such exist, they are very rare indeed. 
So far as my own experience goes, I have, when 
traveling among entire strangers, and when 
placed in many unpleasant and embarrassing 
positions, found the most ready sympathy and 
aid from the best dressed, and what "E. 
E. A." would call the " well bred 
woman of the world ;" and I do not 
believe that any woman needing aid that her 
own sex alone could give, and asking for it in 
a proper manner, would meet with a refusal, 
be the one asked never so "stylish;" for a 
silken dress does not necessarily cover a cold 
or unfeeling heart; and because a costume is 
made in the prevailing fashion, it does not fol- 
low that the wearer is a mere bloodless statue. 
The added caricature of two friends meeting 
after a prolonged absence, :& as unnatural as 
it is false. It may be the style among "E. -E. 
A.'s" lady acquaintances for one to greet the 
other after long years of absence with tbecheer- 
ful salutation, "Why I how very haggard you do 



look;" and follow it with the question, "where 
did you buy that lovely dress ?" but I have 
not the pleasure of the acquaintance of such 
people. 

Indeed, we are having quite too much twad- 
dle from masculine would-be-wits about 
women s extravagance, women's folly, women's 
vanity, women's weakness in various ways 
and the public is sick of it. If those boys 
who aspire to show women the proper path to 
tread, and to teach them how to dress and de- 
port themselves, would first use a little of the 
money spent in liquors, cigar.=!, fast horses 
';nobby suits," etc., in putting a little educa- 
tion into their shallow brains, and a few grains 
of common sense into their general make-up, 
we should hear less of women's follies and 
perhaps see a trifle of improvement in the lit- 
erature emanating from the young scions of 
the quill. Such a change is decidedly needed, 
and we trust will not be long in coming. 

Dora Darmoore. 

The Oaks, January 7th, 1874. 



Dr. Marcy, says Les Mondes, has recently 
demonstrated that the heart acts like all me- 
chanical motors in that the frequency of the 
pulsations varies according to the resistance 
which it meets in driving the blood through 
the vessels. When the resistance becomes 
greater, the throbs diminish; they accelerate, 
on the contrary, if the opposition becomes less. 
During life, the action of the nervous centers 
makes itself felt on the heart, of which it rend- 
ers the pulsations slower or quicker, whatever 
may be the resistance experienced. Dr. Marcy 
eliminated this nervous influence by removing 
the heart of an animal, and causing it to work 
under purely mechanical conditions. The heart 
of a turtle was arranged with a system of rub- 
ber tubes representing veins and arteries. 
Calf's blood, defibrinated was caused to circu- 
late, and a registering instrument noted the 
amplitude and frequency of the movements of 
the organ. When the tube containing the 
blood leaving the heart was compressed, the 
liquid accumulated in the rear of the obstacle 
and the heart emptied itself with greater diffi- 
culty, the pulsations weakening perceptibly. 
On relaxing the pressure, thus allowing free 
course to the blood, the throbs accelerated rap- 
idly. 

Breath of the Nevada Upas. — Billy Ander- 
son, the well-known lawyer, who is now in this 
city, and who for some years (since 1868) has 
been a resident of Eastern Nevada, gives a 
startling account of the effects of the poisonous 
fumes from the smelting furnaces there in use. 
He speaks particularly of the town of Eureka, 
where these furnaces are very numerous and 
are scattered through the village. He says 
that in approaching the place a smell resemb- 
ling that of garlic can be detected at a distance 
of at least three miles. Often the smoke and 
fumes hang over the town in clouds so dense 
as to resemble a London fog, and the smell of 
the poisonous gases is almost unendurable. 
Kittens and puppies die soon after coming into 
the world, and it is found impossible to rear 
these animals in the place. A sheet of white 
paper laid in the open air and left over night, 
will be covered with a thick white crust. The 
arsenical fumes mingled wtth those of lead and 
oth^^r minerals, more or less aifect the health 
of all who reside in the town. Some are but 
slightly affected, while others suffer very severe- 
ly. The poisonous atmosphere of the place 
not only affects the physical but also the men- 
tal health of many, causing them to become 
morose, nervous, and in some cases, wandering 
in mind. — Enterprise. 



New Photometer. — A simple arrangement, 
which may be exceedingly useful for many pur- 
poses, has been devised by M. Yvon. A piece 
of paper or card is folded in the middle, and 
placed upright on a table in such a manner that 
the two halves form right angles. In the line 
bisecting the angle thus formed, and at some 
little distance from its apex, is placed a tube, 
blackened in the interior, through which the 
observer looks at the edge of the paper or card. 
The sources of illumination to be compared 
are placed at opposite sides of the card. So 
long as the two surfaces are unequally illumin- 
ated, the observer has a perception of relief; 
when, however, the light is perfectly equalized, 
he sees what appears to be a plane surface. 
— Iron. 



Previous to the Franco-Prussian war, the 
St Laurent, of the French line, was fitted with 
electric lights of great power, which were 
plainly discernible for many miles at sea. At 
ihe beginning of the war this light was taken 
from the steamer and used by the Government 
for harbor defence, and has not since been used 
at sea. The managers of the French line are 
now considering the propriety of providing all 
their ships with lights of this description, 
which would, except under circumstsnces most 
unusual, render a collision impossible. The 
substitution of life-rafts for life-boats is also 
under consideration. 



Tin or block plates are now being mauufao 
tured in England by a new process, consisting 
in the preparation of the iron used in their 
manufacture. A number of refining furnaces 
are employed, into the first of which the pig 
or cast iron is submitted to the melting process, 
and from thence run into other " lumping" 
refineries. Instead of using charcoal, as is 
commonly the case, the fires are fed with tan. 
This process has proved very satisfactory, and 
is meeting with popular favor by those engaged 
in this branch of industry. 



52 



^Amwm mwmA^ w^mMm. 



[January 24, 1874 




The California State Orange Headquartera 
are at room 9, No. 320 California street, 8. F. General 
State Agent: I. O. aARUMBB, (Member of the Elxecu- 
tive Committee). State Secretary : W. H. Baxteb. 



List of New Granges. 

[ Reported to the Pacific Rurat, PnEss since our publi- 
cation of the full list of Caliromia (^^range? on the first 
Saturday of the month. J 

FRESNO COCNTV. 

ADAMS GRANGE. Big Dry Croek. Fresno Co.: T. P. 

"". Wyatt. Scc'y. 



J. W. A. 



NflsoS, Master: Tn . _ _ . 

BORDKN GRANilK. lioriien, Fresno Co 
W'KIGHT, Master: J, S, Picki:ns. Sec'y. 

KKRN COUNTV. 

BAKEKSFIF.LD ORANGE. BalcBr-fleld, Kern Co.: S 
Jewett. Mafit'-r; JEtioMETnoY. Secretary. 

KERN ISLAND (iKANiiE, P. O. Ban rsti^ld. Kern Co.: 
P. D. ROMS, Master: .J. E. GounoN. Secy. 

NEW RIVER liRANC.E, P. O. Bakersfteld. Kern Co.: 
John G. Dawes, Master; Jas. Dixon, Secretary. 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY. 

FRANKLIN GRANGE. G<>orpctown. Sacramento Co.: 
Amos Adams, Ma^ter; P. K. Beakley, Secy. 

SAN JOAQUI.N COUNTY. 

LOCKEFORD GRANGE. Lockcford, San Joaquio Oo.< 
O. O. HoLMAN, Master; Soi. S. Stewart. Scc'y. 

TULARE COUNTr. 

VISALIA GRANGE, Visalia. Tulare Co. 
BON, Master: H. G. Hic.bie, Sec'y. 

Y0BA COUNTY. 

MARYSVILLE GRANGE. Marvsville, Yuha Co.: 
BOCKICS, Master; Jas. M. C'utts, Sec'y. 



WlLET WaT- 



The Grange Lecturer. 



P. of H. and Legislators. 

The Legislature of every State in the Union, 
which is now in session — and a large number 
are in session — is more or less exercised over 
the great reform movement which has been in- 
itiated by the farmers. The same may be said 
of our national Congress. It is everywhere 
evident that the influence of the Granges or 
Patrons of Husbandry is strongly felt, and that 
the propriety and justness of their demands are 
being recognized by a large portion of the peo- 
ple outside of the Order. The late judicial and 
a 'Uatorial elections in this State were largely 
influenced by this feeling, and the result of 
those elections has had a powerful reflpx in- 
fluence on the people and legi.sliitors in other 
sections of the Union. 

In several of the Western and North-Western 
States, large numbers of Patrons have been 
elected to their several legislatures — on nomi- 
nations always made by outside organizations ; 
whenever so elected thoy are united upon a 
common platform, which utterly ignores all 
old party lines. This platform inculcates re- 
trenchment and reform in every department of 
government; insists upon the right of gov- 
ernment to regulate and control railroads, and 
all other corporations created by governmental 
acts, especially with regard to fares and freights, 
and discrimination in charges; it also looks 
to a radical reform in the banking policy of 
the nation, declaring the present system of 
national banks one of the most stupendous 
swindles upon the people ever devised by any 
legislative body; it contemplates important 
and radical changes in the tariflfs imposed 
upon imported goods, requires a more strict 
accountability of government officers, greater 
care in selecting them, etc. 

As the choice of each succeeding legislature 
in the North-western States comes before the 
people, the influence and sigui Seance of this 
movement grows stronger and stronger, and 
there is now not the remotest doubt that it 
will hold the balance of power at the next 
Presidential election, if, indeed, it does not 
hold an absolute majority of the votes and 
States of the Union at that time. 

So far as progress in this direction it 
being influenced by the Patrons, it is not as a 
political organization, but merely through the 
moral influence alone, which the Order exerts 
upon the great mass of the people. It is to 
this novel, yet most potential feature that 
the movement owes its strength. 

It knows no leaders; it has no enemies to 
punish, no friends to reward, and it 
seeks neither ofiice nor emolument. Its only 
hope of reward is in the satisfaction of doing a 
good work for the benefit of its own members 
and the country at large. The old party cry 
that "to the victors belong the spoils," it bates 
and abominates. It would see none but fit 
and competent men elected to office, and looks 
to their moral fitness as an absolute essential, 
and one over-riding all political or other con- 
siderations. 



One of the most important offices connected 
with the Grange is that of Lecturer. The office 
should be no sinecure, but should be filled by 
a wise and competent person. Our State Lec- 
turer, J. W. A. Wright, seems to be fully 
imbued with the spirit of his work, and is 
doing much to advance the Order. We heard 
of him, a few days ago, in the extreme southern 
part of the San Joaquin valley, stirring up the 
farmers there to earnest work, and planting 
the seeds of the Order wherever he went. 
Between the 10th and 31st of December he 
traveled over 500 miles and organized thirteen 
Granges in difi'erent parts of three of the 
largest counties in the State— Fresno, Kern 
and Tulare. The labor and exposures attend- 
ant upon such a work must have been greatly 
intensified by the extremely unpleasant charac- 
ter of the weather during tho last twenty days 
of the month of December. The next week we 
heard of him again, away to the north of us, in 
Yuba and Butte counties, still pushing on the 
work of organization and expounding the prin- 
ciples and objects of the Order wherever he 
goes. Duiing the past week he has visited 
Colusa, Meridian, Grand Island and Wood 
land, installing officers, lecturing and exempli 
fyine the secret work. 

We are pleased to say that we also hear of 
good work being done by many of the Lee 
tnrers of subordinate Granges. Two weeks 
weeks ago we gave an excellent paper read 
by D. K. Kule before the St. Helena Grange, 
of which, we believe, he is Lecturer. We have 
also before us, in the Stockton Independent, 
an instructive lecture, delivered before theCas- 
toria Grange, by its able and worthy Lecturer, 
F. J. Woodward, Esq. We believe that our 
Lecturers, and, indeed, all our Grange officers, 
everywhere are faithfully performing the duties 
of their respective offices. 

But Lecturers, above all others, should be 
chosen for their especial fitness for the office. 
A large portion of the efficiency of the Grange 
must depend upon their efforts. lu addition to 
Grange work, the Lecturer should labor to pre- 
pare himself for the introduction of such sub- 
jects as will tend to draw out the practical 
knowledge of Patrons in regard to farm work 
of all kind.s; and the Secretaries could not em- 
ploy themselves better than in taking notes of 
all that may be thus said of an interesting and 
profitable kind, both for permanent record in 
the books of the Grange for future reference, 
and also for transmission to the agricultural 
papers which circulate among the Granges, in 
order that all Patrons may have the benefit 
thereof. If this practice should become gen- 
eral, much practical good would be the result. 

As soon as the Granges get into working or- 
der, and time can be spared from initiations, 
this mode of instruction and improvement 
should form an important feature in our 
work. It should, and no doubt will, do much 
toward improving the hearts and minds of Pat- 
rons generally. If nothing more can be 
done, judicious selections should be made by 
the Lecturers for reading before the Grange. 

Much complaint is made in some quarters of 
neglect in this particular, and it is charged 
that the Granges are not doing as much as the 
Farmers' Clubs did formerly. There is some 
reason in the charge, and much reason also for 
the neglect, growing out of the alwolute neces- 
sity of the case — the great multiplicity of busi- 
ness which is forced upon all new organiza- 
tions; the importance of practice to reach a rea- 
sonable degree of perfection in our work, and 
tlio rntvoidable necessity for time to initiate 
ar.d in'^truct new members, as they are con- 
kt I'tly coming in. 

The real, practical work of instruction in our 
California Granges will soon commence, and 
when well under way cannot fail to exert an 
important Influence in improving systems and 
practices of agriculture in this State. 



Bao. N. W. Gabretson has now the editor- 
ial control of the P. of H. department in the 
Joioa llonuslead and Farm Journal. He is also 
Secretary of the State Grange of Iowa. We 
cordially welcome him to bis new field of la- 
bor. 



Memorial Resolutions. 

At a meeting of the Centerville Grange, No. 
1-20, Saturday 17th, 1874, the following pream- 
ble and resolutions were submitted and adop- 
ted: 

Memorial. 

^yhf.reas— It has pleased Almighty God, iu his wisdom, 
to remove from our midst, by death, our esteemed 
brother Robert Blacow, therefore 

Rttrtlvtd, That in the death of Bro. Blacow our 
Grange has lost one of Its most earnest and efficient 
charter members; the commnuity a thorough farmer, a 
good neighbor, and an upright and honorable man; his 
family an affectionate, devoted husband and father. 

Rfsohed, That we extend to his bereaved wife and 
family, our heart felt sympathy, in their sad bereave- 
ment. 

RetoXvrd, That these resolntloni be spread on the 
minutes of the Orange, and a copy be forwarded to the 
family, also to the Haymood AdvocatttLiid Pacific Rurai. 
Pbess. HOWARD OVERACKER, Sec. pro Um. 

Centerville, Jan. 19, 1874. 



The Granges and the Mechanics. 

The views of Stockton Grange, Patrons of 
Husbandry, in relation to the action of the 
mechanics upon the question of apprenticeship, 
are expressed in the following preamble and 
resolution: 

"Whereas, The mechanics of this State in 
their organization declare that the young men 
of this State shall not be instructed in their 
various trades, except in limited numbers, and 
as may be directed by the officers having con- 
trol of such organization ; and, whereas, the 
course pursued by the said mechanics in debar- 
ring the rising generation of the State from ac- 
quiring an honorable means of support, and 
that the course pursued by the said organiza- 
tion in not permitting our j'oung men to learn 
trades, has the eScot of bringing up our young 
men in forced idleness and making them fit 
subjects for the State Prison ; and, whereas, 
there has been a certain correspondence be- 
tween our worthy State Lecturer and a gentle- 
man representing the said mechanics' organiza- 
tion, with a view of bringing about concert of 
action between the mechanics and farmers : 
Therefore, be it resolved, That it is the sense 
of this Grange that it is inexpedient at this time 
to form any alliance with the said organiza- 
tion." 

We do not believe that there is any great 
number of mechanics in the State at the pre- 
sent time, who hold to any such views as are 
above alluded to. There may have been a 
time, two or three years ago, when there was ; 
but we believe a great change has since come 
over public sentiment in that particular, and 
we fully believe that a large portion of the me- 
chanics throughout the country are largely, if 
not fully, in sympathy with the teaching and 
views of the Patrons of Husbandry. But while, 
according to the provisions of onr constitution 
mechanics are not admissible into the ranks of 
the P. of H., we may again allude to the fact 
that but a few weeks more will elapse ere 
an order of a similar character- will be pre- 
sented to the mechanics of this State, 
which, while it will not interfere with any ex- 
isting organization among the mechanics, will 
enable that large branch of our producing peo- 
ple to fraternize more fully and freely with 
their brother producers on the farm than they 
now have the opportunity of doing. In this 
connection we would urge upon Patrons the 
propriety, in fact the necessity, of a strict com- 
pliance with the requirements of our Order in 
not admitting mechanics to membership — espe- 
cially to charter membership — explaining to all 
such who may desire to come in, that the 
time will soon arrive when they will be en- 
abled to reach every substantial advantage 
which could be attained by an actual member- 
ship. 

Meeting of the National Grange. 

The National Grange of the P. of H., meets 
at St. Louis en the first Wednesday in next 
month. As the legislative body of a constitu- 
ency of over ten thousand Subordinate Granges, 
its proceedings will be looked for with much 
interest, and will no doubt be of a very impor- 
tant character. 

Among other matters that will be brought 
before that body is the following in reference 
to a revision of the National Constitution and 
By-Laws of the National Grange. This busi- 
ness has been proposed by a special Committee 
appointed at the late meeting of the Iowa State 
Grange : 

This Committee will recommend that the re- 
qnirdments set forth in the organic law of the 
National Grange fixing the eligibiUty of mem- 
bers of the State and National Granges be so 
amended as to correspond with the principles 
herein enunciated, to-wit: 

That sai'l bodies be composed of such dele- 
gates as may be elected thereto, in accordance 
with the principles that govern the American 
system, and that representation and taxation 
shall correspond. And any member of the 4th 
degree shall be eligible to any office in either 
body. 

And further. That each State Grange shall 
have sole power to organize and control Sub- 
ordinate Granges within such State, and that 
all fees for dispensations and charters b« paid 
to the State Grange. 

Also, That the representation in the National 
Grange be based upon membership, and that 
each State be entitled to one representative at 
large, and one for every flft<jen thousand mem- 
bers, and one for every fraction of over ten 
thousand; and said representatives to be elect- 
ed by the State Granges— fourth degree mem- 
bers being eligible to membership. 

A Committee of six delegates was appointed 
by the Iowa State Grange to attend the 
National Grange and urge their views upon 
the attention of that body. Notice of this 
action has also been given to all the other State 
Granges throughout the Union, and their co- 
operation is solicited. 

The Transportation question and the Rail- 
road question generally, will probably occupy 
a large share of the attention of the National 
Grange, and no doubt some plan of action will 
be decided upon, on which tho Patrons tbrongh- 
out the country will be a unit. 



Colusa Grange Installation. 

We have given elsewhere a brief report of 
the installation at Colusa Grange, furnished 
us by the Secretary. We clip the following 
additional particulars from the Colusa Sun: 

There was a large attendance of the Patrons 
of Husbandrj', on Monday, from different parts 
of the county, to witness the installation of the 
officers of the Colusa Grange, and listen to the 
lecture of Grand Lecturer Wright. Mr. Wright 
was perfectly at home at the business. He is 
a gentleman of fine address, easy delivery, is 
concise in his language, coming directly to the 
point, and always stops when be has made the 
point. The installation ceremony was very 
interesting. 

The Installation Address. 

He gave a short history of the order and 
then explained fully its objects and intentions. 
So concise were his remarks on this branch of 
his subject that we could not well condense 
them, even if we had the lecture before us. In 
essentials, he said, there must be, and was the 
most perfect unity; but in non-essentials there 
was the greatest freedom of opinion. A per- 
son gave up none of his political, religions, so- 
cial or business rights by becoming a member 
of the Order. He must keep the business se- 
cret, and then go just as far with his brothers 
of the Order as his inclination leads him. No 
political or religions matter could ever be dis- 
cussed at a meeting of the Order, and members 
were enjoined to allow, with charity, in their 
brother, the greatest latitude in such matters. 
It was one of the principles of the Order to en- 
courage home mechanics, home merchants, 
home manufactures, etc., and the Patrons pro- 
pose to interfere in such matters only when 
forced by exorbitant charges to do so. They 
proposed to inform themselves oonceming the 
markets of the world, and arrange to get their 
share of the profits on their productions, in 
accordance with the state of the market. They 
proposed to meet and consult about all matters 
pertaining to their business, about the most 
profitable crops, the best manner of cultivation, 
etc. In short, they proposed to talk about all 
things pertaining to their interests, and act 
upon such as to them seems best. 

Officers of Other Granges also Installed. 

Besides the officers of the Colusa Grange, 
the following were also installed :—E. C. Hun- 
ter, Master of Funk Slough Grange; D. H. 
Arnold, Master of Spring Valley Grange; H. 
A. Logan, Master of Antelope Grange; Peter 
Perdue, Master of Freshwater Grange; J. P. 
Kimbrall, Master of Central Grange, and L. 
D. McDow, Overseer of Funk Slough Grange; 
W. H. Williams, Treasurer of Central Grange, 
and Peter Peterson, Treasurer of Antelope 
Grange. Seven o'clock in the evening the 
Grange met and conferred the fourth degree on 
L. F. Moulton and J. T. Marr; after which Mr. 
Wiight instructed the members of the secret 
work and business of the Order. 

Brother Wright Sfill on the Move. 

From here the Grand Lecturer went to Mer- 
idian, where he installed the officers of that 
Grange on Tuesday, and on the same evening 
he lectured at Grimes' Hall, to the Sycamore 
Grange. On Wednesday he was to have been 
at Woodland, so it will be perceived that Bro. 
Wright is a hard laboring man. 

Southern District Council P. of H. 

The Southern District Council, composed of 
the Granges of Los Angeles and San Diego 
counties, met at Los Angeles on the 3d inst., 
and considering the unfavorable condition of 
the weather and roads, there was a very full 
representation. The proceedings were inter- 
esting and important. Much of the business 
was, of course, of a private nature; but one of 
the more important matters discussed and de- 
cided upon, and in which all in that portion of 
the State are interested, whether in or out of 
the Grange, was the organization of a 
District Agrioultural Fair Association. 

The Directors chosen to act for the flr«t 
year are: J. F. Marcus, J. J. Morton, J. A. 
Nicols, L. W. AtchiBSon, J. T. Gordon, J. Q. 
A. Stanley,, J. S. llbompson, E. Every, J. E. 
McComas, H. L. Montgomery and A. B. Hay- 
ward. The capital stock of this association is 
to be $50,000, divided into two thousand 
shares of $25 each. The association is to be 
known as "The Agricultural Exhibition of 
Southern California." The Directors met on 
the 9th inst. to complete the organization. 

The matter of the establishment of a Grange 
Co-operatfve Union is also under considera- 
tion. 

Napa Granob. — The installation of the offi- 
cers of this Grange took place on Saturday 
last — Brother J. W. A. Wright conducting the 
ceremonies. The retiring Master, W. H. Bax- 
ter, Secretary of the State Grange, was the re- 
cipient of a scries of complimentary resolutions. 
He also made a neat retiring speech. An ad- 
dress was also pronounced by Bro. Wright. 
We had expected to receive the speeches and 
full particulars for this week's issue, bat they 
haVe not yet come to hand. The newly elected 
Master was necessarily detained from the meet- 
ing, and of course was not installed. 



January 24, 1874.I 



53 






From the Granges. 

HoLLisTBE Qbanoe. — Secretary S. F. Cowan, 
writes that this Grange is prospering finely, 
and now numbers 87 working members, with 
several applications for initiation. The offi- 
cers for the oarrent year were installed by W. 
M., J. D. Fowler. A fine lunch was spread for 
the occasion, which all seemed to enjoy very 
much. The following: resolutions were offered 
by Bro. E. Mason, and adopted by the Grange: — 

As the first term of our officials closes it is 
eminently proper and fitting that an expression 
of good will and hearty approval be given them, 
especially where so much zeal and energy has 
been displayed, as in the case of some. 

Therefore, Without wishing to draw any line 
of distinction, we feel that an injustice would 
be done unless particular mention were ■made 
of those whose duties, always laborious and 
sometimes difficult, have been so well and cor- 
rectly discharged. Among this class are found 
our Worthy Secretary, whose duties have nec- 
essarily been severe, yet throughout have been 
correctly discharged and with much credit to 
himself and satisfaction to all the members of 
the Grange. Also, 

Resolued, That the Worthy Assistant Stew- 
art, by his untiring industry, promptness, and 
energy, is entitled to the warmest thanks of all 
the members. 

Resolved, That to the Worthy Master much 
praise is due for the patience and forbearance 
manifested, and the justness and impartiality 
of his rulings and decisions as presiding officer, 
also for the untiring zeal manifested by him in 
all that pertains to the good of the Order. 
May the best wishes of all the members ever be 
with him. 

Resolved, That each and all, for the prompt 
and punctual manner in which they have per- 
formed all the duties pertaining to their re- 
spective offioe.=<, are entitled to the warmest 
thanks of all the members of this Grange. On 
motion, was unaminously ordered spread on 
minute book. 

A remittance of $21 for new subscriptions for 
the EuBAL Pbess, and $6 for renewals, accom- 
1 anied the above. 

Santa Cruz Gbanqe.— The Editor of the 
Granger having recently met with this Grange 
says:— "We met with the Grange— a goodly 
number of the substantial farmers of the valley, 
drilled with them in the secret work of t!ae or- 
der, gave them such council as we were 
able, were hospitably entertained by them, 
and left them, ourselves better for the 
visit. This Grange adopted for its motto " Go 
slow, and keep in the middle of the road," and 
though they have gone " slow," they have not 
kept exactly in the " middle of the road." We 
found them in bad working order but greedily 
receptive and we think so instructed them that 
they will henceforth have no difficulty. As 
soon as the busy season is is over, we have no 
doubt this Grange will rapidly increase in 
numbers, and there is no reason why it should 
not become one of the leading Granges on the 
coast. We regret to say that Bro. Gaboon, 
Past Master has boea quite ill for some time, 
and is still so feble as to be closely confined." 

Yolo Grange. — State Lecturer, J. W. A. 
Wright, by invitation visited Yolo Grange, No. 
13, on Wednesday, the 14th inst. His arrival 
was unavoidably delayed until the afternoon 
train; for that reason W. Sims, of Buckeye, 
Grange, installed all the officers elect, except 
J. A. Hutton, the W. M. elect, and the Gate- 
Keeper. Upon the arrival of Mr. Wright after 
the usual inroduction, he lectured on the ob- 
jects and workings of the Order. The Grange 
then adjourned till 7 o'clock, when the instal- 
lation of the W. M. was proceeded with in 
public. Very interesting remarks were made 
by Mr. Wright. The Masters of all the Granges 
in the county, except Antelope and Hungry 
Hollow were present. It will pay any Grange 
to get Mr. Wright to talk to them. He is not 
only entertaining, but highly instructive. — 
Yolo Dem. 

Atlanta Qranok. — We learn from Master 
W. J. Campbell, of this Grange, that Bro. 
Andrew Wolfe, Past Master of Stockton Grange, 
assisted by Bro. A. B. Munson, Secretary of 
Wildwood Grange, installed the officers of At- 
lanta Grange on the 10th inst. Bro. Campbell 
writes us that the prospects are good in that 
vicinity for a good crop; that the farmers are 
getting along finely with their plowing and 
seeding. Many had already completed that 
work on the 13th inst., and most of the farm- 
ers thereabouts would complete the work of 
seeding in two or three weeks longer. 

Eden Gbange. — This Grange, located at Hny- 
■wards, had a very pleasant time at the installa- 
tion, on Saturday of last week. The cere- 
monies which were public, were conducted by 
Bro. W. M. Jackson, Master of Yolo Grange; 
and an address was given on the occasion by 
W. B Ewer, of the Rural Press. After the 
installation ceremonies wrre over, the work of 
exemplification was gone throngh with under 
the direction of Bro. Jackson. This Grange 
occupies a very important locality, and will no 
doubt, ere long be one of the most important 
in the State. It has ranch good material, but 
is comparatively new in the work, and has not 
yet got fairly into operation. 



Elk Riveb Grange. — The Master, T. Meyer, 
writes to the Granger as follows -.—Our Grange 
is progressing slowly, but our membership is 
unexceptionable, and we intend to keep it so. 
We were very weak in the beginning, but are 
gathering strength. The weather has been 
rather unfavorable to our more speedy devel- 
opment, since it has rained on nearly every 
day of meeting, the day of ou.- organization — 
4th of October — not excepted; nevertheless, 
all the members have pretty generally turned 
out, which shows that all take sufficient inter- 
est in our glorious Order to make it a success. 
We had our first harvest feast on New Year's 
Day, when the fourth degree was conferred on 
four candidates — we have six more candidates 
to put through this month. Our harvest feast 
was a complete success, which was in a great 
measure due to our good sisters. We had 
everything that heart could reasonably wish 
for; good attendance, good music, good sing- 
ing, and last, but not least, a sumptuout; repast 
The social features of our Order begin to tell 
and to be appreciated. 

Santa Barbara Grange. — The installation 
of officers of the Santa Barbara Grange, elected 
to serve for one year, took place last Satur- 
day afternoon, January 3d, 1874. Quite a 
full attendance of the membership was had. 
The ceremonies of installation were performed 
in public. The Grange met at 10 o'clock on 
the morning of the same day, for the purpose 
of initiation of new members, conferring de- 
grees and other business. O. L. Abbott is 
retained Master, and Miss Virginia F. Eussell 
was installed Secretary. 

This Grange has been steadily increasing in 
membership ever since its organization, and 
bids fair to become a large and influential body. 
Index. 

CoL0SA Grange — Installation. — R. Jones, 
Secretary, writes under date of January 14th, 
as follows: — "Last Saturday our annual in- 
stallation ceremonies took place, and were con- 
ducted by Bro. J. W. A. Wright. We assem- 
bled at our hall, clothed ourselves with our 
proper regalia, and forming in a procession, 
marched to the Christian Church, led by the 
assistant Steward, the past Masters and mem- 
bers following, with the Editor of the Colusa 
Sun bringing up the rear, carrying in one 
hand a spud and in the other a basket of ap- 
ples. Before proceeding with the ceremonies, 
which were public, Bro. Wright, briskly, but 
forcibly explained the growth and views of the 
order. We were pleased to have with us 
a number who were not members of the 
order. After the ceremonies were concluded; 
the members were again formed in a procession 
and returned to the hall, where a short session 
was held for the exemplicationof the unwritten 
work. Bro. Wright's stay with us was brief, 
but it was pleasant and profitable. We have 
hid plenty of rain; crops look finely, with a good 
prospect for an abundant harvest." 

Calistoqa Gbangb. — A correspondent of the 
Granger writes from this Grange, under date 
of January 12th, as follows: 

As a Grange we have thus far been success- 
ful in every sense of the word, except having to 
meet on oue or two occasions in dreadful stor- 
my weather, but that we will call success, as 
rain is indispensable, especially in dry sea- 
sons. We started in our first initiation with 
a class of eight, and on last Friday, Jan. 9th, 
we enjoyed our first Harvest Feast; and surely 
we shall look anxiously for the next one, for 
our secretary especially, enjoys such occasions 
very much, and really wonders why we can't 
have a feast in every degree; thinks maybe the 
object is keep the newly initiated in suspense. At 
our next meeting we will start in with a class of 
seven or more, and, by the way, we expect to 
initiate the oldest man and woman in this sec- 
tion. He is a character in his way, and we, 
as weH as he, expect to enjoy it "huiiely." 
Farmers in this part of the country are taking 
every advantage of the past few days of dry 
weather and are giving rest to neither man nor 
beast while the sun shines. 

Lakeport Grange — Harvest Feast. — On 
New Year's D.iy ^the Lxkeport Grange, with 
other Granges in the county as iuvited guests, 
celebrated their Harvest Feast. The exercises 
were held in the M. E. Church, and were of an 
interestinu character. Considering the inclem- 
ency of the weather, the Order was numerously 
represented— there being nearly three hundred 
presenr. The feast was a marvel of abundance 
and variety of edibles. After the repast, ad- 
vanced degrees were conferred with imposing 
ceremonies, and then the members dispersed 
to their homes, feeling much gratified with the 
day's success. — Lake Co. Bee. 

Bloomfield Grange. — Brother D. Bruner, 
of this Grange, under date of January 17th, 
sends us the list of officars elect, which wiU 
be found in its approjiriate place, and adds: 
" Our Grange is prospering finely and there 
seems to be much interest taken in the Order 
here. We had a severe atorra on Thursday 
last, which did much damage in this part of the 
country, in the way of blowing down fences, 
chilling stock to death, etc." 

CoMPTON Grange of Los Angeles county, 
holds its third Harvest F;iast to- Jay, Saturday, 
January 24th. Members of neighboring Gran- 
ges are invited to be present, and a^good time 
generally is expected. 



Temescal Grange, Oakland. — The officers 
of this Grange were duly installed by Deputy 
A. T. Dewey. The Master, Dr. E. S. Carr, 
made an appropriate speech in his wtll-known 
and interesting style. On motion of W. Chap- 
lain, J. V. Webster, the Master, was requested 
to furnish so much of his address as practi- 
cable for publication in the Pacific Eueal 
Press. The next meeting occurs at 2 p. m. on 
Saturday of this week. 

Sebastapol Grange. — Rro. D. Bruner, of 
Bloomfield, informs us that the 2d Degree was 
conferred on 19 members of Sebastapol Grange, 
on the 10th of December. The Grange is in- 
creasing rapidly and they think a larger hall 
will have to be secured. The citizens gener- 
ally of that neighborhood are becoming very 
much interested in the Grange. 

LivEEMORE Grange, Alameda Co., meets at 
10 next Saturday, on which occasion a pub- 
lic installation will take place. Eden, Center- 
ville and Temescal Granges, of the same county, 
have been invited, and a public address is to be 
given. 

TuLE River Grange. — This Grange is rap- 
idly getting into the work. The farmers there 
are in earnest, and devote halt a day each 
week to Grange work. 

Saratoga Grange. — Saratoga Grange, in this 
county, is progressing finely. It is in good 
working order, and growing in numbers. At 
its meeting on the 7th inst., six were initiated. 

— Granger. 

Charters Received, Etc. 

Bro. Baxter, Secretary of State Grange, de- 
sires us to state that he has received Charters 
from Washington up to, and for Grange No. 
84; but they cannot go out until after the re- 
turn of our Worthy Master Hamilton from the 
meeting of the National Grange, as they re- 
quire his signature. The Roll Books have all 
been sent out up to, and including Grange 119. 

Bro. Baxter also desires us to ask the Secre- 
taries of the various Granges throughout the 
State, to report to the State Agent, I. G. Gard- 
ner, as soon as possible, the number of ware- 
houses in their respective localities; their ca- 
pacity; by whom owned und controlled; ac- 
curate amount of acreage sown, and the 
crop progresses, the prospective results. 
We must have accurate and reliable infor- 
mation, in order to act intelligently, and the 
Granges must give the aid so necessary to suc- 
cessfully carry out the business of the agency. 



Off for the National Grange. — We under- 
stand that Bro. Hamilton, Master of the Cali- 
fornia State Grange, and Bro. Wright, Past- 
Master, will both attend the meeting of the 
National Grange, at St. Louis, as accredited 
representatives from this State. By reason of 
the fact that the Pacific Coast cannot possibly 
have more than three representatives, if all go 
that are entitled to seats, a number of our 
prominent Patrons have volunteered to send 
Bro. Wright there at their own individual ex- 
pense—the National Grange paying the expen- 
ses of only one delegate from each State — the 
acting Master. We are not advised whether 
Bro. Clark of Oregon will go; but presume he 
will. 

We have no doubt that California will be ably, 
if not fully represented. Bro. Hamilton is 
a man of sterling qralities and most excellent 
judgment. Bro. Wright is better known 
throughout the Slate, and, though somewhat 
diminutive in person, is stalwart in intellect 
and ready in debate. He is familiar, both by 
practice and study, with most or all of the 
many important matters which will come be- 
fore that body for its consideration and decis- 
ion. Bro. Clark, of Oregon, is a strong, stal- 
wart man, of few words, but superior judg- 
ment. He is a worthy representative of the 
stalwart farmers of Oregon. 



Some of the enterprising Grangers of Carson 
valley are preparing to plant nurseries of chest- 
nut, hickory and other timber trees this spring. 
— Vir. Enterprise. 

This is the first we have heard of a Grange in 
the State of Nevada, and we presume, nof- 
withstiinding the above announcement, that 
their existence there is as yet a myth. But we see 
no reason why the farmers of that State should 
not take hold of the great work in which their 
brethren throughout the country are now fO 
earnestly and so successfully engaged. 

We shall be most happy to record the organ- 
ization of the pioneer Grange in Nevada. Will 
not the farmers of Carson Valley make a move 
in the matter— if they have not already done 

80? 

Cp.owded Out. — We have several matters in 
relation to the Granges— letters, etc., which 
are unavoidably crowded out of the present 
issue. All will appear next week. 



Election of Officers. 

ToMALEs Grange.- P. R. Prince, Secretary, 
sends us the list of officers elected by this 
Grange, the organization of which took place 
Dec. 17th, 1873, as already noticed:— Wm. 
Vanderbilt. M.; O. Hubble, 6.; F. W. Bemis, 
L.;S. C. Percival, S.; F. A. Plank, A. S.; 
Stanford Duncan, C. ; D. B. Burbank, T.; R. 
H. Prince, S.; J. Buchanan, G. K.;Mr8. O. 
Hubble, Ceres; Mrs. F. W. Bemis, Pomona; 
Miss Ameha Waters, Flora; Mrs. F. A. Plank 
L. A. S. 

El Monte Gbange. — Secretary J. W. Mar- 
shall, sends us the following as the list of offi- 
cers elect for this Grange for the following 
year:— S. S. Reeves. M.; George Mark, 0. ; 
Geo. W. Durfee, L.;E. S. Harris, S.; W. H. 
Gwinn, A. S.; Jas. D. Durfee, C; Cha«. 
Doughertv, T.; J. W. Marshall, Sec; W. P. 
Cooper, G. K, ; L. A. Reeves. Ceres; M. M. 
Marshall, Pomona; Jennie Mark, Flora; M. J. 
Reeves, L. A. S. Board of Trustees— J. W. 
Marshall, J. D. Durfee, Miss Fannie Mark. 

Geysehvile Grange. — Bro. E. E. Leigh re- 
ports the following as the officers elect of this 
Grange. They were installed on the 9th inst.— 
CM. Bosworth, M; William Ellis, O; A. H. 
Stiles, L; C. P. Buckley, S; G. W. Benjamin, 
A. S; W. S. Beeson, C; Emos Hamilton, T; R. 
R. Leigh, Sec'y; Leander Ellis, G; Mrs. C. M. 
Bosworth, Ceres; Mrs C. P. Moore, Pomona; 
Miss Luella Walcott, Flora; Mrs. W. Low, L. 
A. S. R. R. Leigh (Secretary) has been elected 
by this Grange to act as their local agent. 

Adams Grange. — The organization of this 
Grange was announced two weeks ago, and we 
are now enabled to give, from the Fresno Ex- 
positor, Ihe list oio&cers elect, as follows: P. 
Nelson, M. ; Thomas Hall, O.; Thomas Jeans, 
L.; J.W.Potter, C; Thomas H.Wyatt, Sec'y.; 
W. W. Shipp, T.; Logan Potter, S.; J. A. 
Jack, A. S.; E. H. Patterson, G. K,; Mrs. Mary 
Hall, Ceres; Mrs. M. B. Ross, Pomona; Miss 
Laura Jeans, Flora; Mrs. S. F. Doak, L. A. S. 

Pleasant Valley Grange, San Buenaven- 
tura county, was organized by Deputy Milton 
Wasson, onlthe 10th instant, with the following 
listof otEicers:— D. Rondebush, M; W. P. Ram- 
sauer, O; Elmer Drake, L; A. S. Clark, S; 
Jos. Davenport, A. S; W. O. Woods, C; J. 0. 
Barnette, T; B. Browning, Sec'y; W. H. Wal- 
ker, G. K; Miss Anna Wood, Ceres; Miss OlHe 
Walbridge, Pomona; Miss Myra Walbridge, 
Flora; and Mrs. Sarah Walker, L. A. S. 

HoLLisTER Grange. — Officers eleet : R. 
Rucklidere, O. ; E. Nason, L. ; Job Molsburg, 
O. ; E. B. Kent, S. ; J. D. Fowler, A. S. ; Wm. 
Kelly, T. ; W. H. Oliver, Sec'y. ; S. F. Cowan, 
Ass't Sec'y. ; R. D. Pease, G. K. ; Mrs. Henri- 
etta Molsbury, Ceres ; Mrs. M. 0. Pease, Po- 
mona; Mrs. M. E. Cowan, Flora ; Mrs. M. C. 
Pomeroy, L. A. S. Trustees — S. F. Cowan, 3 
years, TJ. Wood, 2 years, J. D. Fowler, 1 year. 

Atlanta Grange, — Officers elect : W. J. 
Campbell, M; F. M. Gardner, O; W. H. Snow, 
L.; Hugh Clendenin, S.; John HoUister, A. S.; 
J. W. Moore, C; Mrs. J. W. Moore, Secretary; 
Milton Miller, T.; T. Gilbert, G. K.; Mrs. T. 
M. Gardner, Ceres; Miss Florence Hunsucker, 
Pomona; Miss Emma T. Gardner, Flora; Mrs. 
Jennie M. Lombard, L. A. S. 

Los Banyos Grange. — Officers elected : We 
learn from A. McGlashen, that the following 
officers have been elected and installed for the 
current year:— W. M. Viney, M.; B. F. Davis, 
O.; C. H.Wiley, L.; G. Shaflfer, S.; S. H. 
Acker, A. S,; G. F. Lawrence, C; A. McGlash- 
an, Sec'y.; W. G. Jones, G. K.; Mrs. J. Mc- 
Glashan, Ceres; Mrs. J. Shaffer, Pomona; Mrs. 
S. A. Smith, L. A. S. 

Bloomfield Grange. — Officers elect: Wm. 
H. White, M.; D. H. Parks, O.; A. A. Boyn- 
ton, L,; Wm. S. Edminister, S,; Wm. Lacost, 
A. S.; J. Kuffle, C; Wm. P. Hall, T.; A. B. 
Glover, Sec'y.; W. W. Parks, G. K.; Mrs. S. 
A. Canfield, Ceres; Mrs. O. M. Colbnrn, Po- 
mona; Mrs. A. P. Hall, Flora; Miss Ollie 
White, L. A. S. 

Elk EivER Grange, — Officers elect: Theo- 
dore Meyer, M.; G. H. Shaw, O.; S. H. Stow- 
art, L,; P. S. Shaw, S.; A. Forbes, A. S.; 8. 
B Zane, C; W. Oston, T.; D. A. DeMerritt, 
Sec'y. ; J. W. Gardner, G. K. ; Mrs. S. H. Stew- 
art, Ceres; Mrs. M. Shais, Pomona; Mrs. D. 

E. DeMerritt, Flora.; Mrs. F. L. Meyer, 
Lady Assistant Steward. 

Yolo Grange.- Officers elect: J. A. Hutton, 
W. M.; T. J. Dexter, O; R. B. Blowers, L.; 
D. P. Diggs, S.; Ed. Gallup, A. S.; L. P. 
Pond, C; H. Doaner, T.; D. Schindler, Sec'y.; 
D. Sh'ellhammer, G. K.; Sisters E. J. Diggs, 
Flora; M. Blowers, Ceres; M. 0. Schindler, 
Pomona; H. L. Hutton, L. A. S. 

Kkrn Island Grange — Officers elect: H. D. 
Robb, M; F. P. May, 0; J. R. Haworth, L; 
O. B. Ormsby, C; H. Noble, S; J. Oarlock, 
A. S; George H. Carlock, T; J. F. Gordon, 
Sec'y; C. B. Caldwell, G. K; Mrs. H. Noble. 
Ceres; Mrs. J. W. Lundy, Pomona; Mrs. 
Mellie Caldwell, Flora: Mrs. Callie Carlock, 
L. A. S. 

CoLOSA Grange.— Officers elect: W. K. Estill, 
M.; J. P. Banbridge, O.; J. W. Welch, L.; J. 

F. Wilkins, C; L. Kilgore, S.; J. H. Roland, 
A. S.; J. Friar, G. K.; A. J. Scoggins, T.; R. 
Jones, Sec'y.; E. J. Banbridge, Ceres; S. E. 
Wilkins, Pomona; Miss Mattie Starmer, Flora; 
Mary Kilgore, L. A. S. 



54 



!PJL0IfX© 



lPjt\>Jcjo' 



[January 24, 1874- 




The Weather." 



What miseries liuman mortal coulil tell of, 

Botli tender, and touKli as old leather; 
A terrible army all Jumbled pell mell, of 

The ills that are caused by " The weather." 

If in presence of friends we are yawuiny'aud gaping, 

Or pining with ennui to deatli, or 
We somethinR have done there's no way of escaping, 

We put it all down to " The weather." 

II we run short of words when we press the fair digits, 
When love-making on the damp heather. 

We stammer and stick till we both get the Udgits, 
And find an escape in " The weather." 

Is it headache we've got, or rheumatical twitching. 

In arms or extremities nether — 
I've even heard say that when noses are itching — 

Its owing to some sort of " Weather." 

When vainly our brains we are racking and rifling 

For cause of ills light as a featlier. 
We give it all up in despair, and tln-n trifling 

Say that it's surely " Ttie weather." 

But a truce to such stuff, though 1 hav'n't yet got to 

The end by a mile of my tether; 
But somehow I'm dull, and my rhyming is not to 

My liking; it must be " The weather." 

— i'x. 



An Engineer's Yarn. 

ALHEKT WiLLI.lMS, JB. 

I am a practical mechanical engineer. Not 
one of these youngsters who go to a scientific 
■ohool for a few years, and take a C. E., M. E. 
or something of the kind, and then put on airs 
about it. They always affect to snub us prac- 
tical men, but we rather get into them when it 
comes to real work. Of course, these chaps 
are well enough in their way (and that isn't 
mine) in getting up artistic drawings and mod 
els, and all that sort of thing. And sometimes 
they are of some account. There was young 
Hoppin, who helped me with that toggle-joint. 
I originated the idea; he put it into shape. I 
made enough to retire on it, and I did the 
squ.are thing by him, if he was a "scientific 
man," so I feel perfect free to speak my mind 
about the lot, always excepting my friend Hop- 
pin. 

But this isn't telling my story. There's my 
wife Bessie (bless her dear little heart), always 
saying I can't come to the point without as 
many twists and turns as my own old ma- 
chinery. Perhaps she ia right. But then, 
this is the first time I ever tried to express my- 
self in print, and I don't exactly know how to 
go about it, 80 you must excu.se me. That's 
reasonable, isn't it? And, besides, I am getting 
so stout and logy-like, that I aiut as sharp as I 
used to be. My young acquaintance Karl, who 
is an editor, or some equally useless member 
of society, has roped me into this scrape, and 
onght to help me out; but he doesn't. All he 
says is, "Fire away old man, and make it short 
and sweet." I'm afraid tins isn't telling my 
story, either. Prolixity (that's the word) 
comes sort of natural like to me now. 

Let me see. It was sixteen years ago last 
summer that I went to New York in search of 
employment. I had been running an engine 
in a big tannery in the western part of that 
State, and doing first-rate, till the company 
failed, and I was thrown out of work. So I was 
looking about town for something to do. 
Money-gauge so low that I was ready for any- 
thing after a fortnight of searching and waiting. 
I happened to be walking through a down-town 
cross street, when I saw a placard in the win- 
dow of a paper-box factory — "Enqineeb Wan- 
ted. Good Salabt." "That's just me," says 
I, so I went into the office and asked if I would 
do. The manager said he would try me. He 
did try me, and it seems I must have satisfied 
him, for he told me to stay. 

Now it is about this manager and this paper- 
box factory that my story, such as it is, will be; 
and to make things all straight and plain, (a 
sort of oiling up at the start) let me attempt to 
describe them both. 

First, then, the manager, Mr. Samuel Hark- 
ness, also sole owrer of the factory. This Mr. 
Samuel Harkness was the greatest villain I ever 
came across. He's dead now, poor mar, and I 
hate to spirak ill of those who are gone, 'cause, 
you see, it's much the same as chinnirg behind 
a man's back; but he teas a villain all the same. 
Not one of your story-book villains, either. I 
have read lots of novels, romances, and such 
stuff lately, but I haven't seen anything about 
their villains that applies to my villain. Theirs 
are invariably thin, dark men; of lithe, serpen- 
tine motion ; with j oUow faces, straight black 
hair, and deep-set, fugitive eyes. Something 
of the evil one cropping out at every point. 
Why, Lord bless you, you'd recognize this kind 
of villain soon as ever you clapped eyes on him 
just as you would a patent machine, v ith every 
bit of metal labeled. My villain w.4sn't tall, 
wasn't dark at all ; was tolerably stout, in fact, 



and well-to-do looking; didn't squirm a bit; 
and, to cut this description short, was just like 
most anybody else you meet. When I engaged 
under him, of course I didn't know anything 
about his villainy. How could I ? He wasn't 
labe'ed. 

And now for the factory itself. It was a 
somewhat dilapidated five-story brick concern. 
Engine in cellar (most every manufacturer had 
his own power then, instead of just belting on 
to the one big engine of the block, as they do 
now); office and samples, first floor ; clipping 
and folding machines, second floor; girls past- 
ing, sorting and trimming, on the third floor ; 
stock of all sorts on the fourth and fifth. We 
used to turn out an immense deal of work with 
very few hands. There were about twenty-five 
or so girls, the manager, his clerk and office- 
boy, a man to hoist and do odd jobs, the fire- 
man, and myself. Except when stock was 
taken in, or work sent out, there was nobody 
else in the building. 

I generally kept to my own business, and 
staid down in the cellar nursing the old engine. 
She sadly needed it, being as rickety and 
patched up a contrivance as one cares to stay 
alongside of. She always reminded me of some 
old people you see, who are always in need of 
a pectoral for a cough, or a liniment for rheu- 
matism, or something or other. This engine of 
mine was in snch a state that she always want- 
ed easing somewhere, a rivet here, a plug there, 
new stuffing, more felting, or a band around 
the whole boiler. From boiler to fly-wheel she 
was rickety, rickety. But there was no pres- 
ent danger to be apprehended; all was safe 
enough with proper care and attention. There 
was tbe rub. I had to exercise that same 
proper care and attention all the time. But if 
I was so occupied, I could not help meeting the 
girls now and then in the pas-age-way. Most 
of them were of the common sort— coarse, vul- 
gar creatures, that I never could abide. But 
there was one little pale-faced girl I took to 
straight off. She wasn't a bit like the others, 
and seemed as nice and qtiiet, and lady-like, 
as they were noisy and common. As I said, I 
took to her, and she — well, she didn't alto- 
g' ther snub me. We got to be fastfrieuds soon. 
She told me the tale of her sad life: how her 
father had been a prosperous mechanic, and 
they had lived in snch a dear little home; how 
the father died, and left her, a mere mite of a 
thing, in charge of her feeble mother and baby 
sister; and how she contrived to get along and 
keep grim famine from the door on the pittance 
of her earnings. Whenever I could, without 
making a fuss, I helped them along a little. 
And when we got well aquainted, I used to 
hurry through my work so as to be able to see 
her home every day after six o'clock. Some- 
times, too, we used to go to concerts and lec- 
tures together; and very often I found time to 
visit them all of an evening. I hadn't said a 
word of love to her yet, but was waiting till 
my wages were increased enough to enable me 
to keep a home of my own, and then ask her t ) 
fill it. Of her state of feeling toward me I 
knew nothing, except that she looked upon and 
trusted me as a brother. 

One thing used to rile me, though, and that 
was the sneaking sort of liking that Harkness 
seemed to have for her; and worse, he showed 
it plainly enough by the way he persecuted her 
with his odious attentions whenever he got the 
chance. She told me she would leave the place 
if she could only get another. 

I have said that it was sixteen years ago that 
I entered the box factory. If you will take the 
trouble to subtract, you will find that makes 
1857. It puts us just in the year of the great 
financial crash. I had been in the factory 
about three months, and was getting used to 
the general run of things; aud though it was 
out of my line, and none of my business, I 
could not but notice how slack trade seemed 
to be. Humors of failures up the street, down 
the street, on the corner, at Nos. 35 and 37 
over the way met my ears. Kumors of fail- 
urs past and failures to come. Kumors of great 
distress east, west aud south. Humors of a 
threatened general smash up. Money men tell 
me that when the market is tight, it only needs 
such a wholesale panic to bring down every 
one. It is the apprehension, not the reality, 
that does the work. But this is not telling 
my story, either. 

Well, old Ilarkni'ss kept on with his manu- 
facturing, though 1 could see that, day by day, 
fewer calls for work were made. He always 
wore a cheerful smile through those troublous 
times, as much as to say, "Look at me, if you 
want to see a model man of business. / don't 
speculate. / don't get involved. Mark my 
consequent prosperity." Now when I see a 
man with a good deal of bluster and swagger 
about him, I always make up my mind that he 
is a coward at heart. And when some people 
parade their financial soundness, the Wall 
street animals always snufi' rottenness some- 
where. It must have been on this principle 
'that I began to suspect that Harkness wasn't 
so safe after all. 

One night I was delayed by an unexpected 
break down in gearing, and stayed in my cel- 
lar long after the girls, the clerk and the fire- 
man had gone, hard at work tinkering at the 
engine. No one was in the factory but Hark- 
ness and myself. I do not think he suspect' d 
my presence. As I was taking off my overalls 
and fixing up, I heard a heavy dray come up 
to our door. There were four or five men with 
it, who were not our regular CHrtmen. They 
jumped out, were let in through the hulf-closod 
doors of the main floor above me, aud were led 
up-stairs by Harkness. Presently they reap- 
peared, bearing cases of various kinds of stock, 
fancy paper, gilding stuff, light machinery and 



different odds and ends, with which they loaded 
the dray, and then drove off again. All was 
done in such a quiet, mysterious way, that it 
was evident that something wrong was being 
done. What could it be ? The men were not 
robbers, for there was Mr. Harkness, and he 
sole owner of the factory. A man does not 
commit a larceny on his own property. I 
conldn't make it out at all. 

I started to go. Jnst as I entered the office 
fron below, Harkness came in by the passage- 
way door from the floor above. He started 
perceptibly when he saw me, but instantly re- 
gained his composure, and said, as cool as you 
please : 

"Ah! you're late. Bill. What's wrong to- 
day ? Hope yon won't blow us up for a week 
or 80 yei. We're doing a staving business. 
Bill." (I think I see him now, " washing his 
hands with invisible soap in imperceptible 
water," and with that self-satisfied, hypocritical 
leer on his face.) "Just sent a load of fine 
boxes down to the miirifd Arroic. She sails 
to-morrow, so we had to ship in a hurry. Fine 
boxes; and a beautiful vessel. Bill. Good night 
to you." 

" Good night, sir," said I, and left. 

As I went up the street, another dray passed, 
driven toward the factory. I had the curiosity 
to turn and watch to see, whether it, too, stop- 
ped there. It did, and when I reached the 
corner of Broadway, I stopped and looked 
back once more. There, in the darkening twi- 
light, the Fame process of hurried loading was 
being repeated. It seemed to be all right. 
Harkness was there, but somehow, I wasn't 
quite satisfied. Trimming machines are [not 
tine, assorted, gilt-edged boxes, by any manner 
of means, you know. And I knew it, too, 
though, very likely old Harkness didn't give 
me credit for being so well posted. Well, if I 
coudu't settle the question, the next best thing 
was to give it up And give it up I did. 

Next morning I went over, as usual, to the 
factory. Jim, the stoker, opened the doors 
always, as he bad to be early to tend to the 
fires, which we banked every night. I ex- 
pected to see Jim, but was much surprised 
when I saw Harkness. This time it was he 
who came up through the cellar door and I 
through the other. As before, we met unex- 
pectedly. Now'it was my turn to be surprised. 
He was intensely pale, and seemed much agi- 
tated. With a strong effort of the will he strove 
to conceal his strange manner. He endeavored 
to speak calmly, and half-succeeded. 

' Bill," said he, "Jim has tended to the en- 
gine, it's all right; come outside with me, I 
want to talk to you." 

He turned to the cellar door and shouted: 

"Jim, come up here, come up at once. Hun 
over to Mr. Brent's private house—yon know 
where that is — and tell him not to discount that 
bill to-day. Be quick!" 

" Yes sir, coming," sung out Jim leisurely. 

Suddenly he tore up the cellar steps. His 
face was ten shades paler than Harkness', an 
expression of horror was fixed on his features 
— an expression of agony and fear that I shall 
never forget. It haunts me still. It will stay 
by me till my dying day. Poor fellow, he's 
gone, too, since then. 

Jim hardly stopped in his wild flight, as he 
hoarsely whispered, rather than cried: 

"Hundred aud ten on the steam gauge! 
Safety valve clogged!) Run for your lives!!!" 

I took in the situation at once. Terrible the 
danger was. The old boiler was registered at 
eighty pounds to the square inch, but we never 
dared run higher than thirty. And a hundred 
and ten! We were standing directly over it, 
aud while I hesitated, the pressure must be 
steadily rising. It flashed upon me that there 
might be no more danger in jumping down and 
pressing the safety valve, than in running away, 
and in spite of the awful panic, I had a preju- 
dice against running. 

I looked down from the doorway, upon the 
trembling, panting, struggling steam demon 
beneath. The safety valve apparatus was in 
plain sight. 

>Vo»rt the end of the lever hung several huge links 
of chain. 

I don't think I'm a coward — usually, at 
least, I know I am not. Brt that evidence of 
villainy took me all aback. I staggered and 
clung feebly to the lintel for support. The 
words seemed forced out of me, anil iiot uttered 
with my volition: 

" You scoundrel. You'd steal your insurance, 
would you?" 

A sudden vindictive push sent me headlong. 
As I fell I heard a demoniac laugh. 

"'Pi-ach, if ytm want to!" 

And the door swung to with a click of the 
spring lock. 

At the foot of the steps an open trap, the 
sub-cellar hatch. The distance was so great 
that I had time to notice all this. Would it 
hurt me much when I struck? Would it kill 
me outright? 

And this was all. 

When I came to, I found myself in a well 
remembered room. Bessie, my Bessie now, 
hung tenderly over me, waiting for the light of 
recognition to appear in my fevered eyes. 

All was soon told. The boiler must have 
burst the very instant I struck. Harkness was 
killed by a flying piece of machinery; the 
would-be murderer had exchanged places with 
his victim, for I, strange as it may seem, was 
dug out of the ruins alive, and got off with 
only a broken arm. God forgive him. 

Bessie insists that if it hadn't been for the 
accident, I should never have "spoken out." 
So, after all,it was a blessing in disguise. 



The Habit of Saving. 

Petty economies are generally disagreeable 
to those who have to practice them, and they 
always require much self-control; still they are 
the only means by which men in general can 
lay up a provision against